TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Icon Stuffing
Volume Number:7
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:HyperChat

Related Info: Quickdraw Resource Manager

Icon Stuffing XCMD

By Steven Fuchs, Stony Brook, NY

iConjured Up

Last year at a meeting of LIMUG, the Long Island Mac Users Group I was introduced to a very useful utility stack called iConjurer by Tom Wimbish, which as the name would suggest is a tool for creating icons. What iConjuror provides is an environment from which the powerful painting tools contained in HyperCard can be used to create icon sized pictures as well as a convenient method of storing them. iConjuror’s shortcoming was that it provided no direct way to convert the pictures HyperCard created into ICON resources. The workaround for this was to copy the image of the icon onto the clipboard and then launch ResEdit, open the requested stack and paste the picture into ResEdits ICON editor, which would convert the first 32 pixels in each of the first 32 rows into an icon. Although once committed to muscular memory this process could be accomplished quickly, it was decidedly un-Mac like, in other words there had to be a better way. I decided that what was needed was an XCMD which could take the image of an icon and create an ICON resource, either in the current stack or in any desired stack. Hence the impetus behind the creation of the IconStuffer XCMD.

Working Overview

When a picture doesn’t tell a story

The first order of business was to make the data of the selected picture available to the XCMD. While some sleuthing into HyperCards inner workings probably could produce a direct method of obtaining the contents of the selection rectangle this is undesirable for some very good reasons. In general it is by far the more difficult task, and in any programming, Mac programming especially and XCMD programing even more so you should always look to avoid trouble. Secondly a method of this sort would almost certainly not work with a different version of HyperCard and may not even work between different machines. Therefore I chose to take the easier path and obtain this information from the clipboard, after forcing the user to copy the image of the icon. However easier does not mean easy, and accessing the clipboard for the icons image is no exception. The clipboard stores its images in the form of a ‘PICT’ resource, Inside Macintosh tells us that the format for a ‘PICT’ resource consists of the QuickDraw calls necessary to recreate the image. The ‘ICON’ resource is simply a series of 1024 bits, the ones and zeros of which represent the black and white pixels of the icons 32x32 rectangle. While much time could have been spent decoding the ins and outs of ‘PICT’ resources and learning how to convert these to icons, a much easier mechanism exists. All that is involved is pulling a bit of a fast one on the operating system and QuickDraw.

Now You See It

All QuickDraw drawing takes place into a data structure known as a GrafPort. When you create a window unbeknownst to you, you are creating a GrafPort. While the Mac OS allows for the creation of GrafPorts on their own it is rarely used, and I will not do that. What I do need to recreate is an important record of the GrafPort called portBits. The portBits record is a bitmap which is the destination of all drawing by the GrafPort.

This bitmap contains the ones and zeros which make up the black and white pixels of the GrafPort in question. It is this data which can easily be converted into an ‘ICON’ resource. The important record in the bitmap is the BufferAddr record, which is a pointer to the location at which the bits that make up the image begin. The QuickDraw sleight of hand I used was to create my own bitmap and fool the GrafPort into drawing into it. The data is now in a form suitable to my purposes and is ready to be made into an icon.

Step by Step

Take a picture, please

Before proceeding some error checking must be done, I know, boring,boring, boring. What must be, must be however and the first form of this takes place in the function FillIconPointer. Using the toolbox function GetScrap we will determine whether or not there is a ‘PICT’ resource on the clipboard at all. This is done by passing a handle of arbitrary size, and telling it I would like the available ‘PICT’ resource only. The function returns the size of the resource as well as resizing the handle and copying the ‘PICT’ resource into it.

If there was a ‘PICT’ resource in the scrap I need to allocate the memory necessary for the icon. Since I know an ‘ICON’ measures 32x32 I am spared the step of figuring out the size of the necessary bitmap. The space of the bitmap is allocated using the NewPointer function. Since NewPointer accepts its size parameter in bytes and not bits, and there are 8 bits in a byte, the size of the pointer should be 32x32/8 or 128. I allocate this into the pointer BufferAddress and in a fit of safety consciousness, check to be sure the allocation succeeded. Assuming that it did, I then assign the remaining records of the structure OffMap. Record 1 of a bitmap, baseAddr is a pointer to the address at which the bitmap image starts. Record 2 of a bitmap is rowBytes, or the number of bytes wide the image is to be. Since an ICON is a fixed size I know that this value will always be 32/8 or 4. In some other circumstance I would compute rowBytes by dividing the width of the bit image by 8. Also an important note is that the Mac operating system requires that all addresses be even, so to avoid a deadly crash the value for rowBytes must always be even. Finally we set bounds, which is the rectangle which encloses our bitmap or 32 x 4.

