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Window Menus
Volume Number:4
Issue Number:11
Column Tag:Programmer's Workshop

Menus In Windows

By James Matthews, Hanover, NH

[Jim Matthews is a software developer at Dartmouth, working on network applications. He has done maintenance work on DarTerminal, an AppleTalk terminal emulator, and has worked on developing a Macintosh mail system. He started programming in high school on an IBM 360 with core memory but slowly moved to smaller, newer machines. In college, he helped develop MacFunction, a three-dimensional graphing program that is currently marketed by True Basic, Inc.]

Menus in Windows

by Jim Matthews, Dartmouth College

One of the critical elements of the Macintosh user interface is the menu bar. It relieves the user of the need for memorizing command names and gives easy access to a large number of operations in a small amount of space. Nonetheless, the limitations of the standard Macintosh menu bar have become increasingly evident. Large screens make the fixed position of the menu bar less convenient, and large programs present users with an overwhelming number of available commands. Desk accessories have never been able to use the menu bar fully, limiting their potential. Both Apple and third parties have developed workarounds to the limitations of the menu bar. Hierarchical and pop-up menus, implemented in System 4.1, provide alternate ways of structuring menu commands. The tear-off palettes used in HyperCard and MacPaint 2.0 add a new dimension to menus, as do the tear-off menus provided with Radius displays.

Still, I recently felt the need to extend the menu bar concept by another step. While developing a program with a large number of commands, I decided that what I wanted was a different menu bar for each window. It would have been possible to change the menu bar depending on which window was in front, but the commands needed by each window were so different that the user would never know what to expect when he pulled down a menu. Furthermore, I wanted to leave open the possibility of turning the program into a desk accessory, and I could not fit all my commands into one menu. So I re-implemented part of the Menu Manager to provide for window-specific menu bars. The code itself is not very complicated -- I was fortunate to be preceded by Mike Schuster, whose December, 1985 article on pop-up menus provided a wealth of useful information. The routines I produced met my needs admirably, but like any extension to the standard interface they also raised some tricky issues.

Figure 1. Edit Menu

The wMenu Manager Routines

Because I wanted to produce menu bars that function exactly like the one at the top of the screen, I implemented the window menus by imitating eight standard Menu Manager routines. They all operate on a wMenuBar data structure which is roughly comparable to a MenuList.

wMenuRec = record
 mh : MenuHandle;
 titleRect : Rect;
wMenuBar = record
 numMenus : integer;
 hilited : integer;
 gp : GrafPtr;
 wMenus : array [0..0] of wMenuRec;

The wMenuBar stores the number of menus in a menu bar, which one is hilited (if any), and the GrafPort in which the menu bar is drawn. In addition, it stores a menu handle and a rectangle for each menu that has been inserted. The rectangle specifies the coordinates of the menu title; i.e. the area that is inverted when a menu is selected. This is a bit wasteful, since two of the rectangle’s coordinates are always the same, but it makes the code simpler. The wMenuBar record is created by a call to wInitMenus, which allocates the storage and returns a wMenuBarHandle. The rest of the routines accept the same arguments as their Menu Manager equivalents, with the addition of a wMenuBarHandle to specify the menu bar being altered. The routines are wInsertMenu and wDeleteMenu, to add and remove menus from the menu bar; wClearMenuBar to delete all the menus; wDrawMenuBar to redraw the menu bar; wMenuSelect and wMenuKey to respond to mouse and key events, respectively; and finally, wHiliteMenu to highlight a menu’s title.

Implementation Issues

There are a few subtle points in the implementation of the wMenu Manager. The System 4.2 menu definition procedure has a bug that is fixed by initializing the low memory global TopMenuItem in wInitMenus. Calls to the menu definition procedure are implemented using inline machine code, since Pascal doesn’t provide a standard way to call a routine based on its address. WMenuKey walks down a menu’s data looking for a certain command key equivalent, and the dynamic nature of the data structure requires some ugly code. GetNextEvent and SystemTask are called in the inner loop of the menu selection code: this means that keyDown events are swallowed while the user is holding down a menu, but it provides the ability to produce screen dumps and keeps desk accessories updated. With the standard menu bar it is impossible for the user to drag the mouse above the top of the menus, but with window menus it was necessary to deal with this case. I decided to have the displayed menu disappear when the user moved the mouse above a window’s content region, but that could easily be changed.

