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Window Menus
Volume Number:4
Issue Number:11
Column Tag:Programmer's Workshop

Menus In Windows

By James Matthews, Hanover, NH

[Jim Matthews is a software developer at Dartmouth, working on network applications. He has done maintenance work on DarTerminal, an AppleTalk terminal emulator, and has worked on developing a Macintosh mail system. He started programming in high school on an IBM 360 with core memory but slowly moved to smaller, newer machines. In college, he helped develop MacFunction, a three-dimensional graphing program that is currently marketed by True Basic, Inc.]

Menus in Windows

by Jim Matthews, Dartmouth College

One of the critical elements of the Macintosh user interface is the menu bar. It relieves the user of the need for memorizing command names and gives easy access to a large number of operations in a small amount of space. Nonetheless, the limitations of the standard Macintosh menu bar have become increasingly evident. Large screens make the fixed position of the menu bar less convenient, and large programs present users with an overwhelming number of available commands. Desk accessories have never been able to use the menu bar fully, limiting their potential. Both Apple and third parties have developed workarounds to the limitations of the menu bar. Hierarchical and pop-up menus, implemented in System 4.1, provide alternate ways of structuring menu commands. The tear-off palettes used in HyperCard and MacPaint 2.0 add a new dimension to menus, as do the tear-off menus provided with Radius displays.

Still, I recently felt the need to extend the menu bar concept by another step. While developing a program with a large number of commands, I decided that what I wanted was a different menu bar for each window. It would have been possible to change the menu bar depending on which window was in front, but the commands needed by each window were so different that the user would never know what to expect when he pulled down a menu. Furthermore, I wanted to leave open the possibility of turning the program into a desk accessory, and I could not fit all my commands into one menu. So I re-implemented part of the Menu Manager to provide for window-specific menu bars. The code itself is not very complicated -- I was fortunate to be preceded by Mike Schuster, whose December, 1985 article on pop-up menus provided a wealth of useful information. The routines I produced met my needs admirably, but like any extension to the standard interface they also raised some tricky issues.

Figure 1. Edit Menu

The wMenu Manager Routines

Because I wanted to produce menu bars that function exactly like the one at the top of the screen, I implemented the window menus by imitating eight standard Menu Manager routines. They all operate on a wMenuBar data structure which is roughly comparable to a MenuList.

wMenuRec = record
 mh : MenuHandle;
 titleRect : Rect;
wMenuBar = record
 numMenus : integer;
 hilited : integer;
 gp : GrafPtr;
 wMenus : array [0..0] of wMenuRec;

The wMenuBar stores the number of menus in a menu bar, which one is hilited (if any), and the GrafPort in which the menu bar is drawn. In addition, it stores a menu handle and a rectangle for each menu that has been inserted. The rectangle specifies the coordinates of the menu title; i.e. the area that is inverted when a menu is selected. This is a bit wasteful, since two of the rectangle’s coordinates are always the same, but it makes the code simpler. The wMenuBar record is created by a call to wInitMenus, which allocates the storage and returns a wMenuBarHandle. The rest of the routines accept the same arguments as their Menu Manager equivalents, with the addition of a wMenuBarHandle to specify the menu bar being altered. The routines are wInsertMenu and wDeleteMenu, to add and remove menus from the menu bar; wClearMenuBar to delete all the menus; wDrawMenuBar to redraw the menu bar; wMenuSelect and wMenuKey to respond to mouse and key events, respectively; and finally, wHiliteMenu to highlight a menu’s title.

Implementation Issues

There are a few subtle points in the implementation of the wMenu Manager. The System 4.2 menu definition procedure has a bug that is fixed by initializing the low memory global TopMenuItem in wInitMenus. Calls to the menu definition procedure are implemented using inline machine code, since Pascal doesn’t provide a standard way to call a routine based on its address. WMenuKey walks down a menu’s data looking for a certain command key equivalent, and the dynamic nature of the data structure requires some ugly code. GetNextEvent and SystemTask are called in the inner loop of the menu selection code: this means that keyDown events are swallowed while the user is holding down a menu, but it provides the ability to produce screen dumps and keeps desk accessories updated. With the standard menu bar it is impossible for the user to drag the mouse above the top of the menus, but with window menus it was necessary to deal with this case. I decided to have the displayed menu disappear when the user moved the mouse above a window’s content region, but that could easily be changed.

