TweetFollow Us on Twitter

XCMD ANSI Library
Volume Number:6
Issue Number:6
Column Tag:Programmer's Forum

XCMD ANSI Library

By Gerry H. Kenner, David Burggraaf, Salt Lake City, UT

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

XCMD ANSI Library

[Gerry Kenner is a conservative senior citizen who has been working with computers and writing scientific papers since 1962 when the era first began. David Burggraaf is a newcomer to the field who got his first computer (a Sinclair) in 1980 and hasn’t stopped being excited since. Suffice it to say that most of the ideas and all of the work involved in this project were done by David.]

With their fixed methods of entering, retrieving and manipulating data, code resource packages appear to be the ideal system of object oriented programming. In this case, the object is the code resource. The popularity of this concept is shown by the use of code resources under different names by 4th Dimension™(external objects), Excel™ (DDLs) and Hypercard™ (XCMDs and XFCNs). Further, pioneer systems for using code resources in standalone programs are becoming available, the first example being Serius89™ but other programs are not far behind.

A problem with this type of programming is that the libraries must be replicated whenever they are used in different code resources. Further, when doing code resources at least some compilers link in all functions in a library and not just the ones being used. This is in contrast to the smart linking which occurs when standalone applications are generated. Experience has shown us that the size of most code resources can be reduced by 50% while some can be reduced by as much as 70% or more if the library routines are removed.

This paper reports on a method for installing the libraries and a jump table to access them as a separate code resources and then using a simple series of calls to access them from other code resources (Hypercard XCMDs in this case).

The Project

The project consisted of putting all the library functions in two code resources of type “LIB “ called CodeLib and FCodeLib. Two code resources were used because the dispatch routines for functions which return arguments longer than 32 bits are different from the cases where the return value will fit in register D0. Included in each library is the code of the library functions and a dispatch routine (main()) to provide access to them. The “LIB “ type resources are loaded into Hypercard or stacks using ResEdit.

The .h file

The CodeLib.h file includes the necessary definitions and macros for setting up the libraries in XCMD projects. Included are the list of index variables for each function call (i.e., CLatoi, CLatol, etc.), macro definitions for redefining return parameters and library function call names (#define atoi(str) ((**idispatch) (CLatoi,(char*)(str))), and typedef void (**Vfunch) (CodeLib,...);, etc.) and the macro calls which are added to the XCMD project for incorporating the above material in source code.

Perhaps the best method for understanding the contents of this file is to follow the compilation and execution of the main routine of the XCMD following the addition of the special library code. First of all, the contents of CodeLib.h are read in. In addition to declaring the macros and index variables, this file defines the handles VFunch, IFunch, etc and declares extern global variables of these types (dispatch, idispatch, etc). When executed the macro CODELIB legitimitizes the extern declaration of these variables by declaring them within the XCMD.

LOADCODELIB() is a function which appears as follows when unfolded.

/* 1 */

LOADCODELIB()
if (!initCodeLib())
 return;
else
 HLock(dispatch);
if (!initFCodeLib())
 HUnlock(dispatch);
 return;
else
 HLock(ddispatch);

Its function is to determine whether the libraries are present, get handles to them and then lock the handles so the libraries won’t move. Otherwise it returns with nothing being done. The task of getting the handles is done by initCodeLib() and initFCodeLib. The initCodeLib macro is expanded to show how this is done.

/* 2 */

initCodeLib()
fdispatch = (Ffunch)GetResource(‘LIB ‘, 18000);
pdispatch = (Pfunch)fdispatch;
cdispatch = (Cfunch)pdispatch;
ldispatch = (Lfunch)cdispatch;
idispatch = (Ifunch)ldispatch;
dispatch = (Vfunch)idispatch;

Note that all the handles point to the same address.

With the above code in place, execution of a code line such as

/* 3 */

 TempInt = atoi(TempStr);

will result in the following at compilation time.

/* 4 */

 TempInt = ((**idispatch)(CLatoi, (char*)TempStr)));

When executed, this code will pass the address of idispatch, the value of the index CLatoi and the contents of TempStr to the library code resource.

A Special Case

An exception to the above ease of use are function calls such as sprintf which pass variable numbers of arguments. In these cases, the definitions in the CodeLib.h file serve as templates for inserting the code manually. For instance, the definition of sprintf(s,f) is ((**idispatch)(CLsprintf, (s), (f), ...)). When a statement such as sprintf(TempStr, “Good Day”) is encountered the programmer must replace it manually with ((**idispatch) (CLsprintf, TempStr, “Good Day”) using the definition as a guide.