The wMenu routines can be substituted for Menu Manager ones with a few exceptions. Unlike InitMenus, wInitMenus must not be called until there is a window to put the menu bar in. wDrawMenuBar should be called in response to update events, since the Window Manager considers the menu bar part of a window’s content region. This also means that wMenuSelect should be called in response to mouseDown events in a window’s content region. A program should continue call MenuSelect and MenuKey at appropriate times to give the user access to desk accessory menus.

The wMenu routines make it fairly easy to implement a number of different menu bars in one program, but that can lead to an explosion of possible commands. The nested case statements that typically handle menu commands can become unwieldy when the number of menu bars exceeds two or three.

Interface Issues

Menus in windows have the significant disadvantage of being a departure from the standard way of doing things. Users do not expect to find a menu bar inside a window, and can be confused by one. If there is more than one menu bar visible the user may wonder which to use, and if the user types a command key equivalent it may not be clear which menu bar is handling it. This problem becomes especially difficult when some commands are available from the regular menu bar and others only from window menus. I have tried to use window menus for commands that only affect that particular window, and the regular menu bar for program-wide operations. This introduces a degree of modality into a program, but not much more than is present in any multiple-window application.

Figure 2. Scrolling Menus

Compatibility Issues

The wMenu routines were written to be compatible with all post Mac 512 models. The 128k ROM calls HSetState and HGetState are used in a few places; but if they were changed, I imagine the code would work on older Macs also. Given Apple’s emphasis on the sanctity of the Window Manager’s GrafPort, care was taken to make sure that menus are only drawn inside an application window’s content region if they overlap they either scroll or are cropped. There are a couple of things that could cause future compatibility problems, though. First, the program modifies TopMenuItem, and although the fix was made on the advice of Mac DTS, it could break on future systems. Secondly, Apple is now asking programmers not to rely on the internal structure of menu records. The wMenuKey routine could not be written without doing this, so it is vulnerable to future changes. The code emulates the pre-Mac SE Menu Manager in that color and hierarchical menus are not supported. The code has been tested on machines from the 512KE to the Mac II without mishap.

Figure 3. Project Window


I have included a wMenu version of the sample program found in Inside Macintosh Vol. I. This example illustrates how the wMenu routines are called and demonstrates how the menus appear to the user. It is not, however, a case where window menus add much to the program. Window menus are much more appropriate when there are multiple windows, each with significantly different functionality. I originally implemented them as part a mail program that had separate windows for composing letters, reading mail, and organizing a mailbox. In that case, window menus let me compartmentalize the program’s interface and use a large number of commands without overwhelming the standard menu bar.

{ wMenu Manager }
{ by Jim Matthews }

UNIT wMenu;


 ROM85; { uses HGetState and HSetState }

 mBarHeight = 20;
 betweenTitles = 15; 
{ # of pixels between adjacent menu titles }
 invertOverlap = 10; 
{ # of pixels to invert on each side of a menu title }
 noneHilited = -1; 
{ value to store in wMenuBar.hilited if nothing hilited }
 menuTitleBit = 31;
{ mac-style bit offset for menu title bit in enableFlags }

 wMenuRec = RECORD
 mh : MenuHandle;
 titleRect : Rect;
 wMenuBar = RECORD
 numMenus : integer;
 hilited : integer;
 gp : GrafPtr;
 wMenus : ARRAY[0..0] OF wMenuRec;
 wMenuBarPtr = ^wMenuBar;
 wMenuBarHandle = ^wMenuBarPtr;

