TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Teaching
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:12
Column Tag:Basic School

Games for Teaching Children

By Dave Kelly, MacTutor Editorial Board

Happy 3rd Birthday MacTutor!!! I can hardly believe that MacTutor has been around for a whole 3 years. The Macintosh has certainly come a long way in that time. All the way from a puny 128K RAM model to the gobs of memory available for the Macintosh II. Let’s celebrate!

Every celebration should not be complete with out friends. First I thank all of you readers that have supported MacTutor these past years. But all of this would not be possible if not for the vision of one special, although fictitious character, Professor Mac. For those of you that have not met the Professor, turn to your front cover and take a look just in front of the big ‘M’ in MacTutor. The Professor started out teaching you Apple II Pascal in the “Apple Shoppe” (also published by David Smith). Since that time we’ve seen him popping in and out of the covers of MacTutor. (see Best of MacTutor Vol 1, pg. 1, 8, 13, 61, 71, 92, 107, 313; Best of MacTutor Vol 2, pg. 2, 20, 42, 357, 371-375; not to mention the numerous times the Professor appears at the end of each and every MacTutor column.

A few days ago, the Professor reminded me that I haven’t written any games lately. So what should the game do? Well, my oldest son, who was 3 (now age 6) when we started up MacTutor, is now in first grade. Thanks to vol. 1 no. 1, Kevin now knows his ABC’s. (see Best of MacTutor Vol 1, pg. 298). I guess besides learning to read the next thing that first graders learn to do is count. So a counting game!!!

Last week Kevin brought home some homework that was just type of game I was looking for. The problems showed a price tag with a price. To solve the problem, he had to cut and paste pictures of coins under the price tag to equal the amount on the tag. So Professor Mac’s coin game was born. The object of the game is to click on the fewest possible number of coins to equal the amount of money shown in the price tag. If too many coins are selected the answer is not wrong, but the program lets you know that you could have done it with fewer coins. If you know that you have too many coins you may subtract coins by clicking the radio button named subtract and clicking on the coin you want to remove. The game does require some ability to read. Children that don’t know their numbers will have problems with this. At least it passed my kid test Kevin loved it.

Fig. 1 Our coin game display

On the technical side: the program doesn’t have any real surprizes technically. However, there are a few annoyances that appear to be ZBasic’s fault. In fact, sometimes I wish I was writing in Pascal or C. The blow by blow description follows:

There are four PICT resources, a quarter, a dime, a nickel, and a penny, which are used. These resources should be installed in the application itself in order to work. Creation of the coins was done via Thunderscan® by clipping the scanned pictures into a resource file using ResEdit. The “Get Coin Resources” subroutine gets the handles to the resources by using the ROM function GETNAMEDRESOURCE. Each resource is then loaded into memory (from the disk). Each coin is displayed on right side of the screen to give you something to click on to select the coins in the game. The ZBasic PICTURE statement will display the PICT resources by using the handle for the resource which was retrieved with GETNAMED RESOURCE. The active area to select each coin is marked by the Qrect, Drect, Nrect and Prect rectangles. Here is where the first problem shows up. The SETRECT call is used to set up the coordinates of each rectangle. But the SETRECT parameters are mixed up. Inside Macintosh shows SetRect parameters as being left, top, right, bottom in that order (see IM page I-174), but the ZBasic manual says the ZBasic parameters for SETRECT are Top, Left, Bottom, Right. The call (fortunately) works like IM; there is a typo in the ZBasic manual, pg. E-169.

The event loop is established using menu, dialog and mouse events in the same way that has been demonstrated in other programs. There are a few funnies that show up though. In earlier versions of the program, when I was still working on it, I used MOUSE ON, MOUSE OFF to control the About menu dialog. The problem was that when the About dialog was closed the screen erased itself just after the refresh routine did its refresh. This left a blank where the dialog window was. The screen had been updated, but something in ZBasic was trying to do its own refresh (I guess?). When I turned off all the event trapping for the About routine, the screen refreshed properly. This appears to be one of those little obscure bugs in ZBasic that nobody has fixed yet. This one problem turned what should have been a few minutes of programming into several hours trying to figure out what was going on. The GETMOUSE routine turned out to be just the solution. I get the feeling that I should be writing all my code using the toolbox calls and leave the ZBasic routines to the cockroaches (or other ‘bugs’).

