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Window Menus
Volume Number:4
Issue Number:11
Column Tag:Programmer's Workshop

Menus In Windows

By James Matthews, Hanover, NH

[Jim Matthews is a software developer at Dartmouth, working on network applications. He has done maintenance work on DarTerminal, an AppleTalk terminal emulator, and has worked on developing a Macintosh mail system. He started programming in high school on an IBM 360 with core memory but slowly moved to smaller, newer machines. In college, he helped develop MacFunction, a three-dimensional graphing program that is currently marketed by True Basic, Inc.]

Menus in Windows

by Jim Matthews, Dartmouth College

One of the critical elements of the Macintosh user interface is the menu bar. It relieves the user of the need for memorizing command names and gives easy access to a large number of operations in a small amount of space. Nonetheless, the limitations of the standard Macintosh menu bar have become increasingly evident. Large screens make the fixed position of the menu bar less convenient, and large programs present users with an overwhelming number of available commands. Desk accessories have never been able to use the menu bar fully, limiting their potential. Both Apple and third parties have developed workarounds to the limitations of the menu bar. Hierarchical and pop-up menus, implemented in System 4.1, provide alternate ways of structuring menu commands. The tear-off palettes used in HyperCard and MacPaint 2.0 add a new dimension to menus, as do the tear-off menus provided with Radius displays.

Still, I recently felt the need to extend the menu bar concept by another step. While developing a program with a large number of commands, I decided that what I wanted was a different menu bar for each window. It would have been possible to change the menu bar depending on which window was in front, but the commands needed by each window were so different that the user would never know what to expect when he pulled down a menu. Furthermore, I wanted to leave open the possibility of turning the program into a desk accessory, and I could not fit all my commands into one menu. So I re-implemented part of the Menu Manager to provide for window-specific menu bars. The code itself is not very complicated -- I was fortunate to be preceded by Mike Schuster, whose December, 1985 article on pop-up menus provided a wealth of useful information. The routines I produced met my needs admirably, but like any extension to the standard interface they also raised some tricky issues.

Figure 1. Edit Menu

The wMenu Manager Routines

Because I wanted to produce menu bars that function exactly like the one at the top of the screen, I implemented the window menus by imitating eight standard Menu Manager routines. They all operate on a wMenuBar data structure which is roughly comparable to a MenuList.

wMenuRec = record
 mh : MenuHandle;
 titleRect : Rect;
wMenuBar = record
 numMenus : integer;
 hilited : integer;
 gp : GrafPtr;
 wMenus : array [0..0] of wMenuRec;

The wMenuBar stores the number of menus in a menu bar, which one is hilited (if any), and the GrafPort in which the menu bar is drawn. In addition, it stores a menu handle and a rectangle for each menu that has been inserted. The rectangle specifies the coordinates of the menu title; i.e. the area that is inverted when a menu is selected. This is a bit wasteful, since two of the rectangle’s coordinates are always the same, but it makes the code simpler. The wMenuBar record is created by a call to wInitMenus, which allocates the storage and returns a wMenuBarHandle. The rest of the routines accept the same arguments as their Menu Manager equivalents, with the addition of a wMenuBarHandle to specify the menu bar being altered. The routines are wInsertMenu and wDeleteMenu, to add and remove menus from the menu bar; wClearMenuBar to delete all the menus; wDrawMenuBar to redraw the menu bar; wMenuSelect and wMenuKey to respond to mouse and key events, respectively; and finally, wHiliteMenu to highlight a menu’s title.

Implementation Issues

There are a few subtle points in the implementation of the wMenu Manager. The System 4.2 menu definition procedure has a bug that is fixed by initializing the low memory global TopMenuItem in wInitMenus. Calls to the menu definition procedure are implemented using inline machine code, since Pascal doesn’t provide a standard way to call a routine based on its address. WMenuKey walks down a menu’s data looking for a certain command key equivalent, and the dynamic nature of the data structure requires some ugly code. GetNextEvent and SystemTask are called in the inner loop of the menu selection code: this means that keyDown events are swallowed while the user is holding down a menu, but it provides the ability to produce screen dumps and keeps desk accessories updated. With the standard menu bar it is impossible for the user to drag the mouse above the top of the menus, but with window menus it was necessary to deal with this case. I decided to have the displayed menu disappear when the user moved the mouse above a window’s content region, but that could easily be changed.