The wMenu routines can be substituted for Menu Manager ones with a few exceptions. Unlike InitMenus, wInitMenus must not be called until there is a window to put the menu bar in. wDrawMenuBar should be called in response to update events, since the Window Manager considers the menu bar part of a window’s content region. This also means that wMenuSelect should be called in response to mouseDown events in a window’s content region. A program should continue call MenuSelect and MenuKey at appropriate times to give the user access to desk accessory menus.

The wMenu routines make it fairly easy to implement a number of different menu bars in one program, but that can lead to an explosion of possible commands. The nested case statements that typically handle menu commands can become unwieldy when the number of menu bars exceeds two or three.

Interface Issues

Menus in windows have the significant disadvantage of being a departure from the standard way of doing things. Users do not expect to find a menu bar inside a window, and can be confused by one. If there is more than one menu bar visible the user may wonder which to use, and if the user types a command key equivalent it may not be clear which menu bar is handling it. This problem becomes especially difficult when some commands are available from the regular menu bar and others only from window menus. I have tried to use window menus for commands that only affect that particular window, and the regular menu bar for program-wide operations. This introduces a degree of modality into a program, but not much more than is present in any multiple-window application.

Figure 2. Scrolling Menus

Compatibility Issues

The wMenu routines were written to be compatible with all post Mac 512 models. The 128k ROM calls HSetState and HGetState are used in a few places; but if they were changed, I imagine the code would work on older Macs also. Given Apple’s emphasis on the sanctity of the Window Manager’s GrafPort, care was taken to make sure that menus are only drawn inside an application window’s content region if they overlap they either scroll or are cropped. There are a couple of things that could cause future compatibility problems, though. First, the program modifies TopMenuItem, and although the fix was made on the advice of Mac DTS, it could break on future systems. Secondly, Apple is now asking programmers not to rely on the internal structure of menu records. The wMenuKey routine could not be written without doing this, so it is vulnerable to future changes. The code emulates the pre-Mac SE Menu Manager in that color and hierarchical menus are not supported. The code has been tested on machines from the 512KE to the Mac II without mishap.

Figure 3. Project Window


I have included a wMenu version of the sample program found in Inside Macintosh Vol. I. This example illustrates how the wMenu routines are called and demonstrates how the menus appear to the user. It is not, however, a case where window menus add much to the program. Window menus are much more appropriate when there are multiple windows, each with significantly different functionality. I originally implemented them as part a mail program that had separate windows for composing letters, reading mail, and organizing a mailbox. In that case, window menus let me compartmentalize the program’s interface and use a large number of commands without overwhelming the standard menu bar.

{ wMenu Manager }
{ by Jim Matthews }

UNIT wMenu;


 ROM85; { uses HGetState and HSetState }

 mBarHeight = 20;
 betweenTitles = 15; 
{ # of pixels between adjacent menu titles }
 invertOverlap = 10; 
{ # of pixels to invert on each side of a menu title }
 noneHilited = -1; 
{ value to store in wMenuBar.hilited if nothing hilited }
 menuTitleBit = 31;
{ mac-style bit offset for menu title bit in enableFlags }

 wMenuRec = RECORD
 mh : MenuHandle;
 titleRect : Rect;
 wMenuBar = RECORD
 numMenus : integer;
 hilited : integer;
 gp : GrafPtr;
 wMenus : ARRAY[0..0] OF wMenuRec;
 wMenuBarPtr = ^wMenuBar;
 wMenuBarHandle = ^wMenuBarPtr;

 FUNCTION wInitMenus (gp : GrafPtr) : wMenuBarHandle;
 PROCEDURE wInsertMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 beforeID : integer);
 PROCEDURE wDrawMenuBar (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle);
 PROCEDURE wDeleteMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 menuID : integer);
 PROCEDURE wClearMenuBar (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle);