‘Professor Mac’s Coin Game
‘By Dave Kelly
‘ ©MacTutor, DEC.1987
‘ For ZBasic™ version 4.0

WINDOW OFF
COORDINATE WINDOW
DEF MOUSE=-1
False=0:True=NOT False
DIM Qrect%(3), Drect%(3), Nrect%(3), Prect%(3),    Displayrect%(3)
DIM 63 A$(4)
Mousy=0:’Set up point record
Mousx=0:’for mouse location
WINDOW 1,””,(2,22)-(510,335),4
CALL SETRECT(Qrect(0),388,0,510,80)
CALL SETRECT(Drect(0),388,81,510,140)
CALL SETRECT(Nrect(0),388,141,510,215)
CALL SETRECT(Prect(0),388,216,510,310)
CALL SETRECT(Displayrect(0),0,140,385,250)
BUTTON 1,0,”Add Coins”,(300,80)-(375,100),2
BUTTON 2,0,”Subtract”,(300,110)-(375,130),2
APPLE MENU “About Professor Mac’s Coins ”
MENU 1,0,1,”File”
MENU 1,1,1,”New Amount/N”
MENU 1,2,1,”Quit/Q”
EDIT MENU 2
Amount!=0
GOSUB “Get Coin Resources”
GOSUB “Draw Page”
ON MENU GOSUB “MenuEvent”
ON DIALOG GOSUB “DialogEvent”
ON MOUSE GOSUB “MouseEvent”
MENU ON:DIALOG ON:MOUSE ON
DO
UNTIL TheEnd
MENU OFF:DIALOG OFF:MOUSE OFF
END

“MenuEvent”
Menunumber=MENU(0)
Menuitem=MENU(1)
MENU
SELECT Menunumber
 CASE 255
 GOSUB “AppleMenu”
 GOSUB “Display Amount”
 GOSUB “Draw Page”
 CASE 1
 GOSUB “FileMenu”
 CASE 2
END SELECT
RETURN

“AppleMenu”
WINDOW 2,””,(100,40)-(415,310),-2
TEXT 0,12
PRINT @(5,1)”Professor Mac’s Coin Game”
PRINT @(10,2)”by”
PRINT @(8,3)”Dave Kelly”
PRINT @(7,4)”©MacTutor, 1987"
PRINT @(7,5)”ZBasic version 4.0"
PRINT @(3,8)”Professor Mac’s MacTutor Store will”
PRINT @(3,9)”display prices on the price tag.”
PRINT @(3,10)”The object is to select (by clicking)”
PRINT @(3,11)”the fewest number of coins to equal”
PRINT @(3,12)”the price. Hopefully this may be of”
PRINT @(3,13)”assistance to children first learning”
PRINT @(3,14)”about money.”
DO
CALL GETMOUSE(Mousy)
outsiderect=(Mousx<0 OR Mousx>300 OR Mousy<0 OR Mousy>270)
UNTIL FN BUTTON AND NOT (outsiderect)
WINDOW CLOSE 2
RETURN

“FileMenu”
SELECT Menuitem
 CASE 1
 GOSUB “New”
 CASE 2
 GOSUB “Quit”
END SELECT
RETURN

“Quit”
‘Release all resource handles
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(QHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(DHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(NHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(PHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(THndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(MHndl&)
END

“New”
RANDOMIZE TIMER
Amount!=RND(100)*.01
Add=True
NumOfQ%=0
NumOfD%=0
NumOfN%=0
NumOfP%=0
Total!=0
GOSUB “Display Amount”
GOSUB “Display Total”
GOSUB “Draw Display”
BUTTON 1,2
BUTTON 2,1
RETURN

“DialogEvent”
Dilg=DIALOG(0)
SELECT Dilg
 CASE 5
 RefWin=DIALOG(5)
 ‘Get window to refresh
 WINDOW 1
 GOSUB “Display Amount”
 GOSUB “Draw Page”
 CASE 1
 Buttonpressed=DIALOG(1)
 BUTTON Buttonpressed,2
 LONG IF Buttonpressed=1
 BUTTON 2,1
 Add=True
 XELSE
 BUTTON 1,1
 Add=False
 END IF
END SELECT
RETURN

“Display Amount”
 TEXT 3,24,1,0
 PICTURE (60,50),THndl&
 CALL MOVETO (130,100)
 PRINT USING “$#.##”;Amount!;SPC(2)
RETURN