CodeLibDispatch.c

This file shares the CodeLib.h file except it does not include the NOCODELIB definitions for redefining the library function call names. Addressing the library functions is taken care of by declaring the following code before the main routine is called.

/* 5 */

typedef void (*Function)(void);
FunctionfuncTable[ROUTINES + 1]

where the value of ROUTINES was declared in CodeLib.h. Values are assigned to the funcTable variable within the main routine as follows.

/* 6 */

funcTable[CLdispatchErr]=dispatchErr;
funcTable[CLatoi]=(Function)atoi;
funcTable[CLatol]=(Function)atol;
funcTable[CLsprintf]=(Function)sprintf;
funcTable[CLsrand]=(Function)srand;
funcTable[CLstrcpy]=(Function)strcpy;

It would be nice if these could be declared statically, but we have not been able to figure out a method for doing it.

There are two segments of assembly language code. The first segment replaces the calls RememberA4() and SetUpA4() which are not used because they shift things around on the stack. This code stores the current value of A4 and replaces it with the address of the main routine which is stored in A0 when the code is called. The second assembly language segment is a glue routine for configuring the stack before jumping to the desired library function.

/* 7 */

 asm  {
 move.l (a7)+, returnAddr;/*save return address*/
 move.w (a7)+, a1; /*remove index*/
 lea funcTable, a0;/*do jump to indexed subroutine*/
 jsr ([0,a0,a1.w*4],0);
 move.w a1, -(a7); /*restore stack and return*/
 move.l returnAddr, -(a7);
 move.l oldA4, a4; /*restore a4  */
 }

It removes the return address and saves it before doing a jsr to the requested funcTable entry after which it is put back on the stack. The index value is also removed from the stack, placed in a1 for use as an offset and then replaced on the stack at the end of the call. The last line of code restores the old value of a4.

General

Note that there are six dispatch types although only four are used in this code. The remaining two are for functions which return floats and structures. Further functions can be added to by using the formats given. We have included the code of a sample Hypercard XCMD which uses the libraries or of a Hypercard stack to exercise the XCMD. Other examples are left as an exercise for the reader.

This project is written with THINK C. Similar code would be difficult though possible to implement in Pascal. An important point to note if you are using calls which use floating point arithmetic or call the printf type functions is that the standard ANSI-A4 library does not include floating point functions nor math functions. The math functions are gained by adding math.c to the ANSI-A4 library project. Floating point capabilities are added by opening the ansi-config.h file which is found in the source code of the ANSI-A4 project and commenting out the line #define _NOFLOATING_ and then recompiling the project under a different name such as ANSI-A4(f). Another point to remember is that other functions such as qsort and atof are also not part of the ANSI-A4 project and must be added if they are to be used.

If you have any questions David can be reached on internet at BURGGRAAF @ cc.utah.edu.

Installation Instructions:

1. Install the Library code resource wherever it is needed, i.e., as a code resource in your Hypercard stack.

2. Include the “CodeLib.h” header file before any of the functions in the code library are called.

3. Enter the line

CODELIB;

before any function in the library is called. It must be typed outside of any function. It is a preprocessor declaration of the necessary global variables.

4. If they are not already part of your code put in the instructions RememberA0, SetUpA4 and RestoreA4, so that the above global variables can be used.

5. In the main function, at the beginning type the line.

LOADCODELIB();

This should be the first function call other than functions which setup registers for global variable access. (i.e., SetupA4()).

6. In the main function, at the end enter the line.

UNLOADCODELIB();

7. If present, remove any duplicate libraries which are present in your project.

8. Build the project.

Listing:  CodeLib.h

#ifndef _CODE_LIB_
#define _CODE_LIB_
typedef enum
 {
 CLdispatchErr=0,
 CLatoi,
 CLatol,
 CLsprintf,
 CLsrand,
 CLstrcpy,
 CLsqrt=1 /*Double/struct lib */
 } CodeLib;