The wMenu routines can be substituted for Menu Manager ones with a few exceptions. Unlike InitMenus, wInitMenus must not be called until there is a window to put the menu bar in. wDrawMenuBar should be called in response to update events, since the Window Manager considers the menu bar part of a window’s content region. This also means that wMenuSelect should be called in response to mouseDown events in a window’s content region. A program should continue call MenuSelect and MenuKey at appropriate times to give the user access to desk accessory menus.

The wMenu routines make it fairly easy to implement a number of different menu bars in one program, but that can lead to an explosion of possible commands. The nested case statements that typically handle menu commands can become unwieldy when the number of menu bars exceeds two or three.

Interface Issues

Menus in windows have the significant disadvantage of being a departure from the standard way of doing things. Users do not expect to find a menu bar inside a window, and can be confused by one. If there is more than one menu bar visible the user may wonder which to use, and if the user types a command key equivalent it may not be clear which menu bar is handling it. This problem becomes especially difficult when some commands are available from the regular menu bar and others only from window menus. I have tried to use window menus for commands that only affect that particular window, and the regular menu bar for program-wide operations. This introduces a degree of modality into a program, but not much more than is present in any multiple-window application.

Figure 2. Scrolling Menus

Compatibility Issues

The wMenu routines were written to be compatible with all post Mac 512 models. The 128k ROM calls HSetState and HGetState are used in a few places; but if they were changed, I imagine the code would work on older Macs also. Given Apple’s emphasis on the sanctity of the Window Manager’s GrafPort, care was taken to make sure that menus are only drawn inside an application window’s content region if they overlap they either scroll or are cropped. There are a couple of things that could cause future compatibility problems, though. First, the program modifies TopMenuItem, and although the fix was made on the advice of Mac DTS, it could break on future systems. Secondly, Apple is now asking programmers not to rely on the internal structure of menu records. The wMenuKey routine could not be written without doing this, so it is vulnerable to future changes. The code emulates the pre-Mac SE Menu Manager in that color and hierarchical menus are not supported. The code has been tested on machines from the 512KE to the Mac II without mishap.

Figure 3. Project Window


I have included a wMenu version of the sample program found in Inside Macintosh Vol. I. This example illustrates how the wMenu routines are called and demonstrates how the menus appear to the user. It is not, however, a case where window menus add much to the program. Window menus are much more appropriate when there are multiple windows, each with significantly different functionality. I originally implemented them as part a mail program that had separate windows for composing letters, reading mail, and organizing a mailbox. In that case, window menus let me compartmentalize the program’s interface and use a large number of commands without overwhelming the standard menu bar.

{ wMenu Manager }
{ by Jim Matthews }

UNIT wMenu;


 ROM85; { uses HGetState and HSetState }

 mBarHeight = 20;
 betweenTitles = 15; 
{ # of pixels between adjacent menu titles }
 invertOverlap = 10; 
{ # of pixels to invert on each side of a menu title }
 noneHilited = -1; 
{ value to store in wMenuBar.hilited if nothing hilited }
 menuTitleBit = 31;
{ mac-style bit offset for menu title bit in enableFlags }

 wMenuRec = RECORD
 mh : MenuHandle;
 titleRect : Rect;
 wMenuBar = RECORD
 numMenus : integer;
 hilited : integer;
 gp : GrafPtr;
 wMenus : ARRAY[0..0] OF wMenuRec;
 wMenuBarPtr = ^wMenuBar;
 wMenuBarHandle = ^wMenuBarPtr;

 FUNCTION wInitMenus (gp : GrafPtr) : wMenuBarHandle;
 PROCEDURE wInsertMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 beforeID : integer);
 PROCEDURE wDrawMenuBar (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle);
 PROCEDURE wDeleteMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 menuID : integer);
 PROCEDURE wClearMenuBar (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle);

 FUNCTION wMenuSelect (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 startPt : Point) : longint;
 FUNCTION wMenuKey (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 ch : char) : longint;
 PROCEDURE wHiliteMenu (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;
 menuID : integer);


