TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Prograph 2.0
Volume Number:7
Issue Number:1
Column Tag:Tools of the Trade

Prograph 2.0

By Dave Kelly, MacTutor Editorial Board

Prograph Grows Up

As announced earlier in 1990, TGS Systems’ compiler for the Prograph object-oriented programming environment is here. Refer to the March 1990 (Vol. 6 No. 3) MacTutor for an introduction to the Prograph environment. Prograph is now a real development environment. If you have been waiting for the Prograph compiler to try Prograph, the waiting is over. Prograph is a delightful language to use. I have enjoyed working with it. Now that the compiler is available, Prograph has been added to the list of viable development languages available on the Macintosh.

There are a few improvements from Prograph Editor/Interpreter version 1.2 to 2.0. Some of the improvements include:

• Undo of Delete

• Propagate Comments

• cmd key equivalents improved (cmd-I for Info etc.)

• Ability to Hide/Show classes

• Memory Status item in Info menu

• Check Program status in Info menu for checking syntax.

• Improved Options panel: Option to not close editor windows when executing a method; option to make backups automatically.

• Paste pictures and icons directly from the clipboard into Pict (System Class) and Icon window items in Application builder.

• use shift-option-command-click to open a value window

• Menu item editor permits menu items to have either style information or multi-key key equivalents.

• wind-draw-prep method provided in class Window to do SetPort on the window.

• Window-items with click methods now provide the event record as an input to the click method.

• several new primitive (methods provided by Prograph) and full support of Inside Macintosh volumes I-V is provided (with a few exceptions).

• XPrim C-code protocol has been changes to that the same code may be used in both the interpreter and the compiler, with only a compiler switch.

• New XPrim called XLink™ from CEL Software that lets you call HyperCard XCMDs and XFCNs.

THE COMPILER

The obvious advantages to compiling a program is that compiled programs run faster than interpreted programs, large interpreted programs take up more space than compiled programs, and interpreted programs require that the interpreter be present (they are not stand alone). In addition, most developers don’t want their programs modified; interpreted programs are open to modifications.

You can almost use the Prograph Compiler blindfolded. The compiler can be launched directly from the interpreter and in Multifinder, you can switch between the two applications. To compile a program, you must create a Prograph project. Clicking in the blank area of the project window prompts you for your program file and adds two special library files automatically. One file, SCLibrary, contains code for the Prograph system classes, and must be present if your Prograph program uses the system classes. The file Library contains runtime and Mac Toolbox code; this file must always be included. Next, just select Build Application from the Project menu and a dialog prompts you to give a name for you new application. Or you may choose Run and run the program immediately after compiling. It’s as simple as that.

There are a few compiler options available too. Options include use of 68020/30 instructions, Integer Only Arithmetic, Multifinder settings, creator signature and other options. You may also add THINK C or MPW C object files. This code cannot be run under the interpreter. Calls to these routines must have empty methods, or stubs, when you run your Prograph program in the interpreter environment.

PERFORMANCE

You’re probably wondering just how the Prograph compiler compares to other compilers. The smallest application that can be created with Prograph is about 50K. The Prograph Library adds 50K to any application. Then if you use system classes (which most people will), you add another 80K, a total of 130K overhead). After the overhead, the code size varies depending on what is in the code.

Before doing any benchmark comparisons with regard to this, I must caution you to realize that there are many other factors which effect the overall performance that benchmarks cannot adequately show. With that in mind, here are some results of benchmarks I ran with Prograph. I only checked the compiler response since I’m not interested in comparing interpreters. The Prograph interpreter is great for development, debugging, and testing your program. However, any interpreter is SLOW! no matter how you look at it especially when compared to a compiled system.