 FUNCTION wMenuSelect (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 startPt : Point) : longint;
 FUNCTION wMenuKey (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 ch : char) : longint;
 PROCEDURE wHiliteMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 menuID : integer);


{wInitMenus -- create a wMenuBar and associate it with a grafport}
 FUNCTION wInitMenus;     { (gp : GrafPtr) : wMenuBarHandle; }
 intptr = ^Integer;
 mbar : wMenuBarHandle;
 TopMenuItemP : intptr;
 { Set low-mem global to fix menu display bug }
 TopMenuItemP := intptr($A0A);
 TopMenuItemP^ := mBarHeight;

 mbar := wMenuBarHandle(NewHandle(sizeof(wMenuBar)));
 mbar^^.numMenus := 0;
 mbar^^.hilited := noneHilited;
 mbar^^.gp := gp;
 wInitMenus := mbar;
 END; { wInitMenus }

{wInsertMenu -- insert a menu into a defined wMenuBar,}
{ analogous to InsertMenu }
 PROCEDURE wInsertMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { theMenu : MenuHandle; }
 { beforeID : integer); }
 newSize : Size;
 r : Rect;
 i, j : integer;
 titleWidth, oldSize, oldFont : integer;
 newSize := sizeof(wMenuBar) + theMenuBar^^.numMenus * sizeof(wMenuRec);
 IF newSize > GetHandleSize(handle(theMenuBar)) THEN
 SetHandleSize(handle(theMenuBar), newSize);
 IF MemError = noErr THEN
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 titleWidth := StringWidth(theMenu^^.menuData);
 i := 0;
 IF beforeID > 0 THEN
 { Insert the menu before a particular one? }
 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> beforeID) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) 
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 FOR j := theMenuBar^^.numMenus DOWNTO i + 1 DO
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].mh := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j - 1].mh;
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j - 1].titleRect;
 OffsetRect(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect, titleWidth + betweenTitles, 
 END; { for loop -- copying menus back }
 END; { if there’s a menu id = beforeID }
 END { if beforeID <> 0 }
 ELSE   { if beforeID <= 0, put it after the rest }
 i := theMenuBar^^.numMenus;
 WITH theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] DO
 BEGIN := 1;
 titleRect.bottom := mBarHeight - 1;
 IF i = 0 THEN
 titleRect.left := betweenTItles - invertOverlap
 titleRect.left := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 1].titleRect.right + betweenTitles 
- 2 * invertOverlap;
 titleRect.right := titleRect.left + titleWidth + 2 * invertOverlap;
 mh := theMenu;
 END; { with theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := theMenuBar^^.numMenus + 1;
 END; { no MemError }
 END; { wInsertMenu }

{ wDrawMenuBar -- draw the wMenuBar, with appropriate}
{ highlighting }
 PROCEDURE wDrawMenuBar;  { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle); }
 i : integer;
 r : Rect;
 oldPort : GrafPtr;
 oldSize, oldFont, oldMode : integer;
 oldStyle : Style;
 bmap, oldMap : BitMap;
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldMode := thePort^.txMode;
 oldStyle := thePort^.txFace;

 SetRect(r, 0, 0, 10000, mBarHeight);
 MoveTo(0, mBarHeight - 1);
 Line(10000, 0);

 FOR i := 0 TO theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 DO
 MoveTo(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect.left + invertOverlap, mBarHeight 
- 5);

 { gray-out disabled menu titles }
 IF NOT BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit) 
 r := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect;
 r.left := r.left + invertOverlap;
 r.right := r.right - invertOverlap;
 bmap.bounds := r;
 OffsetRect(bmap.bounds, -r.left,;
 IF (bmap.bounds.right MOD 16) <> 0 THEN
 bmap.rowBytes := 2 * ((bmap.bounds.right DIV 16) + 1)
 bmap.rowBytes := 2 * (bmap.bounds.right DIV 16);
 bmap.baseAddr := NewPtr(bmap.rowBytes * mBarHeight);
 oldMap := thePort^.portBits;
 FillRect(bmap.bounds, gray);
 CopyBits(bmap, thePort^.portBits, bmap.bounds, r, notSrcBic, NIL);
 END; { if title disabled }
 END; { for each menu }
 IF theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited THEN

