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TML Pascal Tricks
Volume Number:6
Issue Number:3
Column Tag:Pascal Procedures

TML Pascal Tricks

By Paul Diegenbach, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

XCMD - drawing in a Hypercard stack

The attractiveness of Hypercard is for a large part due to it graphical possibilities. Nice cards always mean nice graphics. The Hypertalk language allows drawing on the screen under program control. When we tear the tools menu off the menubar, we can actually see the actions as the tools flop from pen to brush to marquee and so on. Nice to watch, but oh so slow. Ever tried to draw a complicated graph in Hypercard? I tried it in an attempt to simulate the differentiation of an egg to all the different cells an embryo consists of. One of the theories implies the evaluation of some differential equations and then drawing a thousand points on the screen.

The idea was to let students be able to change the parameters in the equations and see the results in a user-friendly environment. The first step was to implement the equation solving in Hypertalk. Too slow, so an XCMD was quickly written. Drawing the results by Hypertalk: still to slow, so why not do the drawing in the XCMD as well? In a first result the drawing looks nice, but as soon as Hypercard updates the screen from its offscreen bitmap, the drawing disappears. The solution to this problem is to copy the drawing in the paste buffer (scrap) and paste it into Hypercard using the paste command from the menu. This combination works fine and quick. The skeleton for the XCMD is given below, in TML-Pascal, with a Fourier-demo in the drawing part to make it less dumb. In this demo we use parameters from Hypercard for the size of the rectangle and for the Fourier coefficients. Although not necessary, it is often handy to give the rectangle parameters. They can easily be estimated by having a temporary field of the same size and asking in the message window ‘put the size of card field tmp into msg’. The Hypercard stack with this demo implemented is on the source disk for this month.

To avoid flicker between the copy and paste, it is convenient to lock the screen before the XCMD is used. Users of other Pascals sometimes need to remove the ParamPtr parameter, that is the first parameter in every call to the glue routines:


UNIT PictToScrp;
This XCMD demodnstrates a method to plot and calculate in Pascal (perhaps 
with floating point processor enabled) and then copy and paste the picture 
in the card compile and link as follows (assuming Fourier is an existing 
  TMLPascal Fourier.p
or:  ( really fast on a mac II)
  TMLPascal Fourier.p  -MC68020 -MC68881 -d Elems881=true

  Link -w -t ‘STAK’ -c ‘WILD’ 
  -m FOURIER -rt XCMD=1282 -sg Fourier 
   Fourier.p.o 
   “{Libraries}”Runtime.o 
   “{Libraries}”Interface.o 
   “{TMLPLibraries}”TMLPasLib.o 
   “{Libraries}”HyperXLib.o 
   -o “Fourier”

 Hypercard call :
  set the lockscreen to true
  -- prevents flicker
  Fourier  330,14,480,319,10,7,5,3,4
  -- 330,14,480 is the area to draw into
  -- 10,7,5,3,4  are the fourier factors times 10
  set the lockscreen to false


  USES MemTypes, QuickDraw, OSIntf, ToolIntf, PackIntf, PasLibIntf, HyperXCMD;

  PROCEDURE Fourier(ParamPtr: XCMDPtr);


  PROCEDURE PictScrap(ParamPtr: XCMDPtr); FORWARD;

  PROCEDURE Fourier(ParamPtr: XCMDPtr);

  PROCEDURE PictScrap(ParamPtr: XCMDPtr);
      thePoint     : Point;
      hPicture     : PicHandle;
      rg           : rect;
      Piclength    : LONGINT;
      xoffset, yoffset: integer;
      str          : str255;
      xLeft, bot, top, xRight: LONGINT;
      one, two, three, four, five: LONGINT;
      x, y         : extended;
      z1, z2, z3, z4, z5: extended;

 { all your drawing stuff goes here }
        i            : integer;
        maxim, offset: extended;

      FUNCTION Sinus(x: extended): extended;
          Sinus := sin(x) * z1 + sin(2 * x) * z2 + sin(3 * x) * z3 + 
sin(4 * x)  * z4 + sin(5 * x) * z5
 { the more, the better }

        Framerect(rg); { optional }
        offset := top + (bot - top) / 2.0;
        z1 := one / 10.0;
        z2 := two / 10.0;
        z3 := three / 10.0;
        z4 := four / 10.0;
        z5 := five / 10.0;
        x := 0.02 {1 / 50} ;
        maxim := Sinus(x);
        FOR i := 2 TO 314 DO
          IF i MOD 10 = 0 THEN
SendCardMessage(ParamPtr, ‘set cursor to busy’);
          x := i / 50;
          y := Sinus(x);
          IF maxim < y THEN
            maxim := y;

        x := 1 / 50;
        y := Sinus(x);
        maxim := 100 / maxim;
SendCardMessage(ParamPtr, ‘set cursor to busy’);
        moveto(xLeft + 1, round(y * maxim + offset));
        FOR i := 2 TO 314 DO
          BEGIN { for two pi }
          x := i / 50;
          y := Sinus(x);
lineto(i + xLeft + 1, round(y * maxim + offset))
SendCardMessage(ParamPtr, ‘set cursor to busy’);
        moveto(xLeft + 1, round(offset));
        lineto(xRight - 2, round(offset));

