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Icon Capture
Volume Number:5
Issue Number:12
Column Tag:Color Workshop

Related Info: Color Quickdraw

Capture Color Icons

By Steve and Patricia Sheets, Herdon, VA

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Color Icons: Editor and cicnCapture

This month’s Color Quickdraw column consists of less talk and more code. In the last column, the building block data structures needed in order to use and understand color icons were discussed. A new Rez/Derez resource source template was given that allowed easier creation of ‘cicn’ resource (Color Icon template resource). While the template is helpful in learning and understanding color icons, and is an excellent way to present color icons on the written page, most users would prefer to use some graphic base tool to create a color icon. This column contains a quick review of the two color icon editors freely available to the development community. Then, the column will present this months source code, ‘cicnCapture’, a FKEY utility designed to capture an image on the screen and convert it to a color icon resource.

Public Domain Color Icon Editors

There are two different color icon editors available in Public Domain. The very first editor released was the application ‘CIcon Edit’ by Ben Haller of AppleSauce Designs. ‘CIcon Edit’ allows the users to edit color icons of 32 by 32 pixels size that have up to 16 separate colors. The editor can import a ‘cicn’ resource, a ‘ICON’ resource or a ‘ICN#’ resource. This feature makes the tool exceptionally good at coloring existing icon art work. ‘CIcon Edit’ itself is the easiest to use, with a good command set to manipulate the image (move, roll, flip, rotate). This tool has been around the longest (latest version I’ve seen is 1.1) and is virtually bug proof. Unfortunately, the application is lacking in certain areas. This editor is unable to edit a color icon that is any other size than 32 by 32 pixels and 16 colors. There is no method of adjusting any other settings of the resource. ‘CIcon Edit’ does not have a palette of tools (ala MacPaint); the user draws the image a pixel at a time. Also, the load command does not give a list of all the ‘cicn’ resources of the target file. Thus, the user has to keep track of all ‘cicn’ and their ID numbers himself. To be really productive with this tool, the user needs to work ResEdit.

The other PD color icon editor solves this problem by being a ResEdit extension. ‘ResWare’ by Frédéric Miserey of None Corp in Paris consists of certain resources that the user copies into his ResEdit application (replacing some existing ones). Then the user can use ResEdit directly to observe, create and edit ‘cicn’ resources. This utility is a more powerful editor then ‘CIcon Edit’. ‘ResWare’ has a complete tool palette that includes pen, eraser, fill bucket, lasso, and other rectangle commands. The editor can use single color patterns when drawing. There is no practical limit to the size of the color icon, nor the number of colors. Also the editor allows the user to change other portions of the ‘cicn’ resource including horizontal and vertical size, component count, component size and pixmap method (Chunky, Chunky/Planar or Planar). However the editor is still in beta form (latest version I’ve seen is 1.0b4) and has caused numerous crashes. ‘ResWare’ has no import feature, and the editor, while more powerful, is not as easy to use for beginners as ‘CIcon Edit’.

Importing Images into Color Icons

While both editors are useful in creating color icons, they both suffer from a common fault. They do not allow easy import of an image on the screen into a ‘cicn’ resource. At first, it may not seem as if this is a problem. Of course, the editor will only be used to create a ‘cicn’ resource. However, this is not always the case. Look at what happened with original Quickdraw and the creation of ‘ICON’ and ‘ICN#’ resources. Even though there were a few icon editors, many non-technical users created their images with the more powerful Paint and Draw programs. Then they handed the complete art work to a programmer, expecting him to be able to use it directly. The programmer had no way to directly transfer an art document into a ‘ICON’ or ‘ICN#’ resource. In many cases, the programmer had to reenter the image into the icon editor one pixel at a time. To solve this problem, many programmers created various Icon-Grapper types of utilities. These utilities, usually Desk Accessories or FKEYs, allowed the programmer to capture any portion of the screen and convert it into an icon resource. Since it captured an image on the screen and did not need to directly convert any type of document, these utilities would work with any Paint or Draw application.