Remember the accuracy benchmark I used to compare BASIC a few years ago. This program re-written for Prograph is shown in the first program. (The printout was generated from Prograph printed output). The accuracy method shown at the bottom first gets the tick count and then calls the main loop with the initial conditions set. In the main loop, s is added to x times x and x is added to .00123. This loop is repeated 1000 times and then the answer is displayed. On a Macintosh Plus, the benchmark gave the correct answer of s=503.5438021499999912 and x=1.229999999999999985 in 9.25 seconds. The same routine took .85 seconds on a IIci (with cache card). As you can see there was some round off errors past the 8th significant digit, but the result was acceptable. The time should be ignored since I also used the System class (i.e. the Macintosh shell) running when I ran the benchmark. I suspect that this slows down performance because of event handling. Also, the Evaluate operation (for evaluating mathematical expressions) is more efficient for math operations. I’m not using the Evaluate operation; the effect of different operations will effect the results.

The next benchmark is the familiar Sieve of Erastothenes. The version shown below is the fastest of the versions of the Sieve that I ran and I am still cautious when looking at these results. Depending on the implementation of the loops and allocation of memory for variables, etc. the speed can vary quite a bit. The routine shown executes the prime number generation only one time. In the comparisons I have done in the past, I ran 10 iterations. In this case I multiplied the result by 10 to approximate what the result would be for 10 iterations. The Macintosh Plus generated 1899 primes (10 iterations) in 126 seconds. This turns out to be about the same time as True Basic (Ref. The Complete MacTutor, Vol. 2, pg. 380-381). On the IIci, the time was about 14 seconds.

As I stated to begin with, the results don’t necessarily represent the overall performance. According to these results, it is evident that there is some performance lost in exchange for the ability to use object oriented programming. This implies that if speed is a requirement Prograph may not be the best choice to use.

Mark Szpakowski of Prograph sums it all up: “We did comparison benchmarks between Prograph 2.0 and Parc Place Systems’ Smalltalk-80 on a Mac CX, both running compiled, and found performance about the same (some things we were better, some things they were better). Comparing integer and float computations with ThinkC, ThinkC is much faster. However, comparing OOP operations, such as method selection based on class of input data, we have a slight edge over ThinkC 4.0. The bottom line is that if someone wants or needs high performance in math computations, they can write their code in Think or MPW C or assembler, and then link that with their compiled Prograph code. For most stuff, though, Prograph is not only productive, but, fun!”

Learning and using Prograph is fun and the learning curve is much shorter than for other languages. In spite of the benchmark results, I still like Prograph enough to continue using it to develop real applications. In addition, C object code can be used to speed up the slower routines.

Prograph 2.0 is available from:

TGS Systems

1127 Barrington St.,Suite 19

Halifax, NS B3H 2P8

Canada

(902) 429-5642

FAX: (902) 425-0561

Order toll free from the US: 1-800-565-1978

AppleLink: CDA0242

CompuServe: 73300,3460

BIX: szpak

Bitnet: gunakar@tuns

America Online: szpak

The W.E.L.L.: szpak

Price: $395 + $5 shipping

Requires: Mac Plus with 128K ROM; 1M RAM

No copy protection

In addition a Prograph BBS operated by TGS Systems is at (902) 423-4921, accessible at 300/1200/2400 baud, 8 bits, no parity, almost 24 hrs/day. This has private mail, public message areas, and file areas for uploading and downloading Prograph code.

 
AAPL
$111.78
Apple Inc.
-0.87
MSFT
$47.66
Microsoft Corpora
+0.14
GOOG
$516.35
Google Inc.
+5.25

