TweetFollow Us on Twitter

System Snoop
Volume Number:4
Issue Number:11
Column Tag:Basic School

System Snooping in MS QuickBasic

By Dave Kelly, MacTutor Editorial Board

MS QuickBasic Arrives!!

It’s been a long wait (nearly a year and a half) but Microsoft has finally upgraded their infamous compiler. The best part is that it has really improved!! Microsoft took their interpreter which has always been an excellent product, and combined their compiler to produce what they are calling a new product named QuickBASIC 1.0.

There are some major changes that have taken place and many things have remained the same. The programming environment includes the same “pretty-printing” editor (with some improvements) which was included in earlier versions of the interpreter. There are still two versions of basic, the binary version and decimal version. Programs written using earlier versions of MS BASIC still function properly and in some cases they even work better. When you start listing all of the changes you can easily see why Microsoft chose to call it version 1.0 instead of MS Compiler version 2.0.

The first obvious change is the manual. MS QuickBASIC is now packaged as a shrink wrapped book and disk like their competitors. Most of the fancy packaging on software goes in the trash most of the time anyway. If removing the expense of the packaging lowers the price like it did for this one, I vote that all software companies do the same on all their software. QuickBASIC is priced at a mere $99!! Registered users of either MS Basic Interpreter or Compiler may upgrade to MS QuickBASIC 1.0 for $40. Upgrades are free to any registered user who acquired either of Microsoft’s BASIC products for the Macintosh after August 1, 1988. MS QuickBASIC now requires at least 1 MB of memory. The new manual includes two books in one. The user’s guide includes a description of how to use the interpreter/compiler functions, a tutorial on developing programs using QuickBASIC, a tutorial on debugging your program, creating a stand-alone application, documentation on how to access the Macintosh toolbox, and documentation for ResEdit (an older version is included with QuickBASIC) and Edit (QuickBASIC includes the latest version of the MDS editor which bombs on the Mac II). The second part of the manual is the BASIC Language Reference which includes a description of Basic variables, syntax, a statement and function reference, and appendix. The appendix contains documentation for invoking ROM routines and the Toolbox library, also some very good information about creating your own Libraries (similar to the old BMLL document) including how to write your own routines from Assembly, C or Pascal. Instructions are also given to install your own icon after compiling your stand-alone application.

The menu bar has now changed. As a matter of fact, when programs are run, a default menu is used which includes File and Edit menus. QuickBASIC removes its own menus so you no longer have to clear the menus when running your program as in earlier versions. Using the compiler options, you may disable the default menu and window for compiled programs.

The ‘Search’ menu contains new menu items, ‘Get Info’ and ‘Set Info’ which allows the user to add new items into the Help data base, or add comments to the help that already exists. The text added is stored in the BASIC source code itself so Help can be different for different programs. It is not known if the Help text can be moved from one source code file to another. The ‘Set Info’ item cannot be found in the manual and in some respects does not seem to work properly. Once it even corrupted the default help info which is stored in the QuickBASIC application. It is handy to type cmd-I (Get Info) while editing and get a dialog explaining the command that the cursor is pointing to. Another nice feature is the bookmarks. You can set a bookmark to force BASIC to remember the page that you are on so you can return there quickly.

The interpreter is able to help debug your program. For example, before executing the program, breakpoints may be set by inserting a stop sign icon. When the program stops at a breakpoint, or encounters an error, the value of key variables may be displayed. (This smells like Lightspeed doesn’t it?) You may then change the value of any variables and continue execution. The highlighted tracing option which was available in earlier versions of MS Basic is still available in QuickBASIC too.

Figure 1. Example Listing

One of the most needed enhancements was HFS support. Now, MS Basic is smart enough to find files anywhere. If you have a LIBRARY statement you don’t have to include the full path name because the first time your program is run, if QuickBASIC can’t find your library file, it asks you to look for it. Then it does something even better. After you find the file for QuickBASIC, the path is stored away automatically in your source code file and used the next time the program is run. There may have to be some slight modification to some programs written in earlier versions of BASIC, so QuickBASIC provides a way to disable the File Not Found Dialog option in the ‘Options’ menu item of the ‘Run’ menu.