Now that we are fully prepared to fool QuickDraw only a few more precautions remain. First and foremost is to remember the bitmap currently stored in portBits so as to return things to their original state upon completion, very important for the XCMD programmer. I obtain the existing portBits by calling GetPort and storing the value of portBits into the variable OldMap. Then I use the toolbox call SetPortBits to reassign any subsequent drawing in that GrafPort to my bitmap. I then call ClipRect to insure that the entire image is drawn and EraseRect in order to clear any existing bits from the BitMap. Then a simple call to DrawPicture will allow QuickDraw to fill in the proper pixels of my bitmap for me. Finally a call to SetPortBits again will restore the GrafPorts portBits, dispose of the handle to the PICT resource, and return as the result of FillIconPointer the address at which the bitmap image of the icon begins.

How a bitmap becomes an ICON

The path to creating an ICON resource now becomes very simple since I now have the data in the form I want it. Most of this remaining work takes place in the function CreateNewIcon . First I create a handle of size 128, the fixed size of an icon. A handle is necessary since the toolbox call AddResource demands a handle aand must be used to attach a resorce to the resource file. I then invoke the toolbox call BlockMove to copy the data from the bitmaps pointer to the handle. With the handle now prepared call AddResource which attaches the handle to the resource fork and WriteResource which makes it final by saving the resource to disk. Finally release the memory used by the icon. Congratulations! You have just made an icon.

Selective Stuffing

IconStuffer can act in one of two modes, simple and difficult. Simple mode is activated when IconStuffer is called with no parameters. It simply jams its new ICON resource into the current resource file, which in my case is the iConjuror stack. This is the default response and requires no additional action to bring about. The complex mode is induced when IconStuffer receives a parameter from HyperCard. IconStuffer expects this parameter to be the full pathname of a file. If a parameter is passed then the function SetResFile is called which accepts a file name and attempts to open a resource file with that name. If there is no file with that name one is created. SetResFile returns the new resource manager reference number. Finally the function CreateNewIcon is called which actually creates the ICON resource and places it in that file, the file is then closed and control returns to HyperCard.

Figure 1: Project File

The Final Steps

Compiling a code resource

For those readers new to the process of compiling a code resource I will provide a short description of this process which is also adequately explained in pages 156-158 of the THINK Users guide. The only items to insure that you use the DRVR runtime lib instead of the default runtime lib, and that the files HyperXCMD and HyperXCMD interface files are included in the project, as shown in Figure 1. The select “Set Project Type” from the project menu, and choose the Code Resource icon. Name the resource IconStuffer, give it any arbitrary number (1120 is used in my example), and set the type to “XCMD”. Now select build Code Resource from the menu and step back. If all goes well you have just created your first, (or yet another) XCMD for HyperCard.

The MenuField concept

My method of calling IconStuffer is through a device known as a MenuField (not my name), the script of which is in Figure 2 . A MenuField is a locked field which responds to mouseups within it depending upon the line clicked in. The first responsibility of a MenuField is to utilize the newfield message. The newfield message is passed to a field upon its being pasted . By trapping this and inserting text into itself the IconStuffer field insures that it will always contain the correct menu choices. Figure 2 contains the script for IconStuffer Field, the newfield handler will add the text “This Stack” into line 1, “Any Stack•” into line 2, and “Choose Stack” into line 3.

The real work is done in the mouseup handler which upon receiving a click determines the line clicked in a takes the proper action. Clicking in line 1 calls the simple mode of IconStuffer, adding the icon to the current stack. Clicking in line 3 pulls a bit of a trick on HyperCard. Sending HyperCard the message go to “the target stack” will cause HyperCard prompt the user for a stack with the prompt “Help find the target stack”.

This flawed logic however will break if the user has a stack named “the target stack”. By choosing a phrase the would not often be used for a stack name this HyperCard trick can be used with success. As a precaution before using this get the long name of the current stack, and afterwards check to be certain that they are not identical. If they are identical you should assume that the user clicked on the cancel button , not selecting a stack. In this case the Mac like thing to do is to abort the operation of the script in as graceful a method as possible.

If the stack names are different then return to the starting point bringing the long name of the target stack with you. This will be in the form of “stack “StartUp:HyperCard:Utilities:IconBox”” for a stack named IconBox. simply remove the word stack, and the opening and closing quotes, this information is ready for passing to IconStuffer. This is what occurs when a user clicks on line 3 of the MenuField or optionclicks on line 2. The different is that an optionclick in line 2 of the MenuField stores the long name of the target stack in line 10 of the field and the short name of the stack in line 2. Subsequent clicks in line 2 of the field will utilize line 10 to paste the icon into that specified file.

