TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Window Menus
Volume Number:4
Issue Number:11
Column Tag:Programmer's Workshop

Menus In Windows

By James Matthews, Hanover, NH

[Jim Matthews is a software developer at Dartmouth, working on network applications. He has done maintenance work on DarTerminal, an AppleTalk terminal emulator, and has worked on developing a Macintosh mail system. He started programming in high school on an IBM 360 with core memory but slowly moved to smaller, newer machines. In college, he helped develop MacFunction, a three-dimensional graphing program that is currently marketed by True Basic, Inc.]

Menus in Windows

by Jim Matthews, Dartmouth College

One of the critical elements of the Macintosh user interface is the menu bar. It relieves the user of the need for memorizing command names and gives easy access to a large number of operations in a small amount of space. Nonetheless, the limitations of the standard Macintosh menu bar have become increasingly evident. Large screens make the fixed position of the menu bar less convenient, and large programs present users with an overwhelming number of available commands. Desk accessories have never been able to use the menu bar fully, limiting their potential. Both Apple and third parties have developed workarounds to the limitations of the menu bar. Hierarchical and pop-up menus, implemented in System 4.1, provide alternate ways of structuring menu commands. The tear-off palettes used in HyperCard and MacPaint 2.0 add a new dimension to menus, as do the tear-off menus provided with Radius displays.

Still, I recently felt the need to extend the menu bar concept by another step. While developing a program with a large number of commands, I decided that what I wanted was a different menu bar for each window. It would have been possible to change the menu bar depending on which window was in front, but the commands needed by each window were so different that the user would never know what to expect when he pulled down a menu. Furthermore, I wanted to leave open the possibility of turning the program into a desk accessory, and I could not fit all my commands into one menu. So I re-implemented part of the Menu Manager to provide for window-specific menu bars. The code itself is not very complicated -- I was fortunate to be preceded by Mike Schuster, whose December, 1985 article on pop-up menus provided a wealth of useful information. The routines I produced met my needs admirably, but like any extension to the standard interface they also raised some tricky issues.

Figure 1. Edit Menu

The wMenu Manager Routines

Because I wanted to produce menu bars that function exactly like the one at the top of the screen, I implemented the window menus by imitating eight standard Menu Manager routines. They all operate on a wMenuBar data structure which is roughly comparable to a MenuList.

wMenuRec = record
 mh : MenuHandle;
 titleRect : Rect;
wMenuBar = record
 numMenus : integer;
 hilited : integer;
 gp : GrafPtr;
 wMenus : array [0..0] of wMenuRec;

The wMenuBar stores the number of menus in a menu bar, which one is hilited (if any), and the GrafPort in which the menu bar is drawn. In addition, it stores a menu handle and a rectangle for each menu that has been inserted. The rectangle specifies the coordinates of the menu title; i.e. the area that is inverted when a menu is selected. This is a bit wasteful, since two of the rectangle’s coordinates are always the same, but it makes the code simpler. The wMenuBar record is created by a call to wInitMenus, which allocates the storage and returns a wMenuBarHandle. The rest of the routines accept the same arguments as their Menu Manager equivalents, with the addition of a wMenuBarHandle to specify the menu bar being altered. The routines are wInsertMenu and wDeleteMenu, to add and remove menus from the menu bar; wClearMenuBar to delete all the menus; wDrawMenuBar to redraw the menu bar; wMenuSelect and wMenuKey to respond to mouse and key events, respectively; and finally, wHiliteMenu to highlight a menu’s title.

Implementation Issues

There are a few subtle points in the implementation of the wMenu Manager. The System 4.2 menu definition procedure has a bug that is fixed by initializing the low memory global TopMenuItem in wInitMenus. Calls to the menu definition procedure are implemented using inline machine code, since Pascal doesn’t provide a standard way to call a routine based on its address. WMenuKey walks down a menu’s data looking for a certain command key equivalent, and the dynamic nature of the data structure requires some ugly code. GetNextEvent and SystemTask are called in the inner loop of the menu selection code: this means that keyDown events are swallowed while the user is holding down a menu, but it provides the ability to produce screen dumps and keeps desk accessories updated. With the standard menu bar it is impossible for the user to drag the mouse above the top of the menus, but with window menus it was necessary to deal with this case. I decided to have the displayed menu disappear when the user moved the mouse above a window’s content region, but that could easily be changed.