The compiler is built in so it is very easy to get a stand-alone application up and running. There are several options available when compiling, including 68020 and 68881 support if you can use it. Most of the same compiler options are available here that were available in MS Compiler 1.0. As mentioned before, you may choose to use the default window or use the default menus (File and Edit) if needed. Library resources may be included if the ‘Include MBPCs and MBLCs’ option is selected. (All the CLR Toolbox libraries have been updated and the resource type changed to MBLC (Microsoft Basic Library Code????) resources. The MBPC type is used to denote pure code resources which can be created with some compilers. A utility program is included to scan a QuickBASIC source file and remove library and toolbox resources which are not used by the application. This will reduce the size of the stand-alone application. ALSO, the toolbox library (formerly called ToolLib) is now installed as MBLC resources in the QuickBASIC application. Therefore, all the toolbox statements are available at all times. You now need to specify a type (‘&’,’!’, ‘#’) for a library call only after DEFSTR; DEFINT no longer requires a type. For example:

DEFINT a-z
DrawText “No more exclamations on library invocations!”

There have been several new MBLC routines added to QuickBASIC since the last release of MS BASIC. One of these new statements is the Toolbox statement which allows access to other Toolbox ROM routines which are not specifically available as MBLC routines. You will need Inside Macintosh to make full use of this statement. Routines marked NOT IN ROM are not accessible from QuickBASIC with the ToolBox call. You must write an MBPC or MBLC to do this. The syntax for the ToolBox statement is:

ToolBox calltype$, trapnum%, arg1, arg2, ... , argn

The calltype$ argument is a BASIC string variable indicating the type of the ROM call. Procedures are indicated by either “P” or “S”, Functions returning boolean results use “B”, functions returning integers use “W” and functions returning a long integer (LONGINT) use “L”. The trapnum% is the trap address of the ROM routine as found in Inside Macintosh. A few samples are given in the manual of some ROM calls. The number of arguments in the ToolBox call will vary depending on the routine that is called.

Sample programs using the ToolBox call are shown below. The first program shows a call to the ROM routine that gets the names of fonts if given an id. The program really isn’t of much value except to demonstrate an example use of the ToolBox call. [Make sure to remove all non-printable fonts from the system (i.e. postscript escape fonts) or it will crash; I think it has something to do with zero width fonts.- ed] The second program uses the ToolBox call to get the Macintosh tick count. By using this the benchmark times could have been measured more accurately. The remainder of the program demonstrates the use of the SYSTEM function. The SYSTEM function is used to get system environment information for your program. Getting screen size is one use of the SYSTEM functions available. Other environment information is also available as shown in the program. These functions and the ToolBox calls are explained in more detail in the QuickBASIC manual.

Your old CLR libraries and other libraries you may have created can still be used with QuickBASIC without converting them to the MBLC resource type. Be sure to check to see if the routine already exists in QuickBASIC as a MBLC before using your old routine unnecessarily. You may print lists for comparison purposes with the new version of the Statement Mover program. Statement mover has also been updated to support the MBLC and MBPC resource types.

You’re probably wondering how QuickBASIC does in the benchmark tests. Table 1 shows the benchmark results for QuickBASIC , True Basic and ZBasic. ZBasic and True Basic times have appeared in previous issues of MacTutor and were not retested for this table. I have included them here for comparison purposes. Keep in mind that any one benchmark test does not determine how good a language is. All tests were performed on a Macintosh Plus Computer.

BENCHMARKMS QuickBASIC*True BasicZBasic
FOR Loop (Real)3 sec1.6 sec.15 sec.
Array Lookup (static)2 sec.20.67 sec.1 sec.
Math Operations
Addition9 sec.22.15 sec.52 sec.
Subtraction10 sec.23.23 sec.64 sec.
Multiply12 sec.25.55 sec.211 sec.
Divide35 sec.35 sec.446 sec.
String Operations
Concatenation34 sec.10.3167 sec.10 sec.
Pattern Matching25 sec.12.15 sec.6 sec.
Graphics
Line (Basic stmt)7 sec.61.25 sec.6 sec.
Horizontal line15 sec.38.867 sec.5 sec.
Circle20 sec.13.4667 sec.15 sec.
Set Pixel
(PSET or PLOT)38 sec.119.3 sec.19 sec.
File I/O (Floppy Disk)
Random READ2 sec.24.5 sec.8 sec.
Random WRITE24 sec.43.48 sec.114 sec.
Seql. PRINT#3 sec.17.0667 sec.9 sec.
Seql. INPUT3 sec.17.45 sec.???
Sieve of Eratosthenes8 sec.118.917 sec.7 sec.
Accuracy Benchmark
x503.54380215503.54380215503.54380215
s1.231.2249999999999661.23
time 1 sec..88333 sec.4 sec.