 END; { wDrawMenuBar }

{wDeleteMenu -- delete a menu from a wMenuBar}
 PROCEDURE wDeleteMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { menuID : integer); }
 i, j, oldSize, oldFont : integer;
 oldStyle : Style;
 titleWidth : integer;
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 { reset the font/size/style to compute menu title widths }
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldStyle := thePort^.txFace;

 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> menuID)          
 AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) DO
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 titleWidth := StringWidth(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuData);
 FOR j := i TO theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 DO
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].mh := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j + 1].mh;
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j + 1].titleRect;
 OffsetRect(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect, -(titleWidth + betweenTitles), 
 END; { for loop -- copying menus back }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1;
 END; { if there’s a menu id = menuID }

 END; { wDeleteMenu }

{wClearMenuBar -- delete all the menus in a menu bar}
 PROCEDURE wClearMenuBar; { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle); }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := 0; { take the easy way out.... }
 END; { wClearMenuBar }

{MenuDefProc -- inline call to the menu definition procedure}
{Pop the address of the proc off the stack and jsr to it}
 PROCEDURE MenuDefProc (message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 VAR menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 VAR whichItem : integer;
 theProc : ProcPtr);
 $205F, $4E90; { pop.l A0 , jsr (A0) }

{MenuDefGlue -- dereference menu handle to find the add. of}
{the definition proc and call it using MenuDefProc, above}
 PROCEDURE MenuDefGlue (message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 VAR menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 VAR whichItem : integer);
 MenuDefProc(message, theMenu, menuRect, hitPt, whichItem, theMenu^^.menuProc^);

{wMenuSelect -- pull down the menus and let the user select an item}
 FUNCTION wMenuSelect;    { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { startPt : Point) : longint; }
 flashDelay = 3; { # of ticks between calls to invert selected item }
 menuFrame = 2;  { width of menu frame }
 MenuFlashAddr = $A24;  
{ address of lo-mem global: # of times to flash menu }
 intPtr = ^integer;
 bmap : BitMap;
 menuRect : Rect;
 oldClip : RgnHandle;
 nilPt : Point;
 blink, whichItem : integer;
 oldPort, wMgrPort : GrafPtr;
 i : integer;
 hstate, mprocState : SignedByte;
 ticks : longint;
 menuFlashP : intPtr;
 oldSize, oldFont, oldMode : integer;
 pnState : PenState;
 strayed : boolean;
 dummyEvt : EventRecord;
 hState := HGetState(handle(theMenuBar));
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldMode := thePort^.txMode;
 menuFlashP := intPtr(MenuFlashAddr);
 whichItem := 0;
 WHILE WaitMouseUp DO{ loop while the mouse is down }
 { find menu title that user is clicking on }
 i := theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1;
 WHILE (i >= 0) AND NOT PtInRect(startPt, theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect) 
 i := i - 1;

{ if user is clicking menu title, have the menu “drop down” }
 IF i >= 0 THEN
 WITH theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] DO 
{ note: theMenuBar is locked }
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, mh^^.menuID); 
{ hilite title }
{ calculate menu size, it may have changed }
 SetRect(menuRect, titleRect.left + 1, mBarHeight, titleRect.left + mh^^.menuWidth 
+ 1, mBarHeight + mh^^.menuHeight);
 InsetRect(menuRect, -menuFrame, -menuFrame);