The wMenu routines can be substituted for Menu Manager ones with a few exceptions. Unlike InitMenus, wInitMenus must not be called until there is a window to put the menu bar in. wDrawMenuBar should be called in response to update events, since the Window Manager considers the menu bar part of a window’s content region. This also means that wMenuSelect should be called in response to mouseDown events in a window’s content region. A program should continue call MenuSelect and MenuKey at appropriate times to give the user access to desk accessory menus.

The wMenu routines make it fairly easy to implement a number of different menu bars in one program, but that can lead to an explosion of possible commands. The nested case statements that typically handle menu commands can become unwieldy when the number of menu bars exceeds two or three.

Interface Issues

Menus in windows have the significant disadvantage of being a departure from the standard way of doing things. Users do not expect to find a menu bar inside a window, and can be confused by one. If there is more than one menu bar visible the user may wonder which to use, and if the user types a command key equivalent it may not be clear which menu bar is handling it. This problem becomes especially difficult when some commands are available from the regular menu bar and others only from window menus. I have tried to use window menus for commands that only affect that particular window, and the regular menu bar for program-wide operations. This introduces a degree of modality into a program, but not much more than is present in any multiple-window application.

Figure 2. Scrolling Menus

Compatibility Issues

The wMenu routines were written to be compatible with all post Mac 512 models. The 128k ROM calls HSetState and HGetState are used in a few places; but if they were changed, I imagine the code would work on older Macs also. Given Apple’s emphasis on the sanctity of the Window Manager’s GrafPort, care was taken to make sure that menus are only drawn inside an application window’s content region if they overlap they either scroll or are cropped. There are a couple of things that could cause future compatibility problems, though. First, the program modifies TopMenuItem, and although the fix was made on the advice of Mac DTS, it could break on future systems. Secondly, Apple is now asking programmers not to rely on the internal structure of menu records. The wMenuKey routine could not be written without doing this, so it is vulnerable to future changes. The code emulates the pre-Mac SE Menu Manager in that color and hierarchical menus are not supported. The code has been tested on machines from the 512KE to the Mac II without mishap.

Figure 3. Project Window


I have included a wMenu version of the sample program found in Inside Macintosh Vol. I. This example illustrates how the wMenu routines are called and demonstrates how the menus appear to the user. It is not, however, a case where window menus add much to the program. Window menus are much more appropriate when there are multiple windows, each with significantly different functionality. I originally implemented them as part a mail program that had separate windows for composing letters, reading mail, and organizing a mailbox. In that case, window menus let me compartmentalize the program’s interface and use a large number of commands without overwhelming the standard menu bar.

{ wMenu Manager }
{ by Jim Matthews }

UNIT wMenu;


 ROM85; { uses HGetState and HSetState }

 mBarHeight = 20;
 betweenTitles = 15; 
{ # of pixels between adjacent menu titles }
 invertOverlap = 10; 
{ # of pixels to invert on each side of a menu title }
 noneHilited = -1; 
{ value to store in wMenuBar.hilited if nothing hilited }
 menuTitleBit = 31;
{ mac-style bit offset for menu title bit in enableFlags }

 wMenuRec = RECORD
 mh : MenuHandle;
 titleRect : Rect;
 wMenuBar = RECORD
 numMenus : integer;
 hilited : integer;
 gp : GrafPtr;
 wMenus : ARRAY[0..0] OF wMenuRec;
 wMenuBarPtr = ^wMenuBar;
 wMenuBarHandle = ^wMenuBarPtr;

 FUNCTION wInitMenus (gp : GrafPtr) : wMenuBarHandle;
 PROCEDURE wInsertMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 beforeID : integer);
 PROCEDURE wDrawMenuBar (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle);
 PROCEDURE wDeleteMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 menuID : integer);
 PROCEDURE wClearMenuBar (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle);