    FUNCTION GetParameter(n: integer): LONGINT;
        tmp          : LONGINT;
        ZeroToPas(ParamPtr, ParamPtr^.params[n]^, str);
        stringToNum(str, tmp);
        GetParameter := tmp

      IF ParamPtr^.paramCount <> 9 THEN
        SendCardMessage(ParamPtr, ‘put “wrong number of parameters” into 
{ I think a more convenient way of error report than by ParamPtr^.ReturnValue 
{get the drawing rectangle coordinates from hypercard }
        xLeft := GetParameter(1);
        top := GetParameter(2);
        xRight := GetParameter(3);
        bot := GetParameter(4);

{ In this example : get Fourier coëfficients from hypercard }
        one := GetParameter(5);
        two := GetParameter(6);
        three := GetParameter(7);
        four := GetParameter(8);
        five := GetParameter(9);
        setrect(rg, xLeft, top, xRight, bot);
        xoffset := xLeft + 5;
        yoffset := top + 5;
        hPicture := OpenPicture(rg);
        MyDrawing; { here all your drawing }
        Piclength := GethandleSize(handle(hPicture));
        IF ZeroScrap + putscrap(Piclength, ‘PICT’, ptr(hPicture^)) = 
     ParamPtr^.ReturnValue := PasToZero(ParamPtr, ‘’)
          ParamPtr^.ReturnValue := PasToZero(ParamPtr, ‘something wrong’);
SendCardMessage(ParamPtr, ‘choose select tool’);
SendCardMessage(ParamPtr, ‘domenu “Paste Picture”’);
SendCardMessage(ParamPtr, ‘choose browse tool’);

Small and Dirty “Write Always”

In the debugging of large programs we were accustomed to put a lot of ‘writeln’s’ in the source text to show what was happening. Although a workable solution on mainframes and mini’s, that’s not so easy in the Macintosh environment, there is not always a window available to write in. The following small subroutine (TML Pascal version) does the trick with some disadvantage: it overwrite all its lines on top of each other at the bottom of the screen in some kind of status line (bit like Online companion), but, sorry, the line is not automatically removed after leaving the program. Dirty isn’t it, so surely for debugging only. An ‘invalrect’ after each multifinder event and at the end of the program is sometimes a solution.

In the program source you write something like :


 if dbg then DQText(‘now in procedure blahblah’)

(The clever one’s can write a MPW-script to put it after the first begin in every procedure or function) Dbg is used as a constant (or in a compiler directive).

The procedure (as a Pascal unit) looks like :


UNIT DQTextProcedure;
MemTypes, QuickDraw, OSIntf, ToolIntf, PackIntf, QDaccess;
{ Tml pascals QDaccess defines:
 TYPE  QDGlobalsPtr = ^QDGlobalsRec;
    QDGlobalsRec =
        randSeed   :  LongInt;
        screenBits :  BitMap;
        arrow      :  Cursor;
        dkGray     :  Pattern;
        ltGray     :  Pattern;
        gray       :  Pattern;
        black      :  Pattern;
        white      :  Pattern;
        ThePort    :  GrafPtr;
function QDGlobals: QDGlobalsPtr;external;}

PROCEDURE DQText(Message: Str255);
PROCEDURE DQText(Message: Str255);
  SavedPort    : GrafPtr;
  LocalPort    : GrafPort;
  TheRect      : Rect;
  WITH QDGlobals^ DO
      WITH ScreenBits.Bounds DO
 { this is QDGlobals^ s ScreenBits ! }
SetRect(TheRect, Left, Bottom-20, Right, Bottom);
      FillRect(TheRect, White);
      MoveTo(TheRect.Left, TheRect.Top);
      LineTo(TheRect.Right, TheRect.Top);
      MoveTo(TheRect.Left+7, TheRect.Bottom-7);

PROGRAM tstDQtext;
  { test the dqtext procedure : }
  USES MemTypes, QuickDraw, OSIntf, ToolIntf, PackIntf,
    PaslibIntf, QDaccess, DQtext;
  link as :
    Link  -t ‘APPL’ -c ‘????’ 
      DQtext.p.o 
      tstDQtext.p.o 
      “{Libraries}”Runtime.o 
      “{Libraries}”Interface.o 
      “{TMLPLibraries}”TMLPasLib.o 
      -o tstDQtext
    textbook(NIL); { TML pascal simple window }
    writeln(‘ see bottom line’);
    writeln(‘ click mouse button’);
    UNTIL button;
    DQtext(‘after mouse button’);
    writeln(‘ type return to end program’);


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