{wInitMenus -- create a wMenuBar and associate it with a grafport}
 FUNCTION wInitMenus;     { (gp : GrafPtr) : wMenuBarHandle; }
 intptr = ^Integer;
 mbar : wMenuBarHandle;
 TopMenuItemP : intptr;
 { Set low-mem global to fix menu display bug }
 TopMenuItemP := intptr($A0A);
 TopMenuItemP^ := mBarHeight;

 mbar := wMenuBarHandle(NewHandle(sizeof(wMenuBar)));
 mbar^^.numMenus := 0;
 mbar^^.hilited := noneHilited;
 mbar^^.gp := gp;
 wInitMenus := mbar;
 END; { wInitMenus }

{wInsertMenu -- insert a menu into a defined wMenuBar,}
{ analogous to InsertMenu }
 PROCEDURE wInsertMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { theMenu : MenuHandle; }
 { beforeID : integer); }
 newSize : Size;
 r : Rect;
 i, j : integer;
 titleWidth, oldSize, oldFont : integer;
 newSize := sizeof(wMenuBar) + theMenuBar^^.numMenus * sizeof(wMenuRec);
 IF newSize > GetHandleSize(handle(theMenuBar)) THEN
 SetHandleSize(handle(theMenuBar), newSize);
 IF MemError = noErr THEN
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 titleWidth := StringWidth(theMenu^^.menuData);
 i := 0;
 IF beforeID > 0 THEN
 { Insert the menu before a particular one? }
 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> beforeID) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) 
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 FOR j := theMenuBar^^.numMenus DOWNTO i + 1 DO
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].mh := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j - 1].mh;
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j - 1].titleRect;
 OffsetRect(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect, titleWidth + betweenTitles, 
 END; { for loop -- copying menus back }
 END; { if there’s a menu id = beforeID }
 END { if beforeID <> 0 }
 ELSE   { if beforeID <= 0, put it after the rest }
 i := theMenuBar^^.numMenus;
 WITH theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] DO
 BEGIN := 1;
 titleRect.bottom := mBarHeight - 1;
 IF i = 0 THEN
 titleRect.left := betweenTItles - invertOverlap
 titleRect.left := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 1].titleRect.right + betweenTitles 
- 2 * invertOverlap;
 titleRect.right := titleRect.left + titleWidth + 2 * invertOverlap;
 mh := theMenu;
 END; { with theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := theMenuBar^^.numMenus + 1;
 END; { no MemError }
 END; { wInsertMenu }

{ wDrawMenuBar -- draw the wMenuBar, with appropriate}
{ highlighting }
 PROCEDURE wDrawMenuBar;  { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle); }
 i : integer;
 r : Rect;
 oldPort : GrafPtr;
 oldSize, oldFont, oldMode : integer;
 oldStyle : Style;
 bmap, oldMap : BitMap;
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldMode := thePort^.txMode;
 oldStyle := thePort^.txFace;

 SetRect(r, 0, 0, 10000, mBarHeight);
 MoveTo(0, mBarHeight - 1);
 Line(10000, 0);

 FOR i := 0 TO theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 DO
 MoveTo(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect.left + invertOverlap, mBarHeight 
- 5);

 { gray-out disabled menu titles }
 IF NOT BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit) 
 r := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect;
 r.left := r.left + invertOverlap;
 r.right := r.right - invertOverlap;
 bmap.bounds := r;
 OffsetRect(bmap.bounds, -r.left,;
 IF (bmap.bounds.right MOD 16) <> 0 THEN
 bmap.rowBytes := 2 * ((bmap.bounds.right DIV 16) + 1)
 bmap.rowBytes := 2 * (bmap.bounds.right DIV 16);
 bmap.baseAddr := NewPtr(bmap.rowBytes * mBarHeight);
 oldMap := thePort^.portBits;
 FillRect(bmap.bounds, gray);
 CopyBits(bmap, thePort^.portBits, bmap.bounds, r, notSrcBic, NIL);
 END; { if title disabled }
 END; { for each menu }
 IF theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited THEN

 END; { wDrawMenuBar }

{wDeleteMenu -- delete a menu from a wMenuBar}
 PROCEDURE wDeleteMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { menuID : integer); }
 i, j, oldSize, oldFont : integer;
 oldStyle : Style;
 titleWidth : integer;
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 { reset the font/size/style to compute menu title widths }
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldStyle := thePort^.txFace;