 FUNCTION wInitMenus (gp : GrafPtr) : wMenuBarHandle;
 PROCEDURE wInsertMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 beforeID : integer);
 PROCEDURE wDrawMenuBar (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle);
 PROCEDURE wDeleteMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 menuID : integer);
 PROCEDURE wClearMenuBar (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle);

 FUNCTION wMenuSelect (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 startPt : Point) : longint;
 FUNCTION wMenuKey (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 ch : char) : longint;
 PROCEDURE wHiliteMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 menuID : integer);


{wInitMenus -- create a wMenuBar and associate it with a grafport}
 FUNCTION wInitMenus;     { (gp : GrafPtr) : wMenuBarHandle; }
 intptr = ^Integer;
 mbar : wMenuBarHandle;
 TopMenuItemP : intptr;
 { Set low-mem global to fix menu display bug }
 TopMenuItemP := intptr($A0A);
 TopMenuItemP^ := mBarHeight;

 mbar := wMenuBarHandle(NewHandle(sizeof(wMenuBar)));
 mbar^^.numMenus := 0;
 mbar^^.hilited := noneHilited;
 mbar^^.gp := gp;
 wInitMenus := mbar;
 END; { wInitMenus }

{wInsertMenu -- insert a menu into a defined wMenuBar,}
{ analogous to InsertMenu }
 PROCEDURE wInsertMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { theMenu : MenuHandle; }
 { beforeID : integer); }
 newSize : Size;
 r : Rect;
 i, j : integer;
 titleWidth, oldSize, oldFont : integer;
 newSize := sizeof(wMenuBar) + theMenuBar^^.numMenus * sizeof(wMenuRec);
 IF newSize > GetHandleSize(handle(theMenuBar)) THEN
 SetHandleSize(handle(theMenuBar), newSize);
 IF MemError = noErr THEN
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 titleWidth := StringWidth(theMenu^^.menuData);
 i := 0;
 IF beforeID > 0 THEN
 { Insert the menu before a particular one? }
 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> beforeID) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) 
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 FOR j := theMenuBar^^.numMenus DOWNTO i + 1 DO
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].mh := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j - 1].mh;
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j - 1].titleRect;
 OffsetRect(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect, titleWidth + betweenTitles, 
 END; { for loop -- copying menus back }
 END; { if there’s a menu id = beforeID }
 END { if beforeID <> 0 }
 ELSE   { if beforeID <= 0, put it after the rest }
 i := theMenuBar^^.numMenus;
 WITH theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] DO
 BEGIN := 1;
 titleRect.bottom := mBarHeight - 1;
 IF i = 0 THEN
 titleRect.left := betweenTItles - invertOverlap
 titleRect.left := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 1].titleRect.right + betweenTitles 
- 2 * invertOverlap;
 titleRect.right := titleRect.left + titleWidth + 2 * invertOverlap;
 mh := theMenu;
 END; { with theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := theMenuBar^^.numMenus + 1;
 END; { no MemError }
 END; { wInsertMenu }

{ wDrawMenuBar -- draw the wMenuBar, with appropriate}
{ highlighting }
 PROCEDURE wDrawMenuBar;  { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle); }
 i : integer;
 r : Rect;
 oldPort : GrafPtr;
 oldSize, oldFont, oldMode : integer;
 oldStyle : Style;
 bmap, oldMap : BitMap;
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldMode := thePort^.txMode;
 oldStyle := thePort^.txFace;

 SetRect(r, 0, 0, 10000, mBarHeight);
 MoveTo(0, mBarHeight - 1);
 Line(10000, 0);

 FOR i := 0 TO theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 DO
 MoveTo(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect.left + invertOverlap, mBarHeight 
- 5);