--1

on newfield
  Put "This Stack"&return&"Any Stack"&return&"Choose Stack" into me
end newfield

on mouseup
  Put trunc((item 2 of the clickloc-item 2 of the rect of me)¬
  /textheight of me)+1 into LineHit
  if LineHit is 1 then IconStuffer
  else if (the optionkey is down and LineHit is 2) or LineHit is 3 ¬
  or (line 10 of me is empty and LineHit is 2) then
    push card
    Lock Screen
    go to stack "the target stack"
    put the long name of this stack into LName
    delete word 1 of LName
    delete char 1 of LName
    delete last char of LName
    put the short name of this stack into SName
    pop card
    unlock screen
    IconStuffer(LName)
    if LineHit is 2 then
      Put SName into line 2 of me
      Put LName into line 10 of me
    end if
  else  IconStuffer(line 10 of me)
end mouseup

Figure 2: HyperTalk Script

In Closing

My sources close to the Heartbeat of Apple have informed me that HyperCard 2.0 would soon be out , and that it contains an icon editor that not only makes iConjuror obsolete, but makes the writing of IconStuffer a waste of time. As of the writing of this article HyperCard 2.0 had not come out and I have not seen its icon editor. Needless to say that if I had heeded the naysayers and not written IconStuffer I would not be using it today, and much the poorer for it. Let that be a lesson to you. Even with impending obsolescence from the belated HyperCard 2.0 (or 2.01, 2.02, 2.03 etc. ) IconStuffer remains a good guide for creating icons from common QuickDraw calls, and for creating offscreen bitmaps. Good Luck and use in Good Health. Hope you enjoy.

unit IconStufferUnit;
interface
 uses
  HyperXCmd;

 procedure MAIN (ParamPtr: XCmdPtr);
implementation

{FillIconPointer accepts no parameters and returns a }
{pointer to the icons bits. The operation is successful }
{if the clipboard contains a PICT resource and the }
{ memory necessary for the ICON can be obtained}
 function FillIconPointer: Ptr;
  var
   HldHandle: handle;
   IconRect: Rect;
   OldPort: GrafPtr;
   err, TheOffset: longint;
   OffMap, OldBits: BitMap;
   BufferAddress: ptr;
 begin
  BufferAddress := nil;
  HldHandle := NewHandle(2);
  err := GetScrap(HldHandle, 'PICT', TheOffset);
  if err > 0 then
   begin
{**The clipboard contained a PICT  **}
    SetRect(IconRect, 0, 0, 32, 32);
    OffsetRect(IconRect, 40, 40);
    BufferAddress := NewPtr(32 * 4);
    if BufferAddress <> nil then
 {**    Memory for the ICON present**}
     begin
 {**    Create offsreen bitmap**}
      OffMap.baseAddr := BufferAddress;
      OffMap.rowBytes := 4;
      OffMap.bounds := IconRect;
      GetPort(OldPort);
{**Store previous bitmap  **}
      OldBits := OldPort^.portbits;
{**Draw into our bitmap   **}
      SetPortBits(OffMap);
      ClipRect(IconRect);
      EraseRect(IconRect);
      DrawPicture(PicHandle(HldHandle), IconRect);
{**Restore previous bitmap**}
      SetPortBits(OldBits);
      ClipRect(OldPort^.portRect);
     end;
   end;
{**Dispose of our copy of the scrap**}
  DisposHandle(HldHandle);
{**Return data bits**}
  FillIconPointer := BufferAddress;
 end;

{GetNextEmptyID does just that while insuring that the  }
{ID's under 128 which are reserved are not used!**}
 function GetNextEmptyID: integer;
  var
   Answer: integer;
 begin
  Answer := 0;
  repeat
   Answer := UniqueID('ICON');
  until Answer > 128;
  GetNextEmptyID := Answer;
 end;

{**SetResFile accepts a string as a parameter and  }
{returns the resource manager reference number **}
 function SetResFile (TheName: str255): integer;
  var
   TheAns: integer;
 begin
  TheAns := OpenResFile(TheName);
  if TheAns = -1 then
   begin
    CreateResFile(TheName);
    TheAns := OpenResFile(TheName);
   end;
  SetResFile := TheAns;
 end;