{ if the menu overlaps the edges of the window, trim it }
 IF menuRect.bottom > thePort^.portRect.bottom THEN
 menuRect.bottom := thePort^.portRect.bottom;
 IF menuRect.right > thePort^.portRect.right THEN
 OffsetRect(menuRect, thePort^.portRect.right - menuRect.right - 2, 0);
 IF menuRect.left < 0 THEN
 OffsetRect(menuRect, -menuRect.left, 0);
 bmap.rowBytes := ((menuRect.right - menuRect.left + 15) DIV 16) * 2;
 bmap.bounds := menuRect;
 bmap.baseAddr := NewPtr(bmap.rowBytes * (menuRect.bottom -;
 IF bmap.baseAddr <> NIL THEN  
 { proceed if there is memory }
 CopyBits(thePort^.portBits, bmap, bmap.bounds, bmap.bounds, srcCopy, 
 oldClip := NewRgn;

{ draw the menu -- thanks to Mike Schuster, MacTutor 12/85 }
 IF mh^^.menuHeight > 0 THEN
      InsetRect(menuRect, menuFrame, menuFrame);
      InsetRect(menuRect, -1, -1);
      InsetRect(menuRect, 1, 1);

      MoveTo(menuRect.left + 1, menuRect.bottom + 1);
      Line((menuRect.right - menuRect.left), 0);
      Line(0, -(menuRect.bottom -;
 END; { if there’re any menu items }

 mprocState := HGetState(handle(mh^^.menuProc));
 whichItem := 0;
 MenuDefGlue(mDrawMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);

{ send the mChooseMsg while the user is still in this menu }
 strayed := false;
 WHILE WaitMouseUp AND NOT strayed DO
      MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);
      strayed := (startPt.v < mBarHeight - 1) AND (startPt.v > 0) AND 
(NOT PtInRect(startPt, titleRect));
   IF i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 THEN
 strayed := strayed OR ((startPt.v < mBarHeight - 1) AND (startPt.v > 
0) AND PtInRect(startPt, theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i + 1].titleRect));

{ Enable FKeys (i.e. screen dump) and DA updating }
      IF EventAvail(everyEvent, dummyEvt) THEN
 END; { while WaitMouseUp &not strayed }

 { flash the menu if an item was selected }
 IF (whichItem <> 0) AND NOT strayed THEN
 FOR blink := 1 TO menuFlashP^ DO
           SetPt(nilPt, 0, 0);
           MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, nilPt, whichItem);
           Delay(flashDelay, ticks);
           MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);
           Delay(flashDelay, ticks);
      END; { whichItem <> 0 }
 HSetState(mh^^.menuProc, mprocState);
 CopyBits(bmap, thePort^.portBits, bmap.bounds, bmap.bounds, srcCopy, 
 END; { memory for bitmap }
 END { i >= 0: found the hit menu title }
{ user isn’t over a menu, so unhilite the last one hilited }
 IF theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited THEN
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, 0);
{ need a new startPt -- mouse may have moved }
 END;{ no menu currently selected }
 END; { while WaitMouseUp -- looking for a hit menu title}

 { user let up on the mouse -- return the appropriate value }
 IF whichItem = 0 THEN
 wMenuSelect := 0
 wMenuSelect := BitShift(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID, 16) + whichItem;
 HSetState(handle(theMenuBar), hState);
 END; { wMenuSelect }

{wMenuKey -- return the menu id and item no. with ch as it’s}
{ cmd-key equivalent }
{Caution: this assumes knowledge of the internal structure}
{ of  MenuInfo.menuData }
 FUNCTION wMenuKey;{ (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { ch : char) : longint; }
 flashDelay = 3;
 SignedBytePtr = ^SignedByte;
 CharPtr = ^char;
 hState : SignedByte;
 bp, keyEquivP : SignedBytePtr;
 i, j, whichMenu, whichItem : integer;
 done, enabled : boolean;
 ticks : longint;

 { compare alphabetic characters w/o case sensitivity }
 FUNCTION equalChars (c1, c2 : char) : boolean;
 IF c1 IN [‘a’..’z’] THEN
 c1 := char(ord(c1) + ord(‘A’) - ord(‘a’));
 IF c2 IN [‘a’..’z’] THEN
 c2 := char(ord(c2) + ord(‘A’) - ord(‘a’));
 equalChars := c1 = c2;

 i := 0;
 done := false;
 WHILE (NOT done) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) DO
 hState := HGetState(handle(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh));