“Display Total”
 TEXT 2,12,1,0
 CALL MOVETO(5,285)
 PRINT NumOfQ;” Quarters, “; NumOfD;” Dimes, “;    NumOfN; “ Nickels, 
“; NumOfP;” Pennies”
 CALL MOVETO(5,300)
 PRINT “Total:”;USING “$#.##”;Total!
 ‘Check for winner
 IF Total!=Amount! AND Total!<>0 THEN GOSUB “WinDialog”

RETURN

“WinDialog”
Temp!=Amount!
CorrectNumOfQ%=Temp!/.25
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfQ%*.25
CorrectNumOfD%=Temp!/.1
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfD%*.1
CorrectNumOfN%=Temp!/.05
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfN%*.05
CorrectNumOfP%=Temp!*100
LONG IF NumOfQ%=CorrectNumOfQ% AND NumOfD%=        CorrectNumOfD% AND 
NumOfN%=  CorrectNumOfN% AND NumOfP%= CorrectNumOfP%
 A$(1)=”TA-DA!  You Did it!”
 A$(2)=”Select ‘New Amount’ to start again”
 A$(3)=””
 A$(4)=””
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
XELSE
 A$(1)=”Nice Try!”
 A$(2)=”You have too many coins!”
 A$(3)=”You should have: “+ STR$(CorrectNumOfQ%)+ “ Quarters, “ +STR$(CorrectNumOfD%)+ 
“ Dimes,”
 A$(4)=STR$(CorrectNumOfN%)+” Nickels, “+   STR$(CorrectNumOfP%)+” Pennies”
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
END IF
Amount!=0
BUTTON 1,0
BUTTON 2,0
RETURN

“TooMuchDialog”
 A$(1)=”Adding that coin will give you “+ USING  “$#.##”;Total!
 A$(2)=”Try a different coin!”
 A$(3)=” “
 A$(4)=” “
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
RETURN

“No More Coins”
 A$(1)=”Sorry, You don’t have any more “+Coin$
 A$(2)=” “
 A$(3)=” “
 A$(4)=” “
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
RETURN

“Get Coin Resources”
 QHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Quarter”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(QHndl&)
 DHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Dime”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(DHndl&)
 NHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Nickel”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(NHndl&)
 PHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Penny”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(PHndl&)
 THndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Tag”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(THndl&)
 MHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Professor Mac”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(MHndl&)
RETURN

“Draw Page”
 PICTURE (400,0),QHndl&
 PICTURE (406,78),DHndl&
 PICTURE (400,138),NHndl&
 PICTURE (406,220),PHndl&
 CALL MOVETO(385,0)
 CALL PENSIZE(2,2)
 CALL LINETO(385,340)
 CALL MOVETO(0,135)
 CALL LINETO(385,135)
 CALL PENNORMAL
 PICTURE (0,0),MHndl&
 CALL MOVETO(60,40)
 TEXT 2,18,0,0
 PRINT “Professor Mac’s Coin Game”
“Draw Display”
 CALL ERASERECT(Displayrect(0))
 IF NumOfQ>0 THEN PICTURE (0,140),QHndl&
 IF NumOfD>0 THEN PICTURE (100,140),DHndl&
 IF NumOfN>0 THEN PICTURE (200,140),NHndl&
 IF NumOfP>0 THEN PICTURE (300,140),PHndl&
RETURN

“MouseEvent”
IF Amount!=0 THEN FLUSHEVENTS:RETURN
CALL GETMOUSE(Mousy)
LONG IF (FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Qrect%(0)))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.25
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfQ-1<0
 Coin$=”Quarters!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ-1
 Total!=Total!-.25
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.25
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.25
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Drect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.1
 NumOfD=NumOfD+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfD-1<0
 Coin$=”Dimes!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfD=NumOfD-1
 Total!=Total!-.1
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.1
 NumOfD=NumOfD-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Nrect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.05
 NumOfN=NumOfN+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfN-1<0
 Coin$=”Nickels!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfN=NumOfN-1
 Total!=Total!-.05
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.05
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.05
 NumOfN=NumOfN-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Prect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.01
 NumOfP=NumOfP+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfP-1<0
 Coin$=”Pennies!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfP=NumOfP-1
 Total!=Total!-.01
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.01
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.01
 NumOfP=NumOfP-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
DO:UNTIL NOT (FN BUTTON)
FLUSHEVENTS
RETURN