 FUNCTION wMenuSelect (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 startPt : Point) : longint;
 FUNCTION wMenuKey (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 ch : char) : longint;
 PROCEDURE wHiliteMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 menuID : integer);


{wInitMenus -- create a wMenuBar and associate it with a grafport}
 FUNCTION wInitMenus;     { (gp : GrafPtr) : wMenuBarHandle; }
 intptr = ^Integer;
 mbar : wMenuBarHandle;
 TopMenuItemP : intptr;
 { Set low-mem global to fix menu display bug }
 TopMenuItemP := intptr($A0A);
 TopMenuItemP^ := mBarHeight;

 mbar := wMenuBarHandle(NewHandle(sizeof(wMenuBar)));
 mbar^^.numMenus := 0;
 mbar^^.hilited := noneHilited;
 mbar^^.gp := gp;
 wInitMenus := mbar;
 END; { wInitMenus }

{wInsertMenu -- insert a menu into a defined wMenuBar,}
{ analogous to InsertMenu }
 PROCEDURE wInsertMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { theMenu : MenuHandle; }
 { beforeID : integer); }
 newSize : Size;
 r : Rect;
 i, j : integer;
 titleWidth, oldSize, oldFont : integer;
 newSize := sizeof(wMenuBar) + theMenuBar^^.numMenus * sizeof(wMenuRec);
 IF newSize > GetHandleSize(handle(theMenuBar)) THEN
 SetHandleSize(handle(theMenuBar), newSize);
 IF MemError = noErr THEN
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 titleWidth := StringWidth(theMenu^^.menuData);
 i := 0;
 IF beforeID > 0 THEN
 { Insert the menu before a particular one? }
 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> beforeID) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) 
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 FOR j := theMenuBar^^.numMenus DOWNTO i + 1 DO
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].mh := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j - 1].mh;
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j - 1].titleRect;
 OffsetRect(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect, titleWidth + betweenTitles, 
 END; { for loop -- copying menus back }
 END; { if there’s a menu id = beforeID }
 END { if beforeID <> 0 }
 ELSE   { if beforeID <= 0, put it after the rest }
 i := theMenuBar^^.numMenus;
 WITH theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] DO
 BEGIN := 1;
 titleRect.bottom := mBarHeight - 1;
 IF i = 0 THEN
 titleRect.left := betweenTItles - invertOverlap
 titleRect.left := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 1].titleRect.right + betweenTitles 
- 2 * invertOverlap;
 titleRect.right := titleRect.left + titleWidth + 2 * invertOverlap;
 mh := theMenu;
 END; { with theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := theMenuBar^^.numMenus + 1;
 END; { no MemError }
 END; { wInsertMenu }

{ wDrawMenuBar -- draw the wMenuBar, with appropriate}
{ highlighting }
 PROCEDURE wDrawMenuBar;  { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle); }
 i : integer;
 r : Rect;
 oldPort : GrafPtr;
 oldSize, oldFont, oldMode : integer;
 oldStyle : Style;
 bmap, oldMap : BitMap;
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldMode := thePort^.txMode;
 oldStyle := thePort^.txFace;

 SetRect(r, 0, 0, 10000, mBarHeight);
 MoveTo(0, mBarHeight - 1);
 Line(10000, 0);

 FOR i := 0 TO theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 DO
 MoveTo(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect.left + invertOverlap, mBarHeight 
- 5);

 { gray-out disabled menu titles }
 IF NOT BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit) 
 r := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect;
 r.left := r.left + invertOverlap;
 r.right := r.right - invertOverlap;
 bmap.bounds := r;
 OffsetRect(bmap.bounds, -r.left,;
 IF (bmap.bounds.right MOD 16) <> 0 THEN
 bmap.rowBytes := 2 * ((bmap.bounds.right DIV 16) + 1)
 bmap.rowBytes := 2 * (bmap.bounds.right DIV 16);
 bmap.baseAddr := NewPtr(bmap.rowBytes * mBarHeight);
 oldMap := thePort^.portBits;
 FillRect(bmap.bounds, gray);
 CopyBits(bmap, thePort^.portBits, bmap.bounds, r, notSrcBic, NIL);
 END; { if title disabled }
 END; { for each menu }
 IF theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited THEN