{ run down a menu, looking for an item w/ ch as its key}
{ equivalent }
 j := 1;
 bp := SignedBytePtr(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuData);
 bp := SignedBytePtr(ord4(bp) + bp^ + 1);
 WHILE (NOT done) AND (bp^ <> 0) DO
 keyEquivP := SignedBytePtr(ord4(bp) + bp^ + 2);
 IF equalChars(ch, char(keyEquivP^)) THEN
 whichMenu := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID;
 whichItem := j;
 done := true;
 j := j + 1;
 bp := SignedBytePtr(ord4(keyEquivP) + 3);
 END; { looking through this menu }

 HSetState(handle(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh), hState);
 i := i + 1;
 END; { while loop -- looking for key equiv }
 {the item is enabled if both it and its menu title are}
 enabled := BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 1].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit);
 enabled := enabled AND (j < 32) AND (BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 
1].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit - j));
 IF done AND enabled THEN
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, whichMenu);
 wMenuKey := BitShift(whichMenu, 16) + whichItem;
 END { done }
 wMenuKey := 0;
 END; { wMenuKey }

{wHiliteMenu -- unhilite the currently hilited menu title, and}
{ hilite a new one }
{if menuID <> 0 }
 PROCEDURE wHiliteMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { menuID : integer); }
 i : integer;
 oldPort : GrafPtr;
 IF (theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited) THEN
 theMenuBar^^.hilited := noneHilited;
 IF menuID <> 0 THEN
 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> menuID) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) 
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 theMenuBar^^.hilited := i;
 END; { found menuID }
 END;  { menuID <> 0 }
 END; { wHiliteMenu }


{wSample -- the Mac User Education prog, adapted to use wMenus}
{ by Jim Matthews }
PROGRAM wSample;
 appleID = 128;
 fileID = 129;
 editID = 130;

 appleM = 1;
 fileM = 2;
 editM = 3;

 menuCount = 3;

 windowID = 128;

 undoCommand = 1;
 cutCommand = 3;
 copyCommand = 4;
 pasteCommand = 5;
 clearCommand = 6;

 myMenus : ARRAY[1..menuCount] OF MenuHandle;
 dragRect, txRect : Rect;
 textH : TEHandle;
 theChar : char;
 extended, doneFlag : boolean;
 myEvent : EventRecord;
 wRecord : WindowRecord;
 myWindow : WindowPtr;
 whichWindow : WindowPtr;
 myMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;

{SetUpWMenus -- read in menu templates and set up wMenuBar}
 i : integer;
 myMenuBar := wInitMenus(myWindow);
 myMenus[appleM] := GetMenu(appleID);
 AddResMenu(myMenus[appleM], ‘DRVR’);
 myMenus[fileM] := GetMenu(fileID);
 myMenus[editM] := GetMenu(editID);

 FOR i := 1 TO menuCount DO
 wInsertMenu(myMenuBar, myMenus[i], 0);
 END; {SetUpWMenus}

{DoCommand -- handle menu commands}
 PROCEDURE DoCommand (mResult : longint);
 theItem, theMenu : integer;
 name : Str255;
 temp : integer;
 theItem := LoWord(mResult);
 theMenu := HiWord(mResult);

 CASE theMenu OF
 appleID : 
 GetItem(myMenus[appleM], theItem, name);
 temp := OpenDeskAcc(name);
 END; { appleID }
 fileID : 
 doneflag := true;
 editID : 
 IF NOT SystemEdit(theItem - 1) THEN
 CASE theItem OF
 cutCommand : 
 copyCommand : 
 pasteCommand : 
 clearCommand : 
 END; { case theItem of }
 END; { editID}
 END; { case theMenu of }
 wHiliteMenu(myMenuBar, 0);
 END; { DoCommand }

{main program}
 FlushEvents(everyEvent, 0);

 WITH screenBits.bounds DO
 SetRect(dragRect, 4, 24, right - 4, bottom - 4);
 doneFlag := false;
 myWindow := GetNewWindow(windowID, @wRecord, WindowPtr(-1));
 txRect := thePort^.portRect; := mBarHeight;
 InsetRect(txRect, 3, 3);
 textH := TENew(txRect, txRect);