A user who wanted to convert a Pixel Paint or MacDraw // image into a ‘cicn’ resource would have the identical problem. The problem is further complicated, since the user would have to worry not only about the 32 by 32 pixel image, but would have to import a color list, a mask and a black and white icon. I had this problem. The graphic designer of my latest project presented the technical team with a group of Pixel Paint files, each one having a dozen or so images on it. It would have taken hours of work to reenter the images using one of the color icon editors. That estimate was assuming that the artwork was the finished product, and not going to be revised. This started looking like a potential nightmare.


The solution to this problem is being provided as the sample source code. ‘cicnCapture’ is an FKEY utility that can capture a 32 by 32 pixel image of the screen, containing up to 256 different colors, and create a ‘cicn’ resource that contains this image. The code uses the Quickdraw call, GetCPixel, to determine the color of each pixel in the image. Since the code uses this call instead of reading the screen PixMap directly, it will work on any depth or type of screen or monitor as long as Color Quickdraw is installed. Once the image has been captured, the information is saved out to a specified resource file.

Using this utility on our software project, it took a few minutes to import all of the color images into ‘cicn’ resource. ‘CIcon Edit’ and ‘ResEdit’ were used afterward, but mainly to make sure the images had the correct ID number, and that they were centered on the 32 by 32 pixel icon.

Next Column

Anyone remember the game, ‘Daleks’? This application was one of the first, and best, Public Domain games around. Next issue’s sample code will be ‘Color Daleks’. The program will show how to directly draw and manipulate color icons. Various color drawing modes will be explained, as well as some animation speed up tricks.

{cicnCapture-  Color Icon Capture FKEY }
{by Steve Sheets for MacTutor 9/3/89 }
{FKEY is normal saved to resource type ‘FKEY’, ID = 7 }
{This FKEY captures a 32 by 32 Pixel section of the screen and converts 
it into a ‘cicn’ resource (Color Icon }
{template).   When the user activates the Function Key and click somewhere 
on the screen, that portion of the }
{screen is recorded (colors and pixels) and a cicn handle is created. 
 Remember a cicn handle is different than }
{an actual Color Icon handle. The cicn handle/resoure is a template for 
a Color Icon.  The Color Quickdraw }
{command, GetCIcon, uses the cicn resource to determine how to make a 
Color Icon. }
{FKEY is written in Think’s Lightspeed Pascal 2.0. }

unit cicnCapture;


 Quickdraw, ToolIntf;

{FKEY (function key) code resources must have be an unit with a single 
externally reference procedure called }

 procedure Main;


 procedure Main;

{The ‘cicn’ resource consists of three variable length parts.  The first 
part contains the Pixmap info, the Black }
{& White Icon and the Mask.   The second part contains the Color Lookup 
table (ie. list of colors used in the }
{cicn).  The size of this part is dependent on the number of different 
colors in the cicn.  The last part of the }
{resource is the pixel data.  The size of this is dependent on the number 
of different colors in the cicn.  If }
{there are 2 to 16 colors, the pixel info can be stored in a 4 bit pixel 
maip, if the number of colors is 17 to }
{256, then the info must be stored in a 8 bit pixel map.  Given the fact 
this FKEY only captures 32 by 32 cicn, }
{the size of the first part is fixed, while the size of the third part 
is one of two possible fixed sizes. }

 IconData = packed array[0..31] of LongInt;

{First part of cicn resource for a 32 by 32 pixel cicn.}

 cicnData = record
 baseAddr: LongInt;
 rowbytes: INTEGER;
 bounds: Rect;
 pmVersion: INTEGER;
 packType: INTEGER;
 packSize: LongInt;
 hRes: LongInt;
 vRes: LongInt;
 pixelType: INTEGER;
 pixelSize: INTEGER;
 cmpCount: INTEGER;
 cmpSize: INTEGER;
 planeBytes: LongInt;
 pmTable: LongInt;
 pmReserved: LongInt;

 MaskBaseAddr: LongInt;
 MaskRowBytes: INTEGER;
 MaskBounds: Rect;

 BMapBaseAddr: LongInt;
 BMapRowBytes: INTEGER;
 BMapBounds: Rect;

 IconData: LongInt;

 theMask: IconData;

 theBMap: IconData;

 ctSeed: LongInt;
 ctFlags: INTEGER;
 ctSize: INTEGER;
 cicnPtr = ^cicnData;