 { gray-out disabled menu titles }
 IF NOT BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit) 
 r := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect;
 r.left := r.left + invertOverlap;
 r.right := r.right - invertOverlap;
 bmap.bounds := r;
 OffsetRect(bmap.bounds, -r.left,;
 IF (bmap.bounds.right MOD 16) <> 0 THEN
 bmap.rowBytes := 2 * ((bmap.bounds.right DIV 16) + 1)
 bmap.rowBytes := 2 * (bmap.bounds.right DIV 16);
 bmap.baseAddr := NewPtr(bmap.rowBytes * mBarHeight);
 oldMap := thePort^.portBits;
 FillRect(bmap.bounds, gray);
 CopyBits(bmap, thePort^.portBits, bmap.bounds, r, notSrcBic, NIL);
 END; { if title disabled }
 END; { for each menu }
 IF theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited THEN

 END; { wDrawMenuBar }

{wDeleteMenu -- delete a menu from a wMenuBar}
 PROCEDURE wDeleteMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { menuID : integer); }
 i, j, oldSize, oldFont : integer;
 oldStyle : Style;
 titleWidth : integer;
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 { reset the font/size/style to compute menu title widths }
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldStyle := thePort^.txFace;

 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> menuID)          
 AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) DO
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 titleWidth := StringWidth(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuData);
 FOR j := i TO theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 DO
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].mh := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j + 1].mh;
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j + 1].titleRect;
 OffsetRect(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect, -(titleWidth + betweenTitles), 
 END; { for loop -- copying menus back }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1;
 END; { if there’s a menu id = menuID }

 END; { wDeleteMenu }

{wClearMenuBar -- delete all the menus in a menu bar}
 PROCEDURE wClearMenuBar; { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle); }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := 0; { take the easy way out.... }
 END; { wClearMenuBar }

{MenuDefProc -- inline call to the menu definition procedure}
{Pop the address of the proc off the stack and jsr to it}
 PROCEDURE MenuDefProc (message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 VAR menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 VAR whichItem : integer;
 theProc : ProcPtr);
 $205F, $4E90; { pop.l A0 , jsr (A0) }

{MenuDefGlue -- dereference menu handle to find the add. of}
{the definition proc and call it using MenuDefProc, above}
 PROCEDURE MenuDefGlue (message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 VAR menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 VAR whichItem : integer);
 MenuDefProc(message, theMenu, menuRect, hitPt, whichItem, theMenu^^.menuProc^);

{wMenuSelect -- pull down the menus and let the user select an item}
 FUNCTION wMenuSelect;    { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { startPt : Point) : longint; }
 flashDelay = 3; { # of ticks between calls to invert selected item }
 menuFrame = 2;  { width of menu frame }
 MenuFlashAddr = $A24;  
{ address of lo-mem global: # of times to flash menu }
 intPtr = ^integer;
 bmap : BitMap;
 menuRect : Rect;
 oldClip : RgnHandle;
 nilPt : Point;
 blink, whichItem : integer;
 oldPort, wMgrPort : GrafPtr;
 i : integer;
 hstate, mprocState : SignedByte;
 ticks : longint;
 menuFlashP : intPtr;
 oldSize, oldFont, oldMode : integer;
 pnState : PenState;
 strayed : boolean;
 dummyEvt : EventRecord;
 hState := HGetState(handle(theMenuBar));
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldMode := thePort^.txMode;
 menuFlashP := intPtr(MenuFlashAddr);
 whichItem := 0;
 WHILE WaitMouseUp DO{ loop while the mouse is down }
 { find menu title that user is clicking on }
 i := theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1;
 WHILE (i >= 0) AND NOT PtInRect(startPt, theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect) 
 i := i - 1;

{ if user is clicking menu title, have the menu “drop down” }
 IF i >= 0 THEN
 WITH theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] DO 
{ note: theMenuBar is locked }
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, mh^^.menuID); 
{ hilite title }
{ calculate menu size, it may have changed }
 SetRect(menuRect, titleRect.left + 1, mBarHeight, titleRect.left + mh^^.menuWidth 
+ 1, mBarHeight + mh^^.menuHeight);
 InsetRect(menuRect, -menuFrame, -menuFrame);