* NOTE: QuickBASIC compiled binary version used for all tests except accuracy benchmark.

To obtain optimal performance from compiled QuickBASIC for execution speed it is advisable to use static arrays, turn off array bounds, turn off event checking, generate 68020 and 68881 code if applicable, use SELECT CASE statements instead of IF/THEN/ELSE statements inside loops, and use SHARED (global) arrays when passing to subprograms.

‘ Display Fonts
‘ ©Copyright 1988 MacTutor
‘ by Dave Kelly
‘ This program will display all your system fonts
‘ with a sample and by name.
‘ This program uses the ToolBox statement in
‘ QuickBASIC version 1.0

ToolBox “I”    ‘ Initialize Toolbox
DEFINT a-z
x=0
FontName$=””
FOR i=0 TO 254    ‘ Cycle through all the fonts
    TEXTFONT(i)
    GOSUB GetFontsname
    IF FontName$<>”” THEN
        PRINT “This is a sample of font #”;
        CALL TEXTFONT(0):PRINT i;”  “;FontName$
        IF x/10 >1 THEN
             x=0:PRINT “Click mouse button to continue...”
             WHILE MOUSE(0)<>1 :WEND:CLS
         ELSE
             x=x+1
        END IF
    END IF
NEXT
WHILE MOUSE(0)<>1:WEND
END
GetFontsname:    ‘Get the name of the Font with ID = i
TrapNo%=&HA8FF
ToolBox “P”,TrapNo%,(i),FontName$
RETURN


‘ System Configuration Demo
‘©1988 MacTutor
‘ By Dave Kelly
‘ This program displays all of the system configuration
‘ data which is returned by the SYSTEM Function.
‘ Also the number of tick counts is read from the
‘ Macintosh directly to get a more accurate time.

ToolBox “I”:    ‘Initialize the toolbox call
start&=0&:finish&=0&
CALL GetTickCount(start&)   :’Call the tick count routine
Screenwidth=SYSTEM(5) :  ‘ get screenwidth
Screenheight=SYSTEM(6) :  ‘ get screen height
WINDOW 1,”System Configuration”,(4,41)-(Screenwidth-8,Screenheight-8),1
PRINT “Macintosh System Version:”;SYSTEM(0)
machine=SYSTEM(1) :   ‘ get machine type
SELECT CASE machine
    CASE 0
        machineType$=”Unknown”
    CASE 1
        machineType$=”Mac 512K”
    CASE 2
        machineType$=”Mac Plus”
    CASE 3
        machineType$=”Mac SE”
    CASE 4
        machineType$=”Mac II”
END SELECT
PRINT “Machine type: “;machineType$
PRINT “Running QuickBASIC version “;SYSTEM(2)
Math=SYSTEM(3):    ‘ Get Math type
SELECT CASE Math
    CASE 0
        MathType$=”Binary Math”
    CASE 1
        MathType$=”Decimal Math”
END SELECT
PRINT “Using “;MathType$
environmentFlag=SYSTEM(4)
    IF environmentFlag=0 THEN
        PRINT “Program is being run from the QuickBASIC environment”
    ELSE
        PRINT “Program has been compiled.”
    END IF
CALL GetTickCount(finish&)
PRINT “Total time to run this program was “;(finish&-start&)/60;” seconds”
END

SUB GetTickCount(Ticks&) STATIC:’Get the real number of ticks
    TrapNo%=&HA975
    Ticks&=0&
    ToolBox “L”, TrapNo%,Ticks&
END SUB

LETTER BAG

Your review of True Basic 2.01 was of special interest to me because I’ve been trying to port a library of thirty astronomical programs from CBasic (remember?) and MS Basic to the Mac. As you pointed out, the math libraries and advanced toolkits make True Basic very useful for scientific tasks. However, the many arbitrary differences in syntax from standard Basics has made the translating task very time-consuming and the source level debugging using DO TRACE is crude compared to MacPascal or LSP.