 {main event loop}

 IF GetNextEvent(everyEvent, myEvent) THEN
 CASE myEvent.what OF
 mouseDown : 
 CASE FindWindow(myEvent.where, whichWindow) OF
 inSysWindow : 
 SystemClick(myEvent, whichWindow);
 inMenuBar : 
 IF MenuSelect(myEvent.where) <> 0 THEN
{ handle da menus in the “real” menu bar }
 inDrag : 
 DragWindow(whichWindow, myEvent.where, dragRect);
 inContent : 
 IF myEvent.where.v < mBarHeight THEN
 IF whichWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
 DoCommand(wMenuSelect(myMenuBar, myEvent.where));
 IF whichWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
           extended := BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, shiftKey) <> 0;
           TEClick(myEvent.where, extended, textH);
      END; { whichWindow = FrontWindow}
 END; { click below menu bar }
 END; { inContent }
 END; { mouseDown }
 keyDown, autoKey : 
 theChar := char(BitAnd(myEvent.message, charCodeMask));
 IF BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, cmdKey) <> 0 THEN
 DoCommand(wMenuKey(myMenuBar, theChar))
 TEKey(theChar, textH);
 END; { keyDown, autoKey }
 activateEvt : 
 IF BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, activeFlag) <> 0 THEN
 DisableItem(myMenus[editM], undoCommand);
 EnableItem(myMenus[editM], undoCommand);
 END; { activate/deactivate }
 END; {activateEvt }
 updateEvt : 
 TEUpdate(thePort^.portRect, textH);
 END; { updateEvt }
 END; { case event.what of }
 UNTIL doneFlag;

* Rmaker source for wSample.rsrc


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Tweetbot 2.1 - Popular Twitter client. (...
Tweetbot is a full-featured OS X Twitter client with a lot of personality. Whether it's the meticulously-crafted interface, sounds and animation, or features like multiple timelines and column views... Read more
MacPilot 8.0 - Enable over 1,200 hidden...
MacPilot gives you the power of UNIX and the simplicity of Macintosh, which means a phenomenal amount of untapped power in your hands! Use MacPilot to unlock over 1,200 features, and access them all... Read more
Typinator 6.7 - Speedy and reliable text...
Typinator turbo-charges your typing productivity. Type a little. Typinator does the rest. We've all faced projects that require repetitive typing tasks. With Typinator, you can store commonly used... Read more
Adobe Lightroom 6.2 - Import, develop, a...
Adobe Lightroom is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $9.99/month bundled with Photoshop CC as part of the photography package. Lightroom 6 is also available for purchase as a... Read more
ForeverSave 2.1.4 - Universal auto-save...
ForeverSave auto-saves all documents you're working on while simultaneously doing backup versioning in the background. Lost data can be quickly restored at any time. Losing data, caused by... Read more
VueScan 9.5.27 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
AirPort Utility 6.3.6 - Set up and manag...
Note: Most recent release available only within OS X 10.11 El Capitan update. Use AirPort Utility to set up and manage your Wi-Fi network and AirPort base stations, including AirPort Express, AirPort... Read more
Quicksilver 1.3.1 - Application launcher...
Quicksilver is a light, fast and free Mac application that gives you the power to control your Mac with keystrokes alone. Quicksilver allows you to find what you need quickly and easily, then act... Read more
Tidy Up (Five Users) 4.1.5 - Find duplic...
Tidy Up is a complete duplicate finder and disk-tidiness utility. With Tidy Up you can search for duplicate files and packages by the owner application, content, type, creator, extension, time... Read more
Mellel 3.4.3 - The word processor of cho...
Mellel is the leading word processor for OS X and has been widely considered the industry standard since its inception. Mellel focuses on writers and scholars for technical writing and multilingual... Read more