{ if the menu overlaps the edges of the window, trim it }
 IF menuRect.bottom > thePort^.portRect.bottom THEN
 menuRect.bottom := thePort^.portRect.bottom;
 IF menuRect.right > thePort^.portRect.right THEN
 OffsetRect(menuRect, thePort^.portRect.right - menuRect.right - 2, 0);
 IF menuRect.left < 0 THEN
 OffsetRect(menuRect, -menuRect.left, 0);
 bmap.rowBytes := ((menuRect.right - menuRect.left + 15) DIV 16) * 2;
 bmap.bounds := menuRect;
 bmap.baseAddr := NewPtr(bmap.rowBytes * (menuRect.bottom -;
 IF bmap.baseAddr <> NIL THEN  
 { proceed if there is memory }
 CopyBits(thePort^.portBits, bmap, bmap.bounds, bmap.bounds, srcCopy, 
 oldClip := NewRgn;

{ draw the menu -- thanks to Mike Schuster, MacTutor 12/85 }
 IF mh^^.menuHeight > 0 THEN
      InsetRect(menuRect, menuFrame, menuFrame);
      InsetRect(menuRect, -1, -1);
      InsetRect(menuRect, 1, 1);

      MoveTo(menuRect.left + 1, menuRect.bottom + 1);
      Line((menuRect.right - menuRect.left), 0);
      Line(0, -(menuRect.bottom -;
 END; { if there’re any menu items }

 mprocState := HGetState(handle(mh^^.menuProc));
 whichItem := 0;
 MenuDefGlue(mDrawMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);

{ send the mChooseMsg while the user is still in this menu }
 strayed := false;
 WHILE WaitMouseUp AND NOT strayed DO
      MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);
      strayed := (startPt.v < mBarHeight - 1) AND (startPt.v > 0) AND 
(NOT PtInRect(startPt, titleRect));
   IF i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 THEN
 strayed := strayed OR ((startPt.v < mBarHeight - 1) AND (startPt.v > 
0) AND PtInRect(startPt, theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i + 1].titleRect));

{ Enable FKeys (i.e. screen dump) and DA updating }
      IF EventAvail(everyEvent, dummyEvt) THEN
 END; { while WaitMouseUp &not strayed }

 { flash the menu if an item was selected }
 IF (whichItem <> 0) AND NOT strayed THEN
 FOR blink := 1 TO menuFlashP^ DO
           SetPt(nilPt, 0, 0);
           MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, nilPt, whichItem);
           Delay(flashDelay, ticks);
           MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);
           Delay(flashDelay, ticks);
      END; { whichItem <> 0 }
 HSetState(mh^^.menuProc, mprocState);
 CopyBits(bmap, thePort^.portBits, bmap.bounds, bmap.bounds, srcCopy, 
 END; { memory for bitmap }
 END { i >= 0: found the hit menu title }
{ user isn’t over a menu, so unhilite the last one hilited }
 IF theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited THEN
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, 0);
{ need a new startPt -- mouse may have moved }
 END;{ no menu currently selected }
 END; { while WaitMouseUp -- looking for a hit menu title}

 { user let up on the mouse -- return the appropriate value }
 IF whichItem = 0 THEN
 wMenuSelect := 0
 wMenuSelect := BitShift(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID, 16) + whichItem;
 HSetState(handle(theMenuBar), hState);
 END; { wMenuSelect }

{wMenuKey -- return the menu id and item no. with ch as it’s}
{ cmd-key equivalent }
{Caution: this assumes knowledge of the internal structure}
{ of  MenuInfo.menuData }
 FUNCTION wMenuKey;{ (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { ch : char) : longint; }
 flashDelay = 3;
 SignedBytePtr = ^SignedByte;
 CharPtr = ^char;
 hState : SignedByte;
 bp, keyEquivP : SignedBytePtr;
 i, j, whichMenu, whichItem : integer;
 done, enabled : boolean;
 ticks : longint;