 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> menuID)          
 AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) DO
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 titleWidth := StringWidth(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuData);
 FOR j := i TO theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 DO
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].mh := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j + 1].mh;
 theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j + 1].titleRect;
 OffsetRect(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[j].titleRect, -(titleWidth + betweenTitles), 
 END; { for loop -- copying menus back }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1;
 END; { if there’s a menu id = menuID }

 END; { wDeleteMenu }

{wClearMenuBar -- delete all the menus in a menu bar}
 PROCEDURE wClearMenuBar; { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle); }
 theMenuBar^^.numMenus := 0; { take the easy way out.... }
 END; { wClearMenuBar }

{MenuDefProc -- inline call to the menu definition procedure}
{Pop the address of the proc off the stack and jsr to it}
 PROCEDURE MenuDefProc (message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 VAR menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 VAR whichItem : integer;
 theProc : ProcPtr);
 $205F, $4E90; { pop.l A0 , jsr (A0) }

{MenuDefGlue -- dereference menu handle to find the add. of}
{the definition proc and call it using MenuDefProc, above}
 PROCEDURE MenuDefGlue (message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 VAR menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 VAR whichItem : integer);
 MenuDefProc(message, theMenu, menuRect, hitPt, whichItem, theMenu^^.menuProc^);

{wMenuSelect -- pull down the menus and let the user select an item}
 FUNCTION wMenuSelect;    { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { startPt : Point) : longint; }
 flashDelay = 3; { # of ticks between calls to invert selected item }
 menuFrame = 2;  { width of menu frame }
 MenuFlashAddr = $A24;  
{ address of lo-mem global: # of times to flash menu }
 intPtr = ^integer;
 bmap : BitMap;
 menuRect : Rect;
 oldClip : RgnHandle;
 nilPt : Point;
 blink, whichItem : integer;
 oldPort, wMgrPort : GrafPtr;
 i : integer;
 hstate, mprocState : SignedByte;
 ticks : longint;
 menuFlashP : intPtr;
 oldSize, oldFont, oldMode : integer;
 pnState : PenState;
 strayed : boolean;
 dummyEvt : EventRecord;
 hState := HGetState(handle(theMenuBar));
 oldSize := thePort^.txSize;
 oldFont := thePort^.txFont;
 oldMode := thePort^.txMode;
 menuFlashP := intPtr(MenuFlashAddr);
 whichItem := 0;
 WHILE WaitMouseUp DO{ loop while the mouse is down }
 { find menu title that user is clicking on }
 i := theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1;
 WHILE (i >= 0) AND NOT PtInRect(startPt, theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].titleRect) 
 i := i - 1;

{ if user is clicking menu title, have the menu “drop down” }
 IF i >= 0 THEN
 WITH theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i] DO 
{ note: theMenuBar is locked }
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, mh^^.menuID); 
{ hilite title }
{ calculate menu size, it may have changed }
 SetRect(menuRect, titleRect.left + 1, mBarHeight, titleRect.left + mh^^.menuWidth 
+ 1, mBarHeight + mh^^.menuHeight);
 InsetRect(menuRect, -menuFrame, -menuFrame);

{ if the menu overlaps the edges of the window, trim it }
 IF menuRect.bottom > thePort^.portRect.bottom THEN
 menuRect.bottom := thePort^.portRect.bottom;
 IF menuRect.right > thePort^.portRect.right THEN
 OffsetRect(menuRect, thePort^.portRect.right - menuRect.right - 2, 0);
 IF menuRect.left < 0 THEN
 OffsetRect(menuRect, -menuRect.left, 0);
 bmap.rowBytes := ((menuRect.right - menuRect.left + 15) DIV 16) * 2;
 bmap.bounds := menuRect;
 bmap.baseAddr := NewPtr(bmap.rowBytes * (menuRect.bottom -;
 IF bmap.baseAddr <> NIL THEN  
 { proceed if there is memory }
 CopyBits(thePort^.portBits, bmap, bmap.bounds, bmap.bounds, srcCopy, 
 oldClip := NewRgn;