 END; { wDrawMenuBar }

{wDeleteMenu -- delete a menu from a wMenuBar}
 PROCEDURE wDeleteMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { menuID : integer); }
 i, j, oldSize, oldFont : integer;
 oldStyle : Style;
 titleWidth : integer;
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 { reset the font/size/style to compute menu title widths }
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldStyle := thePort^.txFace;

 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> menuID)          
 AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) DO
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 titleWidth := StringWidth(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuData);
 FOR j := i TO theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 DO
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].mh := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j + 1].mh;
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j + 1].titleRect;
 OffsetRect(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect, -(titleWidth + betweenTitles), 
 END; { for loop -- copying menus back }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1;
 END; { if there’s a menu id = menuID }

 END; { wDeleteMenu }

{wClearMenuBar -- delete all the menus in a menu bar}
 PROCEDURE wClearMenuBar; { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle); }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := 0; { take the easy way out.... }
 END; { wClearMenuBar }

{MenuDefProc -- inline call to the menu definition procedure}
{Pop the address of the proc off the stack and jsr to it}
 PROCEDURE MenuDefProc (message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 VAR menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 VAR whichItem : integer;
 theProc : ProcPtr);
 $205F, $4E90; { pop.l A0 , jsr (A0) }

{MenuDefGlue -- dereference menu handle to find the add. of}
{the definition proc and call it using MenuDefProc, above}
 PROCEDURE MenuDefGlue (message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 VAR menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 VAR whichItem : integer);
 MenuDefProc(message, theMenu, menuRect, hitPt, whichItem, theMenu^^.menuProc^);

{wMenuSelect -- pull down the menus and let the user select an item}
 FUNCTION wMenuSelect;    { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { startPt : Point) : longint; }
 flashDelay = 3; { # of ticks between calls to invert selected item }
 menuFrame = 2;  { width of menu frame }
 MenuFlashAddr = $A24;  
{ address of lo-mem global: # of times to flash menu }
 intPtr = ^integer;
 bmap : BitMap;
 menuRect : Rect;
 oldClip : RgnHandle;
 nilPt : Point;
 blink, whichItem : integer;
 oldPort, wMgrPort : GrafPtr;
 i : integer;
 hstate, mprocState : SignedByte;
 ticks : longint;
 menuFlashP : intPtr;
 oldSize, oldFont, oldMode : integer;
 pnState : PenState;
 strayed : boolean;
 dummyEvt : EventRecord;
 hState := HGetState(handle(theMenuBar));
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldMode := thePort^.txMode;
 menuFlashP := intPtr(MenuFlashAddr);
 whichItem := 0;
 WHILE WaitMouseUp DO{ loop while the mouse is down }
 { find menu title that user is clicking on }
 i := theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1;
 WHILE (i >= 0) AND NOT PtInRect(startPt, theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect) 
 i := i - 1;

{ if user is clicking menu title, have the menu “drop down” }
 IF i >= 0 THEN
 WITH theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] DO 
{ note: theMenuBar is locked }
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, mh^^.menuID); 
{ hilite title }
{ calculate menu size, it may have changed }
 SetRect(menuRect, titleRect.left + 1, mBarHeight, titleRect.left + mh^^.menuWidth 
+ 1, mBarHeight + mh^^.menuHeight);
 InsetRect(menuRect, -menuFrame, -menuFrame);

{ if the menu overlaps the edges of the window, trim it }
 IF menuRect.bottom > thePort^.portRect.bottom THEN
 menuRect.bottom := thePort^.portRect.bottom;
 IF menuRect.right > thePort^.portRect.right THEN
 OffsetRect(menuRect, thePort^.portRect.right - menuRect.right - 2, 0);
 IF menuRect.left < 0 THEN
 OffsetRect(menuRect, -menuRect.left, 0);
 bmap.rowBytes := ((menuRect.right - menuRect.left + 15) DIV 16) * 2;
 bmap.bounds := menuRect;
 bmap.baseAddr := NewPtr(bmap.rowBytes * (menuRect.bottom -;
 IF bmap.baseAddr <> NIL THEN  
 { proceed if there is memory }
 CopyBits(thePort^.portBits, bmap, bmap.bounds, bmap.bounds, srcCopy, 
 oldClip := NewRgn;