 { compare alphabetic characters w/o case sensitivity }
 FUNCTION equalChars (c1, c2 : char) : boolean;
 IF c1 IN [‘a’..’z’] THEN
 c1 := char(ord(c1) + ord(‘A’) - ord(‘a’));
 IF c2 IN [‘a’..’z’] THEN
 c2 := char(ord(c2) + ord(‘A’) - ord(‘a’));
 equalChars := c1 = c2;

 i := 0;
 done := false;
 WHILE (NOT done) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) DO
 hState := HGetState(handle(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh));

{ run down a menu, looking for an item w/ ch as its key}
{ equivalent }
 j := 1;
 bp := SignedBytePtr(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuData);
 bp := SignedBytePtr(ord4(bp) + bp^ + 1);
 WHILE (NOT done) AND (bp^ <> 0) DO
 keyEquivP := SignedBytePtr(ord4(bp) + bp^ + 2);
 IF equalChars(ch, char(keyEquivP^)) THEN
 whichMenu := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID;
 whichItem := j;
 done := true;
 j := j + 1;
 bp := SignedBytePtr(ord4(keyEquivP) + 3);
 END; { looking through this menu }

 HSetState(handle(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh), hState);
 i := i + 1;
 END; { while loop -- looking for key equiv }
 {the item is enabled if both it and its menu title are}
 enabled := BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 1].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit);
 enabled := enabled AND (j < 32) AND (BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 
1].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit - j));
 IF done AND enabled THEN
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, whichMenu);
 wMenuKey := BitShift(whichMenu, 16) + whichItem;
 END { done }
 wMenuKey := 0;
 END; { wMenuKey }

{wHiliteMenu -- unhilite the currently hilited menu title, and}
{ hilite a new one }
{if menuID <> 0 }
 PROCEDURE wHiliteMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { menuID : integer); }
 i : integer;
 oldPort : GrafPtr;
 IF (theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited) THEN
 theMenuBar^^.hilited := noneHilited;
 IF menuID <> 0 THEN
 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> menuID) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) 
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 theMenuBar^^.hilited := i;
 END; { found menuID }
 END;  { menuID <> 0 }
 END; { wHiliteMenu }


{wSample -- the Mac User Education prog, adapted to use wMenus}
{ by Jim Matthews }
PROGRAM wSample;
 appleID = 128;
 fileID = 129;
 editID = 130;

 appleM = 1;
 fileM = 2;
 editM = 3;

 menuCount = 3;

 windowID = 128;

 undoCommand = 1;
 cutCommand = 3;
 copyCommand = 4;
 pasteCommand = 5;
 clearCommand = 6;

 myMenus : ARRAY[1..menuCount] OF MenuHandle;
 dragRect, txRect : Rect;
 textH : TEHandle;
 theChar : char;
 extended, doneFlag : boolean;
 myEvent : EventRecord;
 wRecord : WindowRecord;
 myWindow : WindowPtr;
 whichWindow : WindowPtr;
 myMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;

{SetUpWMenus -- read in menu templates and set up wMenuBar}
 i : integer;
 myMenuBar := wInitMenus(myWindow);
 myMenus[appleM] := GetMenu(appleID);
 AddResMenu(myMenus[appleM], ‘DRVR’);
 myMenus[fileM] := GetMenu(fileID);
 myMenus[editM] := GetMenu(editID);

 FOR i := 1 TO menuCount DO
 wInsertMenu(myMenuBar, myMenus[i], 0);
 END; {SetUpWMenus}

{DoCommand -- handle menu commands}
 PROCEDURE DoCommand (mResult : longint);
 theItem, theMenu : integer;
 name : Str255;
 temp : integer;
 theItem := LoWord(mResult);
 theMenu := HiWord(mResult);

 CASE theMenu OF
 appleID : 
 GetItem(myMenus[appleM], theItem, name);
 temp := OpenDeskAcc(name);
 END; { appleID }
 fileID : 
 doneflag := true;
 editID : 
 IF NOT SystemEdit(theItem - 1) THEN
 CASE theItem OF
 cutCommand : 
 copyCommand : 
 pasteCommand : 
 clearCommand : 
 END; { case theItem of }
 END; { editID}
 END; { case theMenu of }
 wHiliteMenu(myMenuBar, 0);
 END; { DoCommand }