#define ROUTINES 5
#define FROUTINES  1

#ifndef NOCODELIBDEF
#define atoi(str) ((**idispatch)(CLatoi,(char *)(str)))
#define atol(str) ((**ldispatch)(CLatol,(char *)(str)))
#define sprintf(s,f) ((**idispatch)(CLsprintf,(s),(f),...))
#define srand(s) ((**dispatch)(CLsrand,(unsigned)(s)))
#define strcpy(s1,s2) ((char *)((**pdispatch)(CLstrcpy,(char*)(s1),(char 
*)(s2))))
#define sqrt(d) ((**ddispatch)(CLsqrt, (double)(d)))
#endif NOCODELIBDEF

typedef void (**Vfunch)(CodeLib,...);
typedef int (**Ifunch)(CodeLib,...);
typedef long (**Lfunch)(CodeLib,...);
typedef char (**Cfunch)(CodeLib,...);
typedef float (**Ffunch)(CodeLib,...);
typedef double (**Dfunch)(CodeLib,...);
typedef void *(**Pfunch)(CodeLib,...);

#define CODELIB Vfunch dispatch;Ifunch idispatch;Lfunch ldispatch;Cfunch 
cdispatch;Ffunch fdispatch;Dfunch ddispatch;Pfunch pdispatch;
#ifndef NOTLLIB
#define initCodeLib() (dispatch=(Vfunch)(idispatch=(Ifunch)(ldispatch=(Lfunch)(cdispatch=( 
Cfunch)(pdispatch=(Pfunch)(fdispatch=(Ffunch)GetResource(‘LIB ‘, 18000)))))))
#else
#define initcodeLib() 1
#endif CODELIB

#ifndef NOFLOATLIB
#define initFCodeLib() (ddispatch=(Dfunch)GetResource(‘LIB ‘, 18001))
#else
#define initFCodeLib() 1
#endif NOFLOATLIB

#define LOADCODELIB() {if (!initCodeLib()) return;else HLock(dispatch);if 
(!initFCodeLib()) {HUnlock(dispatch);return;}else HLock(ddispatch);}
#define UNLOADCODELIB() {HUnlock(dispatch);HUnlock(ddispatch);}

extern Vfunch dispatch;
extern Ifunch idispatch;
extern Lfunch ldispatch;
extern Cfunch cdispatch;
extern Ffunch fdispatch;
extern Dfunch ddispatch;
extern Pfunch pdispatch;
#endif
Listing:  CodeLibDispatch.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define NOCODELIBDEF
#include “CodeLib.h”

typedef void (*Function)(void);

long returnAddr, oldA4;
int funcIndex;
void dispatchErr(void);
Function funcTable[ROUTINES+1];
 
void main(void)
 { /* CodeLib routine*/
 asm  {
 move.l a4, a1;  /*setup a4 */
 move.l a0, a4;
 move.l a1, oldA4;
 };
 funcTable[CLdispatchErr]=dispatchErr;
 funcTable[CLatoi]=(Function)atoi;
 funcTable[CLatol]=(Function)atol;
 funcTable[CLsprintf]=(Function)sprintf;
 funcTable[CLsrand]=(Function)srand;
 funcTable[CLstrcpy]=(Function)strcpy;
 asm  {
 move.l (a7)+, returnAddr;/*save return address*/
 move.w (a7)+, a1; /*remove index  */
 lea funcTable, a0;/*do jump to indexed subroutine*/
 jsr ([0,a0,a1.w*4],0);
 move.w a1, -(a7); /*restore stack and return*/
 move.l returnAddr, -(a7);
 move.l oldA4, a4; /*restore a4  */
 }
 UnloadA4Seg(0L);
 } /* Main*/

void dispatchErr(void)
 {
 SysBeep(5);
 }
Listing:  FCodeLibDispatch.c

#include <math.h>

#define NOCODELIBDEF
#include “CodeLib.h”

typedef void (*Function)(void);

long returnAddr, oldA4, returnStruct;
int funcIndex;
void dispatchErr(void);
Function funcTable[FROUTINES+1];
 
void main(void)
 { /*CodeLib routine*/
 asm  {
 move.l a4, a1;  /*setup a4 */
 move.l a0, a4;
 move.l a1, oldA4;
 };
 funcTable[CLdispatchErr]=dispatchErr;
 funcTable[CLsqrt]=(Function)sqrt;
 asm  {
 move.l (a7)+, returnAddr;/*save return address*/
 move.l (a7)+, returnStruct;/*save return StructPtr*/
 move.w (a7)+, a1; /*remove index  */
 move.l returnStruct, -(a7);/*put return StructPtr*/
 lea funcTable, a0;/*do jump to indexed subroutine*/
 jsr ([0,a0,a1.w*4],0);
 move.l (a7)+, returnStruct;/*get return structPtr*/
 move.w a1, -(a7); /*restore stack and return*/
 move.l returnStruct, -(a7);
 move.l returnAddr, -(a7);
 move.l oldA4, a4; /*restore a4  */
 }
 UnloadA4Seg(0L);
 } /* Main*/

void dispatchErr(void)
 {
 SysBeep(5);
 }

Listing: testCodeLib.c

#include “CodeLib.h”
#include “HyperXCmd.h”
#include “SetUpA4.h”