Royal Bounty HD (Games)
Royal Bounty HD 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: New World Computing Approved "Hi Guys! looks good so far! keep up the good work. I worked on HoMM 3 and 4 creating all of the... | Read more »
Swords & Crossbones: An Epic Pirate...
Swords & Crossbones: An Epic Pirate Story 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Camel Up (Games)
Camel Up 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
The Martian: Bring Him Home (Games)
The Martian: Bring Him Home 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Based on the best selling novel and critically acclaimed film, THE MARTIAN tells the story of Astronaut Mark... | Read more »
This Week at 148Apps: September 21-30, 2...
Leap Into Fall With 148Apps How do you know what apps are worth your time and money? Just look to the review team at 148Apps. We sort through the chaos and find the apps you're looking for. The ones we love become Editor’s Choice, standing out above... | Read more »
Tweetbot 4 for Twitter (Social Networki...
Tweetbot 4 for Twitter 4.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Social Networking Price: $4.99, Version: 4.0 (iTunes) Description: *** 50% off for a limited time. *** | Read more »
Mori (Games)
Mori 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Stop, rewind and unwind with Mori. Time is always running, take a moment to take control. Mori is an action puzzle game about infinitely... | Read more »
100 Years' War (Games)
100 Years' War 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Tower in the Sky (Games)
Tower in the Sky 0.0.60 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 0.0.60 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
hocus. (Games)
hocus. 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: New, polished, mind-bending, minimal puzzle game with dozens of levels and extra-ordinary design Features:- Beautifully crafted... | Read more »

Price Scanner via

Is The iPad Pro Really A Serious Laptop Repla...
Probably not, at least for productive professionals and other power users. Steve Jobs declared that we’d entered the “post-PC Era” with the advent of the original iPad in 2010, a phrase we don’t hear... Read more
Wednesday Deal: 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros f...
Adorama has 13″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to $130 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and Adorama charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $1199.99 $... Read more
uBar 3.0 for Mac OS X – Custom Dock Replaceme...
Brawer Software has announced the release of uBar 3.0, an important update to their popular app and window manager for Mac OS X. uBar allows users to position it whichever side of the screen they... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (refurbished) avai...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for $829, or $270 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros... Read more
27-inch 3.2GHz iMac on sale for $1689, save $...
Adorama has the 27″ 3.2GHz iMac on sale for $1689 including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. Their price is $110 off MSRP. Read more
12-inch Retina MacBooks on sale for up to $12...
B&H Photo has 12″ Retina MacBooks in stock today and on sale for up to $120 off MSRP. B&H will include free shipping, and there is NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Gray Retina MacBook: $1224 $... Read more
Tablets Shaping Up for Growth in 2016 – Strat...
Observing that Apple, Samsung, and Microsoft have refocused what tablet computers can do, market analysis firm Strategy Analytics believes there is immense opportunity for new and replacement sales... Read more
Apple Interbrand’s Number One Most Valuable G...
Apple and Google hold aced #1 and #2 spots respectively in Interbrand’s 2015 Best Global Brands Report, leading all tech brands that now comprise more than a third of the entire rankings value.... Read more
Apple offering refurbished 2015 13-inch Retin...
Apple is offering Certified Refurbished 2015 13″ Retina MacBook Pros for up to $270 (15%) off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: -... Read more
Apple refurbished 2015 MacBook Airs available...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 11″ and 13″ MacBook Airs (the latest models), available for up to $180 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and... Read more

Jobs Board

Touch Validation Design (EE) - *Apple* Watc...
**Job Summary** Help launch next-generation Touch Technologies in Apple products. The Touch Technology team develops cutting-edge Touch solutions and technologies that Read more
WW Sales Strategy & Program Manager, *Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* TV Product Design Internship (Spring...
…the mechanical design effort associated with creating world-class products with the Apple TV PD Group. Responsibilities will include working closely with manufacturing, Read more
Product Design Engineer - *Apple* Watch - A...
**Job Summary** Product Design Engineer - WATCH ( Apple Watch) Be an integral part of a small and visible team of world-class Mechanical Engineers making Apple 's Read more
Senior Software System App Engineer, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** The Apple Watch system application team is looking for great software engineers who are comfortable working across all levels of the software stack. From Read more
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