{main program}
 FlushEvents(everyEvent, 0);

 WITH screenBits.bounds DO
 SetRect(dragRect, 4, 24, right - 4, bottom - 4);
 doneFlag := false;
 myWindow := GetNewWindow(windowID, @wRecord, WindowPtr(-1));
 txRect := thePort^.portRect; := mBarHeight;
 InsetRect(txRect, 3, 3);
 textH := TENew(txRect, txRect);

 {main event loop}

 IF GetNextEvent(everyEvent, myEvent) THEN
 CASE myEvent.what OF
 mouseDown : 
 CASE FindWindow(myEvent.where, whichWindow) OF
 inSysWindow : 
 SystemClick(myEvent, whichWindow);
 inMenuBar : 
 IF MenuSelect(myEvent.where) <> 0 THEN
{ handle da menus in the “real” menu bar }
 inDrag : 
 DragWindow(whichWindow, myEvent.where, dragRect);
 inContent : 
 IF myEvent.where.v < mBarHeight THEN
 IF whichWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
 DoCommand(wMenuSelect(myMenuBar, myEvent.where));
 IF whichWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
           extended := BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, shiftKey) <> 0;
           TEClick(myEvent.where, extended, textH);
      END; { whichWindow = FrontWindow}
 END; { click below menu bar }
 END; { inContent }
 END; { mouseDown }
 keyDown, autoKey : 
 theChar := char(BitAnd(myEvent.message, charCodeMask));
 IF BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, cmdKey) <> 0 THEN
 DoCommand(wMenuKey(myMenuBar, theChar))
 TEKey(theChar, textH);
 END; { keyDown, autoKey }
 activateEvt : 
 IF BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, activeFlag) <> 0 THEN
 DisableItem(myMenus[editM], undoCommand);
 EnableItem(myMenus[editM], undoCommand);
 END; { activate/deactivate }
 END; {activateEvt }
 updateEvt : 
 TEUpdate(thePort^.portRect, textH);
 END; { updateEvt }
 END; { case event.what of }
 UNTIL doneFlag;

* Rmaker source for wSample.rsrc


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QuickBooks R9 - Financial ma...
QuickBooks helps you manage your business easily and efficiently. Organize your finances all in one place, track money going in and out of your business, and spot areas where you can save. Built for... Read more
TextMate 2.0-beta.12.25 - Code/markup ed...
TextMate is a versatile plain text editor with a unique and innovative feature set which caused it to win an Apple Design Award for Best Mac OS X Developer Tool in August 2006. A rapidly growing... Read more
TunnelBear 3.0.4 - Subscription-based pr...
TunnelBear is a subscription-based virtual private network (VPN) service and companion app, enabling you to browse the internet privately and securely. Features Browse privately - Secure your data... Read more
PDFpen 8.2.1 - $74.95
PDFpen allows users to easily edit PDF's. Add text, images and signatures. Fill out PDF forms. Merge or split PDF documents. Reorder and delete pages. Even correct text and edit graphics! Features... Read more
PDFpenPro 8.2.1 - $124.95
PDFpenPro allows users to edit PDF's easily. Add text, images and signatures. Fill out PDF forms. Merge or split PDF documents. Reorder and delete pages. Create fillable forms and tables of content... Read more
Cosmo Run 2.5.1 - Arcade game with ever-...
Cosmo Run is an arcade game with ever-changing aspect of the play-world. Survive long enough and you will meet special alternative paths - both hardcore and rewarding. Are you worthy to command the... Read more
Box Sync 4.0.7724 - Online synchronizati...
Box Sync gives you a hard-drive in the Cloud for online storage. Note: You must first sign up to use Box. What if the files you need are on your laptop -- but you're on the road with your iPhone? No... Read more
VueScan 9.5.59 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
Skype - Voice-over-internet p...
Skype allows you to talk to friends, family and co-workers across the Internet without the inconvenience of long distance telephone charges. Using peer-to-peer data transmission technology, Skype... Read more