{**CreateNewIcon accepts the data and the ID to }
{ be used and creates the ICON resource.Returning true  }
{if the operation was a success**}
 function CreateNewIcon (TheImage: Ptr; TheID: integer): Boolean;
  var
   TheHandle: handle;
 begin
  CreateNewIcon := false;
{**Allocate space for the ICON**}
  TheHandle := NewHandle(128);
  if TheHandle <> nil then
   begin
    HLock(TheHandle);
{**Copy bits from the pointer to the handle  **}
    BlockMove(TheImage, TheHandle^, 128);
    HUnLock(TheHandle);
{**Convert handle to a resource    **}
    AddResource(TheHandle, 'ICON', TheID, '');
    if ResError = noErr then
     begin
{**Test for success! **}
      CreateNewIcon := true;
{**Force a disk update    **}
      WriteResource(TheHandle);
     end;
   end;
 end;

{**MAIN brings the routines together **}
 procedure MAIN (ParamPtr: XCmdPtr);
  var
   TheData: Ptr;
   TheHandle: handle;
   TheID, OldRes, NewRes: integer;
   TheItem: str255;
 begin
  TheData := FillIconPointer;
  if TheData <> nil then
{**Could data for ICON be obtained **}
   begin
    OldRes := CurResFile;
    NewRes := 0;
    if ParamPtr^.paramCount > 0 then
     begin
{**Should a different file be used **}
      ZeroToPas(ParamPtr, ParamPtr^.params[1]^, TheItem);
      NewRes := SetResFile(TheItem);
{**If so use it  **}
      UseResFile(NewRes);
     end;
    if NewRes <> -1 then
     begin
{**If there was no file error **}
      TheID := GetNextEmptyID;
{**Do the work!  **}
      if not CreateNewIcon(TheData, TheID) then
       SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "Icon could not be created"');
{**Restore resource chain **}
      UseResFile(OldRes);
      if NewRes > 0 then
{**If a file was opened then close it**}
       CloseResFile(NewRes);
      DisposPtr(TheData);
     end
    else
     SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "File was not found"');
   end
  else
   SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "PICT could not be obtained"');
 end;
end.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Ember 1.8.3 - Versatile digital scrapboo...
Ember (formerly LittleSnapper) is your digital scrapbook of things that inspire you: websites, photos, apps or other things. Just drag in images that you want to keep, organize them into relevant... Read more
Apple iTunes 12.1 - Manage your music, m...
Apple iTunes lets you organize and play digital music and video on your computer. It can automatically download new music, app, and book purchases across all your devices and computers. And it's a... Read more
LibreOffice 4.4.3 - Free, open-source of...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
FoldersSynchronizer 4.2.1 - Synchronize...
FoldersSynchronizer is a popular and useful utility that synchronizes and backs-up files, folders, disks and boot disks. On each session you can apply special options like Timers, Multiple Folders,... Read more
Simon 4.0.2 - Monitor changes and crashe...
Simon monitors websites and alerts you of crashes and changes. Select pages to monitor, choose your alert options, and customize your settings. Simon does the rest. Keep a watchful eye on your... Read more
Cocktail 8.1.2 - General maintenance and...
Cocktail is a general purpose utility for OS X that lets you clean, repair and optimize your Mac. It is a powerful digital toolset that helps hundreds of thousands of Mac users around the world get... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6.4 - FTP and SFTP browser....
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
Herald 5.0.2 - Notification plugin for M...
Note: Versions 2.1.3 (for OS X 10.7), 3.0.6 (for OS X 10.8), and 4.0.8 (for OS X 10.9) are no longer supported by the developer. Herald is a notification plugin for Mail.app, Apple's Mac OS X email... Read more
DEVONthink Pro 2.8.3 - Knowledge base, i...
Save 10% with our exclusive coupon code: MACUPDATE10 DEVONthink Pro is your essential assistant for today's world, where almost everything is digital. From shopping receipts to important research... Read more
Boom 2 1.0.1 - System-wide pro audio app...
Boom 2 is a system-wide volume booster and equalizer app that is designed especially for OS X 10.10 Yosemite. It comes with a smart interface, self-calibrates itself according to your Mac, offers... Read more