{ draw the menu -- thanks to Mike Schuster, MacTutor 12/85 }
 IF mh^^.menuHeight > 0 THEN
      InsetRect(menuRect, menuFrame, menuFrame);
      InsetRect(menuRect, -1, -1);
      InsetRect(menuRect, 1, 1);

      MoveTo(menuRect.left + 1, menuRect.bottom + 1);
      Line((menuRect.right - menuRect.left), 0);
      Line(0, -(menuRect.bottom -;
 END; { if there’re any menu items }

 mprocState := HGetState(handle(mh^^.menuProc));
 whichItem := 0;
 MenuDefGlue(mDrawMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);

{ send the mChooseMsg while the user is still in this menu }
 strayed := false;
 WHILE WaitMouseUp AND NOT strayed DO
      MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);
      strayed := (startPt.v < mBarHeight - 1) AND (startPt.v > 0) AND 
(NOT PtInRect(startPt, titleRect));
   IF i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 THEN
 strayed := strayed OR ((startPt.v < mBarHeight - 1) AND (startPt.v > 
0) AND PtInRect(startPt, theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i + 1].titleRect));

{ Enable FKeys (i.e. screen dump) and DA updating }
      IF EventAvail(everyEvent, dummyEvt) THEN
 END; { while WaitMouseUp &not strayed }

 { flash the menu if an item was selected }
 IF (whichItem <> 0) AND NOT strayed THEN
 FOR blink := 1 TO menuFlashP^ DO
           SetPt(nilPt, 0, 0);
           MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, nilPt, whichItem);
           Delay(flashDelay, ticks);
           MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);
           Delay(flashDelay, ticks);
      END; { whichItem <> 0 }
 HSetState(mh^^.menuProc, mprocState);
 CopyBits(bmap, thePort^.portBits, bmap.bounds, bmap.bounds, srcCopy, 
 END; { memory for bitmap }
 END { i >= 0: found the hit menu title }
{ user isn’t over a menu, so unhilite the last one hilited }
 IF theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited THEN
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, 0);
{ need a new startPt -- mouse may have moved }
 END;{ no menu currently selected }
 END; { while WaitMouseUp -- looking for a hit menu title}

 { user let up on the mouse -- return the appropriate value }
 IF whichItem = 0 THEN
 wMenuSelect := 0
 wMenuSelect := BitShift(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID, 16) + whichItem;
 HSetState(handle(theMenuBar), hState);
 END; { wMenuSelect }

{wMenuKey -- return the menu id and item no. with ch as it’s}
{ cmd-key equivalent }
{Caution: this assumes knowledge of the internal structure}
{ of  MenuInfo.menuData }
 FUNCTION wMenuKey;{ (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { ch : char) : longint; }
 flashDelay = 3;
 SignedBytePtr = ^SignedByte;
 CharPtr = ^char;
 hState : SignedByte;
 bp, keyEquivP : SignedBytePtr;
 i, j, whichMenu, whichItem : integer;
 done, enabled : boolean;
 ticks : longint;

 { compare alphabetic characters w/o case sensitivity }
 FUNCTION equalChars (c1, c2 : char) : boolean;
 IF c1 IN [‘a’..’z’] THEN
 c1 := char(ord(c1) + ord(‘A’) - ord(‘a’));
 IF c2 IN [‘a’..’z’] THEN
 c2 := char(ord(c2) + ord(‘A’) - ord(‘a’));
 equalChars := c1 = c2;

 i := 0;
 done := false;
 WHILE (NOT done) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) DO
 hState := HGetState(handle(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh));