{ draw the menu -- thanks to Mike Schuster, MacTutor 12/85 }
 IF mh^^.menuHeight > 0 THEN
      InsetRect(menuRect, menuFrame, menuFrame);
      InsetRect(menuRect, -1, -1);
      InsetRect(menuRect, 1, 1);

      MoveTo(menuRect.left + 1, menuRect.bottom + 1);
      Line((menuRect.right - menuRect.left), 0);
      Line(0, -(menuRect.bottom -;
 END; { if there’re any menu items }

 mprocState := HGetState(handle(mh^^.menuProc));
 whichItem := 0;
 MenuDefGlue(mDrawMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);

{ send the mChooseMsg while the user is still in this menu }
 strayed := false;
 WHILE WaitMouseUp AND NOT strayed DO
      MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);
      strayed := (startPt.v < mBarHeight - 1) AND (startPt.v > 0) AND 
(NOT PtInRect(startPt, titleRect));
   IF i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus - 1 THEN
 strayed := strayed OR ((startPt.v < mBarHeight - 1) AND (startPt.v > 
0) AND PtInRect(startPt, theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i + 1].titleRect));

{ Enable FKeys (i.e. screen dump) and DA updating }
      IF EventAvail(everyEvent, dummyEvt) THEN
 END; { while WaitMouseUp &not strayed }

 { flash the menu if an item was selected }
 IF (whichItem <> 0) AND NOT strayed THEN
 FOR blink := 1 TO menuFlashP^ DO
           SetPt(nilPt, 0, 0);
           MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, nilPt, whichItem);
           Delay(flashDelay, ticks);
           MenuDefGlue(mChooseMsg, mh, menuRect, startPt, whichItem);
           Delay(flashDelay, ticks);
      END; { whichItem <> 0 }
 HSetState(mh^^.menuProc, mprocState);
 CopyBits(bmap, thePort^.portBits, bmap.bounds, bmap.bounds, srcCopy, 
 END; { memory for bitmap }
 END { i >= 0: found the hit menu title }
{ user isn’t over a menu, so unhilite the last one hilited }
 IF theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited THEN
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, 0);
{ need a new startPt -- mouse may have moved }
 END;{ no menu currently selected }
 END; { while WaitMouseUp -- looking for a hit menu title}

 { user let up on the mouse -- return the appropriate value }
 IF whichItem = 0 THEN
 wMenuSelect := 0
 wMenuSelect := BitShift(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID, 16) + whichItem;
 HSetState(handle(theMenuBar), hState);
 END; { wMenuSelect }

{wMenuKey -- return the menu id and item no. with ch as it’s}
{ cmd-key equivalent }
{Caution: this assumes knowledge of the internal structure}
{ of  MenuInfo.menuData }
 FUNCTION wMenuKey;{ (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { ch : char) : longint; }
 flashDelay = 3;
 SignedBytePtr = ^SignedByte;
 CharPtr = ^char;
 hState : SignedByte;
 bp, keyEquivP : SignedBytePtr;
 i, j, whichMenu, whichItem : integer;
 done, enabled : boolean;
 ticks : longint;

 { compare alphabetic characters w/o case sensitivity }
 FUNCTION equalChars (c1, c2 : char) : boolean;
 IF c1 IN [‘a’..’z’] THEN
 c1 := char(ord(c1) + ord(‘A’) - ord(‘a’));
 IF c2 IN [‘a’..’z’] THEN
 c2 := char(ord(c2) + ord(‘A’) - ord(‘a’));
 equalChars := c1 = c2;

 i := 0;
 done := false;
 WHILE (NOT done) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) DO
 hState := HGetState(handle(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh));

{ run down a menu, looking for an item w/ ch as its key}
{ equivalent }
 j := 1;
 bp := SignedBytePtr(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuData);
 bp := SignedBytePtr(ord4(bp) + bp^ + 1);
 WHILE (NOT done) AND (bp^ <> 0) DO
 keyEquivP := SignedBytePtr(ord4(bp) + bp^ + 2);
 IF equalChars(ch, char(keyEquivP^)) THEN
 whichMenu := theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID;
 whichItem := j;
 done := true;
 j := j + 1;
 bp := SignedBytePtr(ord4(keyEquivP) + 3);
 END; { looking through this menu }