My greatest disappointment has been the poor speed performance. My Mac has the Turbomax accelerator board and 68881 coprocessor both rated at 16 mhz. Since my work involves heavy use of transcendentals, I use the Savage benchmark; here are some results:

MacPascal 2.0 30.1 seconds interpreted

True Basic 2.01 29.1 seconds *

Excel 1.04 12.6 seconds supports 68881

LS Pascal 1.1 4.7 seconds compiled

* This is “It’s even faster than before.” as their ad claims?

Incidentally, they carefully modified the Geneva font so that the capital O and zero [0] are identical; a real ‘gotcha’ when trying to debug. --Leonard Kalish

Maybe QuickBASIC will be better for you as it can be compiled. Also if you use CLR Libraries MathStatLib you get some of the math routines back. The difference in the Basic syntax is because of the ANSI standard influence of Thomas E. Kurtz, one of True Basic’s authors. It is interesting that most of the other Basics out there are enough different from the ANSI standard to make translating a difficult task. Thanks for your comments. DK.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

GarageSale 6.9.2 - Create outstanding eB...
GarageSale is a slick, full-featured client application for the eBay online auction system. Create and manage your auctions with ease. With GarageSale, you can create, edit, track, and manage... Read more
calibre 2.17 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
OmniGraffle Pro 6.1.2 - Create diagrams,...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
OmniGraffle 6.1.2 - Create diagrams, flo...
OmniGraffle helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use Graffle to... Read more
RoboForm 2.0.2 - Password manager; syncs...
RoboForm is a password manager that offers one-click login, mobile syncing, easy form filling, and reliable security. Password Manager. RoboForm remembers your passwords so you don't have to! Just... Read more
Apple MainStage 3.1 - Live performance t...
Love the sound you got on your recording? MainStage 3 makes it easy to bring all the same instruments and effects to the stage. Everything from the Sound Library and Smart Controls you're familiar... Read more
Freeway Pro 7.0.2 - Drag-and-drop Web de...
Freeway Pro lets you build websites with speed and precision... without writing a line of code! With its user-oriented drag-and-drop interface, Freeway Pro helps you piece together the website of... Read more
A Better Finder Rename 9.44 - File, phot...
A Better Finder Rename is the most complete renaming solution available on the market today. That's why, since 1996, tens of thousands of hobbyists, professionals and businesses depend on A Better... Read more
Stacks 2.6.9 - New way to create pages i...
Stacks is a new way to create pages in RapidWeaver. It's a plugin designed to combine drag-and-drop simplicity with the power of fluid layout. Features: Fluid Layout: Stacks lets you build pages... Read more
Sid Meier's Civilization: Beyond Ea...
Sid Meier's Civilization: Beyond Earth is a new science-fiction-themed entry into the award-winning Civilization series. Set in the future, global events have destabilized the world leading to a... Read more