{ run down a menu, looking for an item w/ ch as its key}
{ equivalent }
 j := 1;
 bp := SignedBytePtr(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuData);
 bp := SignedBytePtr(ord4(bp) + bp^ + 1);
 WHILE (NOT done) AND (bp^ <> 0) DO
 keyEquivP := SignedBytePtr(ord4(bp) + bp^ + 2);
 IF equalChars(ch, char(keyEquivP^)) THEN
 whichMenu := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID;
 whichItem := j;
 done := true;
 j := j + 1;
 bp := SignedBytePtr(ord4(keyEquivP) + 3);
 END; { looking through this menu }

 HSetState(handle(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh), hState);
 i := i + 1;
 END; { while loop -- looking for key equiv }
 {the item is enabled if both it and its menu title are}
 enabled := BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 1].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit);
 enabled := enabled AND (j < 32) AND (BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 
1].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit - j));
 IF done AND enabled THEN
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, whichMenu);
 wMenuKey := BitShift(whichMenu, 16) + whichItem;
 END { done }
 wMenuKey := 0;
 END; { wMenuKey }

{wHiliteMenu -- unhilite the currently hilited menu title, and}
{ hilite a new one }
{if menuID <> 0 }
 PROCEDURE wHiliteMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { menuID : integer); }
 i : integer;
 oldPort : GrafPtr;
 IF (theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited) THEN
 theMenuBar^^.hilited := noneHilited;
 IF menuID <> 0 THEN
 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> menuID) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) 
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 theMenuBar^^.hilited := i;
 END; { found menuID }
 END;  { menuID <> 0 }
 END; { wHiliteMenu }


{wSample -- the Mac User Education prog, adapted to use wMenus}
{ by Jim Matthews }
PROGRAM wSample;
 appleID = 128;
 fileID = 129;
 editID = 130;

 appleM = 1;
 fileM = 2;
 editM = 3;

 menuCount = 3;

 windowID = 128;

 undoCommand = 1;
 cutCommand = 3;
 copyCommand = 4;
 pasteCommand = 5;
 clearCommand = 6;

 myMenus : ARRAY[1..menuCount] OF MenuHandle;
 dragRect, txRect : Rect;
 textH : TEHandle;
 theChar : char;
 extended, doneFlag : boolean;
 myEvent : EventRecord;
 wRecord : WindowRecord;
 myWindow : WindowPtr;
 whichWindow : WindowPtr;
 myMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;

{SetUpWMenus -- read in menu templates and set up wMenuBar}
 i : integer;
 myMenuBar := wInitMenus(myWindow);
 myMenus[appleM] := GetMenu(appleID);
 AddResMenu(myMenus[appleM], ‘DRVR’);
 myMenus[fileM] := GetMenu(fileID);
 myMenus[editM] := GetMenu(editID);

 FOR i := 1 TO menuCount DO
 wInsertMenu(myMenuBar, myMenus[i], 0);
 END; {SetUpWMenus}

{DoCommand -- handle menu commands}
 PROCEDURE DoCommand (mResult : longint);
 theItem, theMenu : integer;
 name : Str255;
 temp : integer;
 theItem := LoWord(mResult);
 theMenu := HiWord(mResult);

 CASE theMenu OF
 appleID : 
 GetItem(myMenus[appleM], theItem, name);
 temp := OpenDeskAcc(name);
 END; { appleID }
 fileID : 
 doneflag := true;
 editID : 
 IF NOT SystemEdit(theItem - 1) THEN
 CASE theItem OF
 cutCommand : 
 copyCommand : 
 pasteCommand : 
 clearCommand : 
 END; { case theItem of }
 END; { editID}
 END; { case theMenu of }
 wHiliteMenu(myMenuBar, 0);
 END; { DoCommand }

{main program}
 FlushEvents(everyEvent, 0);

 WITH screenBits.bounds DO
 SetRect(dragRect, 4, 24, right - 4, bottom - 4);
 doneFlag := false;
 myWindow := GetNewWindow(windowID, @wRecord, WindowPtr(-1));
 txRect := thePort^.portRect; := mBarHeight;
 InsetRect(txRect, 3, 3);
 textH := TENew(txRect, txRect);