CODELIB;

pascal void main(XCmdBlockPtr paramPtr)
{
 int    TempInt1, TempInt2;
 unsigned int  Seed;
 long   TempLong;
 StringHandle  TempHdl;
 double TempDouble1, TempDouble2;
 Ptr    TempPtr;
 Str255 TempStr;
 
 RememberA0();
 SetUpA4();
 LOADCODELIB();
 TempHdl = (StringHandle)NewHandle(256);
 TempPtr = *(paramPtr->params[0]);
 TempInt1 = atoi((char*)TempPtr);
 TempPtr = *(paramPtr->params[1]);
 TempLong = atol((char*)TempPtr);
 TempInt2 = (int)TempLong;
 TempInt1 = TempInt1 * TempInt2;
 TempDouble2 = (double)TempInt1;
 TempDouble1 = sqrt(TempDouble2);
 Seed = (unsigned int)TempDouble1;
 srand(Seed);
 (**idispatch)(CLsprintf,TempStr, “The square root of %d is %.2g.”,
 TempInt1, TempDouble1);
 strcpy(*TempHdl, TempStr);
 paramPtr->returnValue = (Handle)TempHdl;
 
 UNLOADCODELIB();
 RestoreA4();
}

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Ableton Live 9.7.1 - Record music using...
Ableton Live lets you create and record music on your Mac. Use digital instruments, pre-recorded sounds, and sampled loops to arrange, produce, and perform your music like never before. Ableton Live... Read more
FileZilla 3.23.0.2 - Fast and reliable F...
FileZilla (ported from Windows) is a fast and reliable FTP client and server with lots of useful features and an intuitive interface. Version 3.23.0.2: Bug Fixes and Minor Changes Speed up icon... Read more
Vivaldi 1.5.658.56 - An advanced browser...
Vivaldi is a browser for our friends. In 1994, two programmers started working on a web browser. Our idea was to make a really fast browser, capable of running on limited hardware, keeping in mind... Read more
Safari Technology Preview 10.1 - The new...
Safari Technology Preview contains the most recent additions and improvements to WebKit and the latest advances in Safari web technologies. And once installed, you will receive notifications of... Read more
TunnelBear 3.0.8 - Subscription-based pr...
TunnelBear is a subscription-based virtual private network (VPN) service and companion app, enabling you to browse the internet privately and securely. Features Browse privately - Secure your data... Read more
NeoFinder 7.0 - Catalog your external me...
NeoFinder (formerly CDFinder) rapidly organizes your data, either on external or internal disks, or any other volumes. It catalogs all your data, so you stay in control of your data archive or disk... Read more
Coda 2.6 - One-window Web development su...
Coda is a powerful Web editor that puts everything in one place. An editor. Terminal. CSS. Files. With Coda 2, we went beyond expectations. With loads of new, much-requested features, a few surprises... Read more
File Juicer 4.51 - Extract images, video...
File Juicer is a drag-and-drop can opener and data archaeologist. Its specialty is to find and extract images, video, audio, or text from files which are hard to open in other ways. In computer... Read more
PDFpenPro 8.3 - $124.95
PDFpenPro allows users to edit PDF's easily. Add text, images and signatures. Fill out PDF forms. Merge or split PDF documents. Reorder and delete pages. Create fillable forms and tables of content... Read more
PDFpen 8.3 - $74.95
PDFpen allows users to easily edit PDF's. Add text, images and signatures. Fill out PDF forms. Merge or split PDF documents. Reorder and delete pages. Even correct text and edit graphics! Features... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Clash of Clans is getting its own animat...
Riding on its unending wave of fame and success, Clash of Clans is getting an animated web series based on its Clash-A-Rama animated shorts.As opposed to the current shorts' 60 second run time, the new and improved Clash-A-Rama will be comprised of... | Read more »
Leaks hint at Pokémon GO and Starbucks C...
Leaked images from a hub for Starbucks employees suggests that a big Pokémon GO event with the coffee giant could begin this very week. The images appeared on Reddit and hint at some exciting new things to come for Niantic's smash hit game. | Read more »
Silent Depth Submarine Simulation (Game...
Silent Depth Submarine Simulation 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $7.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Enneas Saga lets you lead your own demon...
Defend the land of Enneas Continent from the forces of evil in the new fantasy MMORPG from Lyto Mobi: Enneas Saga. Can’t wait? No problem. It’s available to download now on Android devices. | Read more »
Great zombie games in the spirit of Dead...
Dead Rising 4 arrives tomorrow, giving enthusiasts a fresh chance to take selfies with zombies and get up to other ridiculous end-of-the-world shenanigans. To really get into the spirit of things, we've gone and gathered the best zombie games that... | Read more »