{2nd part (CLUT) of cicn resource for 32 by 32 pixel cicn. }

 CTableData = packed array[0..255] of ColorSpec;
 CTablePtr = ^CTableData;

{3rd part of cicn resource for 8 bit, 32 by 32 pixel cicn. }

 pixel8Data = packed array[0..31, 0..31] of 0..255;
 pixel8Ptr = ^pixel8Data;

{3rd part of cicn resource for 4 bit, 32 by 32 pixel cicn. }

 pixel4Data = packed array[0..31, 0..15] of 0..255;
 pixel4Ptr = ^pixel4Data;

 thePos: Point;
 thePixel8: pixel8Data;
 theNumColors: INTEGER;
 theIcon: IconData;
 theColorList: packed array[0..255] of RGBColor;
 theCICN: Handle;

{Tell us if Color Quickdraw is installed on machine. }

 function IsColorQuickdraw: BOOLEAN;
 ROM85Loc = $28E;
 TwoHighMask = $C000;
 WordPtr = ^INTEGER;
 Wd: WordPtr;
 Wd := POINTER(ROM85Loc);
 IsColorQuickdraw := (BitAnd(Wd^, TwoHighMask) = 0);

{Sets cursor to show an upper left portion of a square.}

 procedure InitSquare;
 count: INTEGER;
 Square: Cursor;
 with Square do
 data[0] := $FFFF;
 mask[0] := 0;
 for count := 1 to 15 do
 data[count] := $8000;
 mask[count] := 0;
 hotSpot.v := 0;
 hotspot.h := 0;

{Wait until the user presses the mouse, making sure the mouse was not 
pressed to begin with.  Then stores}
{the postion of the mouse and flushes the mouse events. }

 procedure GetPos;
 while button do
 while not button do
 FlushEvents(mDownMask + mUpMask, 0);

{Given the position of the mouse, captures a 32 by 32 array of pixels 
and a list of the colors.  The}
{pixel information is not stored as RGB values, but as a number (zero 
count) that represents that }
{RGB value in the Color List (ie. value of 2 equals third color in list). 
 Thus every time a pixel on }
{the screen is looked at with the GetCPixel command, that RGB value is 
looked for in the Color List. }
{If the color is found, that number is stored in the 2 dimensional pixel 
array.  If the pixel uses a }
{new RGB color (not found in the list), that color is added to the list. 
 The number that represents }
{that new color is stored in the pixel array.  This way, at the end, 
the program knows exactly what}
{colors are used.  The code does not care about the depth of the screen 
(1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 24 bits}
{per pixels).  However this cicn resource uses the Chunky model, thus 
only 256 colors can be used }
{(fairly safe limit).  The list will always contain black and white as 
the first two colors in the list.  }
{This procedure also creates a black and white 32 by 32 bit icon for 
the mask and the Black and}
{White icon portion of the cicn.  Any color other than white indicates 
a black bit.}

 procedure GetPixels;
 h, v, theNum, count: INTEGER;
 theColor: RGBColor;
 theNumColors := 1;
 with theColorList[0] do
 red := $FFFF;
 green := $FFFF;
 blue := $FFFF;
 with theColorList[1] do
 red := 0;
 green := 0;
 blue := 0;
 for v := 0 to 31 do
 theIcon[V] := 0;
 for h := 0 to 31 do
 GetCPixel(thePos.h + h, thePos.v + v, theColor);
 theNum := -1;
 for count := 0 to theNumColors do
 if ( = theColorList[count].red) then
 if ( = theColorList[count].green) then
 if ( = theColorList[count].blue) then
 theNum := count;
 if (theNum = -1) and (theNumColors < 255) then
 theNumColors := theNumColors + 1;
 theNum := theNumColors;
 theColorList[theNum] := theColor;
 thePixel8[v, h] := (theNum mod 256);
 if ( <> -1) or ( <> -1) or ( 
<> -1) then
 BitSet(@theIcon[V], h);

{Having pixel infor, allocates memmory for cicn handle.}

 procedure MakeCICN;
 theCICNptr: cicnPtr;
 theCTablePtr: CTablePtr;
 thePixel8Ptr: Pixel8Ptr;
 the4PixelPtr: Pixel4Ptr;
 theRect: Rect;
 count, v, h, theTableSize, theImageRowBytes, theBitsPixel, thePixelDataSize: 
 SetRect(theRect, 0, 0, 32, 32);