 HSetState(handle(theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh), hState);
 i := i + 1;
 END; { while loop -- looking for key equiv }
 {the item is enabled if both it and its menu title are}
 enabled := BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 1].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit);
 enabled := enabled AND (j < 32) AND (BitTst(@theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i - 
1].mh^^.enableFlags, menuTitleBit - j));
 IF done AND enabled THEN
 wHiliteMenu(theMenuBar, whichMenu);
 wMenuKey := BitShift(whichMenu, 16) + whichItem;
 END { done }
 wMenuKey := 0;
 END; { wMenuKey }

{wHiliteMenu -- unhilite the currently hilited menu title, and}
{ hilite a new one }
{if menuID <> 0 }
 PROCEDURE wHiliteMenu;   { (theMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle; }
 { menuID : integer); }
 i : integer;
 oldPort : GrafPtr;
 IF (theMenuBar^^.hilited <> noneHilited) THEN
 theMenuBar^^.hilited := noneHilited;
 IF menuID <> 0 THEN
 i := 0;
 WHILE (theMenuBar^^.wMenus[i].mh^^.menuID <> menuID) AND (i < theMenuBar^^.numMenus) 
 i := i + 1;
 IF i <> theMenuBar^^.numMenus THEN
 theMenuBar^^.hilited := i;
 END; { found menuID }
 END;  { menuID <> 0 }
 END; { wHiliteMenu }


{wSample -- the Mac User Education prog, adapted to use wMenus}
{ by Jim Matthews }
PROGRAM wSample;
 appleID = 128;
 fileID = 129;
 editID = 130;

 appleM = 1;
 fileM = 2;
 editM = 3;

 menuCount = 3;

 windowID = 128;

 undoCommand = 1;
 cutCommand = 3;
 copyCommand = 4;
 pasteCommand = 5;
 clearCommand = 6;

 myMenus : ARRAY[1..menuCount] OF MenuHandle;
 dragRect, txRect : Rect;
 textH : TEHandle;
 theChar : char;
 extended, doneFlag : boolean;
 myEvent : EventRecord;
 wRecord : WindowRecord;
 myWindow : WindowPtr;
 whichWindow : WindowPtr;
 myMenuBar : wMenuBarHandle;

{SetUpWMenus -- read in menu templates and set up wMenuBar}
 i : integer;
 myMenuBar := wInitMenus(myWindow);
 myMenus[appleM] := GetMenu(appleID);
 AddResMenu(myMenus[appleM], ‘DRVR’);
 myMenus[fileM] := GetMenu(fileID);
 myMenus[editM] := GetMenu(editID);

 FOR i := 1 TO menuCount DO
 wInsertMenu(myMenuBar, myMenus[i], 0);
 END; {SetUpWMenus}

{DoCommand -- handle menu commands}
 PROCEDURE DoCommand (mResult : longint);
 theItem, theMenu : integer;
 name : Str255;
 temp : integer;
 theItem := LoWord(mResult);
 theMenu := HiWord(mResult);

 CASE theMenu OF
 appleID : 
 GetItem(myMenus[appleM], theItem, name);
 temp := OpenDeskAcc(name);
 END; { appleID }
 fileID : 
 doneflag := true;
 editID : 
 IF NOT SystemEdit(theItem - 1) THEN
 CASE theItem OF
 cutCommand : 
 copyCommand : 
 pasteCommand : 
 clearCommand : 
 END; { case theItem of }
 END; { editID}
 END; { case theMenu of }
 wHiliteMenu(myMenuBar, 0);
 END; { DoCommand }

{main program}
 FlushEvents(everyEvent, 0);

 WITH screenBits.bounds DO
 SetRect(dragRect, 4, 24, right - 4, bottom - 4);
 doneFlag := false;
 myWindow := GetNewWindow(windowID, @wRecord, WindowPtr(-1));
 txRect := thePort^.portRect; := mBarHeight;
 InsetRect(txRect, 3, 3);
 textH := TENew(txRect, txRect);