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

NeoOffice 2014.6 - Mac-tailored, OpenOff...
NeoOffice is a complete office suite for OS X. With NeoOffice, users can view, edit, and save OpenOffice documents, PDF files, and most Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint documents. NeoOffice 3.x... Read more
LibreOffice 4.3.5.2 - Free Open Source o...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
CleanApp 5.0.0 Beta 5 - Application dein...
CleanApp is an application deinstaller and archiver.... Your hard drive gets fuller day by day, but do you know why? CleanApp 5 provides you with insights how to reclaim disk space. There are... Read more
Monolingual 1.6.2 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. It requires a 64-bit capable Intel-based Mac and at least... Read more
NetShade 6.1 - Browse privately using an...
NetShade is an Internet security tool that conceals your IP address on the web. NetShade routes your Web connection through either a public anonymous proxy server, or one of NetShade's own dedicated... Read more
calibre 2.13 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Mellel 3.3.7 - Powerful word processor w...
Mellel is the leading word processor for OS X and has been widely considered the industry standard since its inception. Mellel focuses on writers and scholars for technical writing and multilingual... Read more
ScreenFlow 5.0.1 - Create screen recordi...
Save 10% with the exclusive MacUpdate coupon code: AFMacUpdate10 Buy now! ScreenFlow is powerful, easy-to-use screencasting software for the Mac. With ScreenFlow you can record the contents of your... Read more
Simon 4.0 - Monitor changes and crashes...
Simon monitors websites and alerts you of crashes and changes. Select pages to monitor, choose your alert options, and customize your settings. Simon does the rest. Keep a watchful eye on your... Read more
BBEdit 11.0.2 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Make your own Tribez Figures (and More)...
Make your own Tribez Figures (and More) with Toyze Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
So Many Holiday iOS Sales Oh My Goodness...
The holiday season is in full-swing, which means a whole lot of iOS apps and games are going on sale. A bunch already have, in fact. Naturally this means we’re putting together a hand-picked list of the best discounts and sales we can find in order... | Read more »
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode f...
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode for Angry Birds Epic Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minec...
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minecraft: Story Mode – A Telltale Games Series Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their...
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their New Game: Tempo Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] WarChest Ltd and Splash Damage Ltd are teaming up again to work | Read more »
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary...
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary with a Bunch of Free Games Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] BulkyPix has | Read more »
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking F...
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking Fever’s new sushi-themed update Posted by Simon Reed on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Lithuanian developer Nordcurrent has yet again updated its restaurant simulat | Read more »
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to C...
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to Celebrate 20 Million Downloads Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Desti...
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Destiny, and Beyond – AppSpy Takes a Look at AAA Companion Apps Posted by Rob Rich on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] These day | Read more »
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Fre...
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Free for the Holidays Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

13-inch 2.6GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
Best Buy has lowered their price on the 2014 13″ 2.6GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro to $1149.99 on their online store for a limited time. That’s $150 off MSRP and the lowest price available for this... Read more
Kodak Returns to CES With New Consumer Produ...
Former photography colossus Kodak is returning to CES for the first time in three years where the Kodak booth (#21818 South Hall 1) will showcase a wide range of innovative, imaging-related products... Read more
Invaluable Launches New Eponymously -Named A...
Invaluable, the world’s largest online live auction marketplace, hhas announced the official launch of the Invaluable app for iPad, now available for download in the iTunes App Store. Invaluable... Read more
IDC Reveals Worldwide Mobile Enterprise Appli...
International Data Corporation (IDC) last week hosted the IDC FutureScape: Worldwide Mobile Enterprise Applications and Solutions 2015 Predictions Web conference. The session provided organizations... Read more
Hello Vino Wine App Launches “Safe Ride Home”...
Hello Vino has announced addition of a new “Get a Safe Ride Home” feature in its Food & Drink app with a direct connection to Uber, the technology platform that connects users with rides. The... Read more
DEVON-technologies Releases DEVONthink To Go...
Coeur d’Alene, Idaho based DEVON-technologies, LLC has updated DEVONthink To Go, its mobile companion to DEVONthink, to version 1.5. The update includes an iOS 8 extension, compatibility with the... Read more
The Apple Store offering free next-day shippi...
The Apple Store is now offering free next-day shipping on all in stock items if ordered before 12/23/14 at 10:00am PT. Local store pickup is also available within an hour of ordering for any in stock... Read more
It’s 1992 Again At Sony Pictures, Except For...
Techcrunch’s John Biggs interviewed a Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) employee, who quite understandably wished to remain anonymous, regarding post-hack conditions in SPE’s L.A office, explaining “... Read more
OtterBox Defender Series Case For iPad mini 3...
With their innovative Touch ID technology and ultrathin profile, the latest tranche of Apple iPads are more desirable than ever, and OtterBox has just announced the Defender Series custom-engineered... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Pros for...
 B&H Photo has new MacBook Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP as part of their Holiday pricing. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1699... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Store Leader Program (US) - Apple, I...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on experience, Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.