 
AAPL
$111.78
Apple Inc.
-0.87
MSFT
$47.66
Microsoft Corpora
+0.14
GOOG
$516.35
Google Inc.
+5.25

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Monolingual 1.6.2 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. It requires a 64-bit capable Intel-based Mac and at least... Read more
NetShade 6.1 - Browse privately using an...
NetShade is an Internet security tool that conceals your IP address on the web. NetShade routes your Web connection through either a public anonymous proxy server, or one of NetShade's own dedicated... Read more
calibre 2.13 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Mellel 3.3.7 - Powerful word processor w...
Mellel is the leading word processor for OS X and has been widely considered the industry standard since its inception. Mellel focuses on writers and scholars for technical writing and multilingual... Read more
ScreenFlow 5.0.1 - Create screen recordi...
Save 10% with the exclusive MacUpdate coupon code: AFMacUpdate10 Buy now! ScreenFlow is powerful, easy-to-use screencasting software for the Mac. With ScreenFlow you can record the contents of your... Read more
Simon 4.0 - Monitor changes and crashes...
Simon monitors websites and alerts you of crashes and changes. Select pages to monitor, choose your alert options, and customize your settings. Simon does the rest. Keep a watchful eye on your... Read more
BBEdit 11.0.2 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
ExpanDrive 4.2.1 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
Adobe After Effects CC 2014 13.2 - Creat...
After Effects CC 2014 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous After Effects customer). After Effects CS6 is still available... Read more
Evernote 6.0.5 - Create searchable notes...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Make your own Tribez Figures (and More)...
Make your own Tribez Figures (and More) with Toyze Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
So Many Holiday iOS Sales Oh My Goodness...
The holiday season is in full-swing, which means a whole lot of iOS apps and games are going on sale. A bunch already have, in fact. Naturally this means we’re putting together a hand-picked list of the best discounts and sales we can find in order... | Read more »
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode f...
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode for Angry Birds Epic Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minec...
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minecraft: Story Mode – A Telltale Games Series Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their...
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their New Game: Tempo Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] WarChest Ltd and Splash Damage Ltd are teaming up again to work | Read more »
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary...
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary with a Bunch of Free Games Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] BulkyPix has | Read more »
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking F...
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking Fever’s new sushi-themed update Posted by Simon Reed on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Lithuanian developer Nordcurrent has yet again updated its restaurant simulat | Read more »
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to C...
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to Celebrate 20 Million Downloads Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Desti...
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Destiny, and Beyond – AppSpy Takes a Look at AAA Companion Apps Posted by Rob Rich on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] These day | Read more »
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Fre...
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Free for the Holidays Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

The Apple Store offering free next-day shippi...
The Apple Store is now offering free next-day shipping on all in stock items if ordered before 12/23/14 at 10:00am PT. Local store pickup is also available within an hour of ordering for any in stock... Read more
It’s 1992 Again At Sony Pictures, Except For...
Techcrunch’s John Biggs interviewed a Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) employee, who quite understandably wished to remain anonymous, regarding post-hack conditions in SPE’s L.A office, explaining “... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Pros for...
 B&H Photo has new MacBook Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP as part of their Holiday pricing. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1699... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Airs for...
B&H Photo has 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP, for a limited time, for the Thanksgiving/Christmas Holiday shopping season. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: iMacs for up to $...
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. B&H will also include a free copy of Parallels Desktop software: - 21″ 1.4GHz... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: Mac minis availab...
B&H Photo has new 2014 Mac minis on sale for up to $80 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $459 $40 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac mini: $629 $70 off MSRP... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: Mac Pros for up t...
B&H Photo has Mac Pros on sale for up to $500 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 3.7GHz 4-core Mac Pro: $2599, $400 off MSRP - 3.5GHz 6-core Mac Pro: $3499, $... Read more
Save up to $400 on MacBooks with Apple Certif...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 MacBook Pros and MacBook Airs available for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and... Read more
Save up to $300 on Macs, $30 on iPads with Ap...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad at The Apple Store for Education and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free,... Read more
iOS and Android OS Targeted by Man-in-the-Mid...
Cloud services security provider Akamai Technologies, Inc. has released, through the company’s Prolexic Security Engineering & Research Team (PLXsert), a new cybersecurity threat advisory. The... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Store Leader Program (US) - Apple, I...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on experience, Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.