{If number of colors is more than 16, then use 8 bit pixel map, else 
use 4 bit pixelmap (Rowbytes of pixmap is }
{diffent, bit depth is different, size of pixel data is different).  
Notice that Rowbytes must have the high bit }

 if (theNumColors > 16) then
 theBitsPixel := 8;
 theImageRowBytes := $8020;
 thePixelDataSize := SizeOf(pixel8Data);
 theBitsPixel := 4;
 theImageRowBytes := $8010;
 thePixelDataSize := SizeOf(pixel8Data) div 2;
 theTableSize := (theNumColors + 1) * SizeOf(ColorSpec);

{Allocate size of handle (dependent on number of colors & 4 or 8 bit 
pixelmap. }

 theCICN := NewHandle(SizeOf(cicnData) + theTableSize + thePixelDataSize);
 theCICNptr := POINTER(theCICN^);

{Stuff first part of cicn handle.  }

 with theCICNptr^ do
 baseAddr := 0;
 rowbytes := theImageRowBytes;
 bounds := theRect;
 pmVersion := 0;
 packType := 0;
 packSize := 0;
 hRes := $00480000;
 vRes := $00480000;
 pixelType := 0;
 pixelSize := theBitsPixel;
 cmpCount := 1;
 cmpSize := theBitsPixel;
 planeBytes := 0;
 pmTable := 0;
 pmReserved := 0;

 MaskBaseAddr := 0;
 MaskRowBytes := 4;
 MaskBounds := theRect;

 BMapBaseAddr := 0;
 BMapRowBytes := 4;
 BMapBounds := theRect;

 IconData := 0;

 theMask := theIcon;

 theBMap := theIcon;

 ctSeed := 0;
 ctFlags := 0;
 ctSize := theNumColors;

{Stuff second part, the Color Look Up table (color list).}

theCTablePtr := POINTER(ORD4(theCICNptr) + SizeOf(CICNData));

 for count := 0 to theNumColors do
 with theCTablePtr^[count] do
 value := count;
 rgb := theColorList[count];

{Stuff the third part of the cicn handle, the actual pixmap data.  If 
an 8 bit pixmap is used, the format of }
{the data is identical to the array used to store the pixel information 
so the data is simply moved into the }
{handle.  If the pixmap is a 4 bit one, the pixel info is moved into
 another array that has the format of a 4 }
{bit pixmap data, then that data moved into the handle. }

 if (theNumColors > 15) then
 thePixel8Ptr := POINTER(ORD4(theCTablePtr) + theTableSize);
 thePixel8Ptr^ := thePixel8;
 the4PixelPtr := POINTER(ORD4(theCTablePtr) + theTableSize);
 for v := 0 to 31 do
 for h := 0 to 15 do
 the4PixelPtr^[v, h] := ((thePixel8[v, (h * 2)] * 16) + thePixel8[v, 
(h * 2) + 1]) mod 256;


{Given a cicn handle, store it into a resource file (new or existing 
one) as a ‘cicn’ resource.}

 procedure SaveCICN;
 theWhere: Point;
 theRef, theVol: INTEGER;
 theE: OSErr;
 theReply: SFReply;
 theWhere.h := 40;
 theWhere.v := 40;
 SFPutFile(theWhere, ‘Save Color Icon to File:’, ‘cicn File’, nil, theReply);
 if theReply.good then
 theE := GetVol(nil, theVol);
 theE := SetVol(nil, theReply.vRefNum);
 theRef := OpenResFile(theReply.fName);
 if theRef = -1 then
 theRef := OpenResFile(theReply.fname);

 if theRef <> -1 then
 AddResource(theCICN, ‘cicn’, UniqueID(‘cicn’), ‘’);
 theCICN := nil;

 theE := SetVol(nil, theVol);
 if theCICN <> nil then

{Main Procedure.  If there is Color Quickdraw, init the cursor to a square, 
get the position of the mouse when the }
{user clicks, the pixels at that position, convert pixels into a cicn 
handle, save the cicn handle to a resource and }
{finally reset the cursor back to an arrow.  If there is not Color Quickdraw 
on the machine, complain! }
 if IsColorQuickdraw then


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