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Oceans & Empires preview build sets...
Hugely ambitious sea battler Oceans & Empires is available to play in preview form now on Google Play - but download it quickly, as it’s setting sail away in just a few days. [Read more] | Read more »
Rusty Lake: Roots (Games)
Rusty Lake: Roots 1.1.4 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.1.4 (iTunes) Description: James Vanderboom's life drastically changes when he plants a special seed in the garden of the house he has inherited.... | Read more »
Plants vs. Zombies Heroes guide: How to...
Plants vs. Zombies Heroes surprised us all, presenting a deep deck building experience. It's a great CCG that stands up well to the competition. There are a lot of CCGs vying for players' attention at the moment, but PvZ Heroes is definitely one... | Read more »
Arcane Online takes Online RPG’s to anot...
If you think that you need a desktop to enjoy high quality MMO gaming then Arcane Online hopes to prove you emphatically wrong. An epic fantasy Online RPG set in the land of Eldine, Arcane Online offers an abundance of features and content that... | Read more »
It’s time to step up and start your spoo...
So you’ve just downloaded Seekers Notes: Hidden Mystery, and you obviously want to hit the ground running. Well you’re in luck because you just so happen to be reading our very useful guide to playing. First released in July last year, the game has... | Read more »
Diggy’s Adventure launches on Android an...
Diggy’s Adventure is the exciting new mobile app brought to you by Pixel Federation. Transporting you all the way to Egypt, you’ll join Diggy and his mates in their quest to find Diggy’s dear old dad – completing challenges put to you by the gods (... | Read more »
Eggggg - The Platform Puker (Games)
Eggggg - The Platform Puker 1.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.2 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
The Bug Butcher (Games)
The Bug Butcher 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The Bug Butcher is an intense action shooter, wrapped in stylistic 2D art, and smeared with humor where timing and fierce... | Read more »
Plants vs. Zombies Heroes and 3 other ul...
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3 apps to feed your online shopping addi...
The internet has changed the way we shop, ensuring that we basically have no need to leave our homes to go shopping if we so desire. That process has been streamlined with the sheer variety of apps on the market to make online shopping even more... | Read more »

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Check Apple prices on any device with the iTr...
MacPrices is proud to offer readers a free iOS app (iPhones, iPads, & iPod touch) and Android app (Google Play and Amazon App Store) called iTracx, which allows you to glance at today’s lowest... Read more
Apple, Samsung, Lead J.D. Power Smartphone Sa...
Customer satisfaction is much higher among smartphone owners currently subscribing to full-service wireless carriers, compared with those purchasing service through a non-contract carrier, according... Read more
Select 9-inch Apple WiFi iPad Pros on sale fo...
B&H Photo has select 9.7″ Apple WiFi iPad Pros on sale for up to $50 off MSRP, each including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 9″ Space Gray 256GB WiFi iPad Pro: $799 $0 off... Read more
Apple refurbished 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $270 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.7GHz... Read more
Apple refurbished 15-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 15″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $380 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 15″ 2... Read more
Apple refurbished 11-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 11″ MacBook Airs (the latest models), available for up to $170 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is... Read more
Apple refurbished Apple TVs available for up...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 32GB and 64GB Apple TVs available for up to $30 off the cost of new models. Apple’s standard one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: -... Read more
15-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $200...
B&H Photo has 15″ Retina Apple MacBook Pros on sale for $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1799 $200 off MSRP - 15″ 2.5GHz Retina... Read more
Apple refurbished 2016 13-inch MacBook Airs a...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at $849. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: - 2016 13″ 1.6GHz/8GB/128GB MacBook... Read more
Apple refurbished iMacs available for up to $...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 21″ & 27″ iMacs available for up to $350 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are available: - 21″ 3.... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Yonkers...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Senior Manager, Security Engineering - *Appl...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more Read more
Manager, Threat Intelligence - *Apple* Info...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Mishawa...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Greenwi...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
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