This Week at 148Apps: January 19-23, 201...
Warm Your Winter With New Apps!   How do you know what apps are worth your time and money? Just look to the review team at 148Apps. We sort through the chaos and find the apps you’re looking for. The ones we love become Editor’s Choice, standing out... | Read more »
Eggmaster Review
Eggmaster Review By Jennifer Allen on January 26th, 2015 Our Rating: :: BRIEFLY COMPELLINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Tap like crazy to gain eggs, so that you can buy upgrades to gain more eggs, and so on. It... | Read more »
Cloudy Or Dry – Funny Or Die Release a W...
Cloudy Or Dry – Funny Or Die Release a Weather App Posted by Ellis Spice on January 26th, 2015 [ permalink ] iPhone App - Designed for the iPhone, compatible with the iPad | Read more »
Mediocre, the Team Behind Smash Hit, is...
Mediocre, the Team Behind Smash Hit, is Teasing Their Latest Unnamed Project Posted by Jessica Fisher on January 26th, 2015 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Heroes of Gaia Review
Heroes of Gaia Review By Campbell Bird on January 26th, 2015 Our Rating: :: TIMERS OF MIGHT AND MAGICUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad This free-to-play rpg looks a lot like Heroes of Might and Magic, but it’s poor... | Read more »
Choice Provisions is Set to Launch Destr...
Choice Provisions is Set to Launch Destructamundo on iOS This Month Posted by Tre Lawrence on January 23rd, 2015 [ permalink ] Choice Provisions – home stable to | Read more »
King of Thieves – An Interview With Zept...
Ahead of the release of ZeptoLab’s King of Thieves, we were able to ask ZeptoLab’s co-founder, Semyon Voinov, a few questions about the inspiration behind the game and what that means for the Cut the Rope franchise. | Read more »
Handle Review
Handle Review By Jennifer Allen on January 23rd, 2015 Our Rating: :: SPEEDY ORGANIZINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Handle is a very convenient way of juggling your emails, To Do list, and Calendar all through one... | Read more »
The New Disney Inquizitive App Offers a...
The New Disney Inquizitive App Offers a Place for Fans to Take Disney Quizzes Posted by Tre Lawrence on January 23rd, 2015 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Hands-On With Cut the Rope Developer Zep...
Marking quite a departure from ZeptoLab’s past successes, namely the Cut The Rope series, King of Thieves is shaping up to be quite promising. Due for release in February, we were lucky enough to have some time with a preview build to see exactly... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Stir Kinetic Desk M1 Standing Or Sitting Desk...
The age of the standing desk is upon us, and according to medical research, it’s arriving none too soon. The World Health Organization (WHO), reports that 60 to 85 percent of people worldwide lead... Read more
Bosch Opens North American eBike Conversion H...
Following its entry into the U.S. eBike market in early 2014, Bosch has established a new headquarters office for Bosch eBike Systems (http://www.bosch-ebike.us) in Southern California, expanding the... Read more
13-inch 2.4GHz Retina MacBook Pro (Apple refu...
The Apple Store has previous-generation Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.4GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pros available for $999. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.4GHz/... Read more
13-inch 2.6GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
Adorama has the 13″ 2.6GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1189.99, $110 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and Adorama charges NY & NJ sales tax only. Read more
College Student Deals are back, additional $5...
Take an additional $50 off all MacBooks and iMacs at Best Buy Online with their College Students Deals Savings, valid through April 11, 2015. Anyone with a valid .EDU email address can take advantage... Read more
iPhone 6 and 6 Plus GIve Apple Half Of US Mob...
Chicago-based Consumer Intelligence Research Partners, LLC (CIRP) have released analysis of the results of its research on mobile phone manufacturers for the calendar quarter that ended December 31,... Read more
Save $100 on MacBook Airs with 256GB of stora...
B&H Photo has 256GB MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 11″ 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air: $999 $100 off MSRP - 13″ 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook... Read more
21-inch 2.7GHz iMac on sale for $1179, save $...
B&H Photo has the 21″ 2.7GHz iMac on sale for $1179 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model from any... Read more
iPhone Usage Rates by State Correlate With Ed...
Chitika Insights notes that despite iPhones being the largest source of smartphone Internet traffic in North America, their latest study finds a relatively high degree of variation of iPhone usage... Read more
ProGearX Extendable Pole “Pov/Selfie Stick” M...
There’s something inescapably narcissistic about the concept of selfies as they’ve developed as a smartphone-driven social (particularly social media) phenomenon that rubs me the wrong way. However,... Read more

Jobs Board

Detailer *Apple* Ford Body Shop / Collision...
Apple Automotive is one of the fastest growing dealer…and it shows. Consider making the switch to the Apple Automotive Group today! At Apple Automotive , Read more
*Apple* Acura/Subaru Service Technicians - A...
Apple Automotive is one of the fastest growing dealer…and it shows. Consider making the switch to the Apple Automotive Group today! At Apple Automotive , Read more
Business Development Manager - *Apple* Pay...
**Job Summary** Apple Pay is seeking an experienced business development manager to support the identification, recruitment, negotiation and ongoing management of Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC)- Retail S...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.