 {main event loop}

 IF GetNextEvent(everyEvent, myEvent) THEN
 CASE myEvent.what OF
 mouseDown : 
 CASE FindWindow(myEvent.where, whichWindow) OF
 inSysWindow : 
 SystemClick(myEvent, whichWindow);
 inMenuBar : 
 IF MenuSelect(myEvent.where) <> 0 THEN
{ handle da menus in the “real” menu bar }
 inDrag : 
 DragWindow(whichWindow, myEvent.where, dragRect);
 inContent : 
 IF myEvent.where.v < mBarHeight THEN
 IF whichWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
 DoCommand(wMenuSelect(myMenuBar, myEvent.where));
 IF whichWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
           extended := BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, shiftKey) <> 0;
           TEClick(myEvent.where, extended, textH);
      END; { whichWindow = FrontWindow}
 END; { click below menu bar }
 END; { inContent }
 END; { mouseDown }
 keyDown, autoKey : 
 theChar := char(BitAnd(myEvent.message, charCodeMask));
 IF BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, cmdKey) <> 0 THEN
 DoCommand(wMenuKey(myMenuBar, theChar))
 TEKey(theChar, textH);
 END; { keyDown, autoKey }
 activateEvt : 
 IF BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, activeFlag) <> 0 THEN
 DisableItem(myMenus[editM], undoCommand);
 EnableItem(myMenus[editM], undoCommand);
 END; { activate/deactivate }
 END; {activateEvt }
 updateEvt : 
 TEUpdate(thePort^.portRect, textH);
 END; { updateEvt }
 END; { case event.what of }
 UNTIL doneFlag;

* Rmaker source for wSample.rsrc


40 50 300 450
Visible NoGoAway



Apple Inc.
Microsoft Corpora
Google Inc.

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

VueScan 9.4.41 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
Cloud 3.0.0 - File sharing from your men...
Cloud is simple file sharing for the Mac. Drag a file from your Mac to the CloudApp icon in the menubar and we take care of the rest. A link to the file will automatically be copied to your clipboard... Read more
LibreOffice - Free Open Source o...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
SlingPlayer Plugin - Browser...
SlingPlayer is the screen interface software that works hand-in-hand with the hardware inside the Slingbox to make your TV viewing experience just like that at home. It features an array of... Read more
Get Lyrical 3.8 - Auto-magically adds ly...
Get Lyrical auto-magically add lyrics to songs in iTunes. You can choose either a selection of tracks, or the current track. Or turn on "Active Tagging" to get lyrics for songs as you play them.... Read more
Viber 4.2.2 - Send messages and make cal...
Viber lets you send free messages and make free calls to other Viber users, on any device and network, in any country! Viber syncs your contacts, messages and call history with your mobile device,... Read more
Cocktail 7.6 - General maintenance and o...
Cocktail is a general purpose utility for OS X that lets you clean, repair and optimize your Mac. It is a powerful digital toolset that helps hundreds of thousands of Mac users around the world get... Read more
LaunchBar 6.1 - Powerful file/URL/email...
LaunchBar is an award-winning productivity utility that offers an amazingly intuitive and efficient way to search and access any kind of information stored on your computer or on the Web. It provides... Read more
Maya 2015 - Professional 3D modeling and...
Maya is an award-winning software and powerful, integrated 3D modeling, animation, visual effects, and rendering solution. Because Maya is based on an open architecture, all your work can be scripted... Read more
BBEdit 10.5.12 - Powerful text and HTML...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Stupeflix Has Released a Major Update fo...
Stupeflix Has Released a Major Update for Replay Posted by Jessica Fisher on August 29th, 2014 [ permalink ] iPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad | Read more »
ALONE… Review
ALONE… Review By Jennifer Allen on August 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: MINIMALISTIC AND TOUGHUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Tough yet satisfying, ALONE… is a challenging endless flyer with some suitably sensitive... | Read more »
Hyperlapse Review
Hyperlapse Review By Jennifer Allen on August 28th, 2014 Our Rating: :: SPEEDY VIDEO SNAPSUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Want to make a great time-lapse video quickly? Hyperlapse is perfect for that.   | Read more »
Back To Bed Review
Back To Bed Review By Jennifer Allen on August 28th, 2014 Our Rating: :: STYLISH BUT LIMITEDUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad It looks gorgeous, but Back to Bed is actually a fairly simple and uneventful puzzle game.   | Read more »
New Cars, New Locations, and a New Seaso...
New Cars, New Locations, and a New Season in Asphalt 8: Airborne Update Posted by Jessica Fisher on August 28th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Award Winning Children’s Book Bedtime fo...
Bedtime for Sarah Sullivan is a children’s storybook that emphasizes the importance of going to bed, dreams, and those magical moments right before being tucked in. Now Kelly Paniagua, author of the award-winning children’s book, is planning to... | Read more »
Happy Cube Death Arena Review
Happy Cube Death Arena Review By Jordan Minor on August 28th, 2014 Our Rating: :: CUBEDUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Happy Cube Death Arena is adorably violent, but very, very shallow.   | Read more »
8bit Doves, the New Game from Icebreaker...
8bit Doves, the New Game from Icebreaker Developers Nitrome, is Now Available – and in Four Colours Posted by Ellis Spice on August 28th, 2014 [ | Read more »
Ace Ferrara and the Dino Menace Review
Ace Ferrara and the Dino Menace Review By Nadia Oxford on August 28th, 2014 Our Rating: :: DINO-MYTEUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Ace Ferrara and the Dino Menace combines space combat and weird humor into a fun game... | Read more »
Draw Stuff, Win Prizes. Glorkian Warrior...
Draw Stuff, Win Prizes. | Read more »