Playworld Superheroes Review
Playworld Superheroes Review By Tre Lawrence on January 30th, 2015 Our Rating: :: HERO CRAFTINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad It’s all about the imagination, fighting bad creatures — and looking good while doing so.   | Read more »
Join the SpongeBob Bubble Party in this...
Join the SpongeBob Bubble Party in this New Match 3 Bubble Poppin’ Frenzy Posted by Jessica Fisher on January 30th, 2015 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Handpick Review
Handpick Review By Jennifer Allen on January 30th, 2015 Our Rating: :: TANTALIZING SUGGESTIONSiPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad Handpick will make you hungry, as well as inspire you to cook something... | Read more »
Storm the Halls of Echo Base in First St...
Storm the Halls of Echo Base in First Star Wars: Galactic Defense Event Posted by Jessica Fisher on January 30th, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Contradiction Review
Contradiction Review By Tre Lawrence on January 30th, 2015 Our Rating: :: SPOT THE LIEiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Contradiction is a live action point and click adventure that’s pretty engaging.   Developer: Tim Follin... | Read more »
Unlock Sunshine Girl in Ironkill with th...
Unlock Sunshine Girl in Ironkill with this special 148Apps code Posted by Rob Rich on January 29th, 2015 [ permalink ] Robo-fighter Ironkill has been out on iOS a | Read more »
Crossroad Zombies Review
Crossroad Zombies Review By Jordan Minor on January 29th, 2015 Our Rating: :: CROSSWALKING DEADiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Crossroad Zombies is a rough draft of a cool genre mash-up.   | Read more »
Blood Brothers 2 – Tips, Cheats, and Str...
War is hell: Is it the kind of hell you want to check out? Read our Blood Brothers 2 review to find out! Blood Brothers 2, DeNA’s follow-up to the original Blood Brothers, is an intriguing card collecting / role-playing / strategy hybrid. There’s... | Read more »
Blood Brothers 2 Review
Blood Brothers 2 Review By Nadia Oxford on January 29th, 2015 Our Rating: :: AN AGGRAVATING RELATIVEUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Blood Brothers 2 is built on a simple, solid foundation, but its free-to-play system... | Read more »
I AM BREAD, the Toast of the Town, is Ro...
Have you ever dreamt of being deliciously gluten-y? Do you feel passionate about Rye and Wheat? The guys at Bossa Studios do and that is why they are bringing I AM BREAD to iOS soon. The loafy app will feature all the new content that is being... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Intel Aims to Transform Workplace With 5th-Ge...
Intel Corporation today announced the availability of its 5th generation Intel Core vPro processor family that provides cutting-edge features to enable a new and rapidly shifting workplace. To meet... Read more
iOS App Sharalike Introduces New Instant Smar...
Sharalike slideshow and photo management software for iOS, is making it easier than ever to create shareable meaningful moments with its new instant SmartShow technology. Staying organized is a goal... Read more
Apple Becomes World’s Largest Smartphone Vend...
According to the latest research data from Strategy Analytics, as global smartphone shipments grew 31 percent annually to reach a record 380 million units in the fourth quarter of 2014. Apple became... Read more
Cut the Cord: OtterBox Resurgence Power Case...
Dead batteries and broken phones are two of the biggest issues for smartphone users today. Otterbox addresses both with the new Resurgence Power Case for Apple iPhone 6, promising to make those panic... Read more
13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to...
B&H Photo has 13″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.6GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $1199.99 save $100 - 13″ 2.6GHz/... Read more
15-inch 2.5GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
 B&H Photo has the 15″ 2.5GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $2319.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $180 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this... Read more
Back in stock: Refurbished iPod nanos for $99...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 16GB iPod nanos available for $99 including free shipping and Apple’s standard one-year warranty. That’s $50 off the cost of new nanos. Most colors are... Read more
Apple lowers price on refurbished 256GB MacBo...
The Apple Store has lowered prices on Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 MacBook Airs with 256GB SSDs, now available for up to $200 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included... Read more
New Good Management Suite Simplifies Enterpri...
Good Technology has announced the availability of the Good Management Suite, a comprehensive cross-platform solution for organizations getting started with mobile business initiatives. Built on the... Read more
15-inch 2.0GHz Retina MacBook Pro (refurbishe...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished previous-generation 15″ 2.0GHz Retina MacBook Pros available for $1489 including free shipping plus Apple’s standard one-year warranty. Their price is... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant- Retail Sales (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Event Director, *Apple* Retail Marketing -...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global engagement strategy and team. Delivering an overarching brand Read more
At-Home Chat Specialist- *Apple* Online Stor...
**Job Summary** At Apple , we believe in hard work, a fun environment, and the kind of creativity and innovation that only comes about when talented people from diverse Read more
SW QA Engineer - *Apple* TV - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** The Apple TV team is looking for experienced Quality Assurance Engineers with a passion for delivering first in class home entertainment solutions. **Key Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions(US) - Ap...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you re also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.