 {main event loop}

 IF GetNextEvent(everyEvent, myEvent) THEN
 CASE myEvent.what OF
 mouseDown : 
 CASE FindWindow(myEvent.where, whichWindow) OF
 inSysWindow : 
 SystemClick(myEvent, whichWindow);
 inMenuBar : 
 IF MenuSelect(myEvent.where) <> 0 THEN
{ handle da menus in the “real” menu bar }
 inDrag : 
 DragWindow(whichWindow, myEvent.where, dragRect);
 inContent : 
 IF myEvent.where.v < mBarHeight THEN
 IF whichWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
 DoCommand(wMenuSelect(myMenuBar, myEvent.where));
 IF whichWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
           extended := BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, shiftKey) <> 0;
           TEClick(myEvent.where, extended, textH);
      END; { whichWindow = FrontWindow}
 END; { click below menu bar }
 END; { inContent }
 END; { mouseDown }
 keyDown, autoKey : 
 theChar := char(BitAnd(myEvent.message, charCodeMask));
 IF BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, cmdKey) <> 0 THEN
 DoCommand(wMenuKey(myMenuBar, theChar))
 TEKey(theChar, textH);
 END; { keyDown, autoKey }
 activateEvt : 
 IF BitAnd(myEvent.modifiers, activeFlag) <> 0 THEN
 DisableItem(myMenus[editM], undoCommand);
 EnableItem(myMenus[editM], undoCommand);
 END; { activate/deactivate }
 END; {activateEvt }
 updateEvt : 
 TEUpdate(thePort^.portRect, textH);
 END; { updateEvt }
 END; { case event.what of }
 UNTIL doneFlag;

* Rmaker source for wSample.rsrc


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Hopper Disassembler 4.3.2- - Binary disa...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
GraphicConverter 10.5.1 - $39.95
GraphicConverter is an all-purpose image-editing program that can import 200 different graphic-based formats, edit the image, and export it to any of 80 available file formats. The high-end editing... Read more
Delicious Library 3.7 - Import, browse a...
Delicious Library allows you to import, browse, and share all your books, movies, music, and video games with Delicious Library. Run your very own library from your home or office using our... Read more
Adobe Animate CC 2017 - Anima...
Animate CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Flash Professional customer). Animate CC 2018 (was Flash CC) lets you... Read more
Adobe After Effects CC 2018 15.0 - Creat...
After Effects CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous After Effects customer). The new, more connected After Effects CC... Read more
Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2018 12.0.0 - Digi...
Premiere Pro CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Premiere Pro customer). Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2018 lets you edit... Read more
Alarm Clock Pro 10.3 - $19.95
Alarm Clock Pro isn't just an ordinary alarm clock. Use it to wake you up in the morning, send and compose e-mails, remind you of appointments, randomize the iTunes selection, control an internet... Read more
Adobe Lightroom 20170919-1412-ccb76bd] -...
Adobe Lightroom is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $9.99/month bundled with Photoshop CC as part of the photography package. Lightroom 6 is also available for purchase as a... Read more
Adobe Illustrator CC 2018 22.0.0 - Profe...
Illustrator CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Illustrator customer). Adobe Illustrator CC 2018 is the industry... Read more