Price Scanner via

New 21″ 1.4GHz iMac on sale again for $999, s...
Best Buy has the new 21″ 1.4GHz iMac on sale for $999.99 on their online store. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Choose free shipping or free local store pick up. Price is for online orders only, in-... Read more
Smartphone Outlook Remains Strong for 2014, U...
According to a new mobile phone forecast from the International Data Corporation (IDC) Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker, more than 1.25 billion smartphones will be shipped worldwide in 2014,... Read more
Save up to $60 with Apple refurbished iPod to...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 5th generation iPod touches available starting at $149. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free. Many, but not all... Read more
12-Inch MacBook Air Coming in 4Q14 or 2015 –...
Digitimes’ Aaron Lee and Joseph Tsai report that according to Taiwan-based upstream supply chain insiders, Apple plans to launch a thinner MacBook model either at year end 2014 or in 2015, and that... Read more
Sapphire Screen “Most Wanted” iPhone 6 New Fe...
According to the ‘ iPhone Most Wanted Survey’ — a representative survey of 1,000 U.S. smartphone users conducted by used iPhone marketplace — close to half of all smartphone users... Read more
The iPad’s Real Competitive Challenger (Not S...
It’s been my contention for some time that the iPad is suffering from something of an identity crisis, and I suspect that may be a factor in slackening sales this year. Apple can’t seem to decide... Read more
13-inch 2.6GHz/256GB Retina MacBook Pro on sa...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.6GHz/256GB Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1379 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP. Read more
Life Inventory iOS Apps – Learn to Know Thyse...
James Hollender’s Life Inventory apps s are now on sale with 20% off thru Labor Day, 09/01/2014. This is a great opportunity to get started on that Moral Inventory you’ve been putting off doing for... Read more
Pocket Watch, LLC. Reveals Cloud Server For P...
Beaumont, Texas based Pocket Watch, LLC. has announced the availability of its new ActivePrint Cloud Server Powered by Raspberry Pi. With this small standalone box almost any USB printer or available... Read more
902it Simplifies Area Code Changes For Nova S...
The east coast Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island are phasing in 10 digit telephone dialing, to be fully in place by November, in order to accommodate a second area code to... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Senior Event Manager, *Apple* Retail Market...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global event strategy. Delivering an overarching brand story; in-store, Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Project Manager / Business Analyst, WW *Appl...
…a senior project manager / business analyst to work within our Worldwide Apple Fulfillment Operations and the Business Process Re-engineering team. This role will work Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.