Amateur Surgeon 4 Guide: Advanced tips a...
Amateur Surgeon 4 is still tackling the competition at the top of the App Store charts, so if you haven't tried it out yet, you should probably do that right away. If you've been at it for a while, though, perhaps you're ready to start expanding... | Read more »
Amateur Surgeon 4 Guide: Become the worl...
It's time to wield your trusty pizza cutter again, as Amateur Surgeon has returned with a whole fresh set of challenges (and some old, familiar ones, too). Starting anew isn't easy, especially when all you have at your disposal is a lighter, the... | Read more »
Le Parker: Sous Chef Extraordinaire (Ga...
Le Parker: Sous Chef Extraordinaire 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Telltale Games really is working on a Gu...
Telltale Games' next episodic adventure is indeed Guardians of the Galaxy. A document tied to the voice actors strike suggested that the project was in the work, but now we have direct confirmation following an announcement at the Game Awards that... | Read more »
Amateur Surgeon returns to iOS and Andro...
Amateur Surgeon and its two sequels disappeared from the App Store some time and it was sad days for all. But now, just in time for the holidays, the Adult Swim favorite makes its joyous return in the shape of Amateur Surgeon 4, a remake with... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Twenty-Five Years Of Apple Laptops – A person...
Among many other things, the often tumultuous 16th year of the new century marked the 25th anniversary of Apple laptop computers, not counting the optimistically named 16-pound Mac Portable of 1989.... Read more
Landlordy iOS App Adds Support For Appliances...
Riga, Latvia based E-protect SIA is releasing major update (version 1.8) to its Landlordy app for managing rental business financials on the go. Landlordy is iPhone and iPad app designed for self-... Read more
Holiday sale, Apple iMacs for up to $200 off...
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ Apple iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 27″ 3.3GHz iMac 5K: $2099 $200 off MSRP - 27″ 3.2GHz/1TB Fusion iMac 5K: $... Read more
Holiday sale: Mac minis for $50 to $100 off M...
B&H Photo has Mac minis on sale for up to $100 off MSRP free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $449 $50 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac mini: $629 $70 off MSRP - 2.8GHz Mac mini: $899 $... Read more
Mac Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP, ref...
B&H Photo has Mac Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 3.7GHz 4-core Mac Pro: $2799, $200 off MSRP - 3.5GHz 6-core Mac Pro: $3699, $... Read more
12-inch WiFi Apple iPad Pros on sale for up t...
B&H Photo has 12″ WiFi Apple iPad Pros on sale for up to $50 off MSRP, each including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 12″ Space Gray 32GB WiFi iPad Pro: $749 $50 off MSRP... Read more
9-inch Apple WiFi iPad Pros on sale for $20-$...
B&H Photo has 9.7″ Apple WiFi iPad Pros on sale for $20-$50 off MSRP, each including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 9″ Space Gray 256GB WiFi iPad Pro: $779.95 $20 off MSRP... Read more
Apple refurbished 2015 15-inch MacBook Pros a...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 15″ Retina MacBook Pros available starting at $1699. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro... Read more
Back in stock! 13-inch 2.7GHz Retina MacBook...
Apple has Apple Certified Refurbished 2015 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pros (MF839LL/A) available again for $1099 including free shipping. That’s $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price... Read more
Slate Tablet Market Share to Fall Below 75% i...
After two years of decline, the tablet market is showing signs of new life as productivity trumps entertainment, and tablets become cost-effective computing devices for both entertainment and... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Philade...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- San Ant...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Products Tester Needed - Apple (Unit...
…we therefore look forward to put out products to quality test for durability. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store, Read more
SW Engineer *Apple* TV Frameworks - Apple I...
The Apple TV team is looking for a software...create features that reflect the look and feel of Apple TV. Description: Were looking for someone who is Read more
Hardware Design Validation Engineer - *Apple...
The Apple Watch team is looking for a Hardware Design Validation Engineer. This person will be part of the Apple Watch hardware team with responsibilities for Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.