Darts of Fury guide - how to rise in the...
Darts of Fury is a new, immensely absorbing darts game from indie studio Yakuto. It's darts in its purest form, but collectible darts and other upgrades give this game an addictive edge that's hard to shake. As your progress out of the beginner... | Read more »
ICEY (Games)
ICEY 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ICEY is a 2D side-scrolling action game. As you follow the narrator's omnipresent voice, you will see through ICEY's eyes and learn the... | Read more »
The best new games we played this week -...
We've made it, folks. Another weekend is upon us. It's time to sit back and relax with the best new releases of the week. Puzzles, strategy RPGs, and arcade games abound this week. There's a lot of quality stuff to unpack this week, so let's hop... | Read more »
Wheels of Aurelia (Games)
Wheels of Aurelia 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Halcyon 6: Starbase Commander guide - ti...
Halcyon 6 is a well-loved indie RPG with stellar tactical combat and some pretty good writing, too. It's now landed on the App Store, so mobile fans, if you're itching for a good intergalactic adventure, here's your game. Being a strategy RPG, the... | Read more »
Game of Thrones: Conquest guide - how to...
Fans of base building games might be excited to know that yet another entry in the genre has materialized - Game of Thrones: Conquest. Yes, you can now join the many kingdoms of the famed book series, or create your own, as you try to conquer... | Read more »
Halcyon 6: Starbase Commander (Games)
Halcyon 6: Starbase Commander Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: (iTunes) Description: An epic space strategy RPG with base building, deep tactical combat, crew management, alien diplomacy,... | Read more »
Legacy of Discord celebrates its 1 year...
It’s been a thrilling first year for fans of Legacy of Discord, the stunning PvP dungeon-crawling ARPG from YOOZOO Games, and now it’s time to celebrate the game’s first anniversary. The developers are amping up the festivities with some exciting... | Read more »
3 reasons to play Thunder Armada - the n...
The bygone days of the Battleship board game might have past, but naval combat simulators still find an audience on mobile. Thunder Armada is Chinese developer Chyogames latest entry into the genre, drawing inspiration from the explosive exchanges... | Read more »
Experience a full 3D fantasy MMORPG, as...
Those hoping to sink their teeth into a meaty hack and slash RPG that encourages you to fight with others might want to check out EZFun’s new Eternity Guardians. Available to download for iOS and Android, Eternity Guardians is an MMORPG that lets... | Read more »

Price Scanner via

Save $100 on 13″ MacBook Airs, prices start a...
Adorama has 2017 13″ MacBook Airs on sale today for $100 off MSRP including free shipping. Adorama charges NY & NJ sales tax only: – 13″ 1.8GHz/128GB MacBook Air (MQD32LL/A): $899, $100 off MSRP... Read more
1.4GHz Mac mini available for $399, $100 off...
TigerDirect has the 1.4GHz Mac mini on sale today for $399 including free shipping. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Although currently out of stock,... Read more
21″ 2.3GHz iMac on sale for $999, save $100
MacMall has the 21″ 2.3GHz iMac (MMQA2LL/A) on sale today for $999 including free shipping. Their price is $100 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
12″ iPad Pros on sale for $50 off MSRP, no ta...
Adorama has 12″ iPad Pros on sale today for $50 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and Adorama charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 12″ 64GB iPad Pro: $749, save $50 – 12″ 256GB iPad Pro: $899, save $50... Read more
9″ iPads on sale for $30 off, starting at $29...
MacMall has 9″ iPads on sale for $30 off including free shipping: – 9″ 32GB iPad: $299 – 9″ 128GB iPad: $399 Read more
Apple restocks full line of refurbished 13″ M...
Apple has restocked a full line of Apple Certified Refurbished 2017 13″ MacBook Pros for $200-$300 off MSRP. A standard Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free.... Read more
13″ 3.1GHz/256GB MacBook Pro on sale for $167...
Amazon has the 2017 13″ 3.1GHz/256GB Space Gray MacBook Pro on sale today for $121 off MSRP including free shipping: – 13″ 3.1GHz/256GB Space Gray MacBook Pro (MPXV2LL/A): $1678 $121 off MSRP Keep an... Read more
13″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $120 off M...
B&H Photo has 2017 13″ MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $120 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: – 13-inch 2.3GHz/128GB Space Gray MacBook... Read more
15″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $200 off M...
B&H Photo has 15″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (MPTR2LL/A): $2249, $150... Read more
Roundup of Apple Certified Refurbished iMacs,...
Apple has a full line of Certified Refurbished 2017 21″ and 27″ iMacs available starting at $1019 and ranging up to $350 off original MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free... Read more

Jobs Board

Project Engineer, *Apple* Education Profess...
Project Engineer, Apple Education Professional Services Job Number: 113143353New York City, New York, United StatesPosted: Oct. 17, 2017Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Read more
Commerce Software Engineer, *Apple* Media P...
Commerce Software Engineer, Apple Media Products Job Number: 113092072New York City, New York, United StatesPosted: Oct. 19, 2017Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Summary With Read more
Engineering Manager, *Apple* Retail Enginee...
# Engineering Manager, Apple Retail Engineering Job Number: 58139948 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: 20-Oct-2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Commerce Engineer, *Apple* Media Products -...
Commerce Engineer, Apple Media Products (New York City) Job Number: 113028813New York City, New York, United StatesPosted: Sep. 20, 2017Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Read more
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