TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Teaching
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:12
Column Tag:Basic School

Games for Teaching Children

By Dave Kelly, MacTutor Editorial Board

Happy 3rd Birthday MacTutor!!! I can hardly believe that MacTutor has been around for a whole 3 years. The Macintosh has certainly come a long way in that time. All the way from a puny 128K RAM model to the gobs of memory available for the Macintosh II. Let’s celebrate!

Every celebration should not be complete with out friends. First I thank all of you readers that have supported MacTutor these past years. But all of this would not be possible if not for the vision of one special, although fictitious character, Professor Mac. For those of you that have not met the Professor, turn to your front cover and take a look just in front of the big ‘M’ in MacTutor. The Professor started out teaching you Apple II Pascal in the “Apple Shoppe” (also published by David Smith). Since that time we’ve seen him popping in and out of the covers of MacTutor. (see Best of MacTutor Vol 1, pg. 1, 8, 13, 61, 71, 92, 107, 313; Best of MacTutor Vol 2, pg. 2, 20, 42, 357, 371-375; not to mention the numerous times the Professor appears at the end of each and every MacTutor column.

A few days ago, the Professor reminded me that I haven’t written any games lately. So what should the game do? Well, my oldest son, who was 3 (now age 6) when we started up MacTutor, is now in first grade. Thanks to vol. 1 no. 1, Kevin now knows his ABC’s. (see Best of MacTutor Vol 1, pg. 298). I guess besides learning to read the next thing that first graders learn to do is count. So a counting game!!!

Last week Kevin brought home some homework that was just type of game I was looking for. The problems showed a price tag with a price. To solve the problem, he had to cut and paste pictures of coins under the price tag to equal the amount on the tag. So Professor Mac’s coin game was born. The object of the game is to click on the fewest possible number of coins to equal the amount of money shown in the price tag. If too many coins are selected the answer is not wrong, but the program lets you know that you could have done it with fewer coins. If you know that you have too many coins you may subtract coins by clicking the radio button named subtract and clicking on the coin you want to remove. The game does require some ability to read. Children that don’t know their numbers will have problems with this. At least it passed my kid test Kevin loved it.

Fig. 1 Our coin game display

On the technical side: the program doesn’t have any real surprizes technically. However, there are a few annoyances that appear to be ZBasic’s fault. In fact, sometimes I wish I was writing in Pascal or C. The blow by blow description follows:

There are four PICT resources, a quarter, a dime, a nickel, and a penny, which are used. These resources should be installed in the application itself in order to work. Creation of the coins was done via Thunderscan® by clipping the scanned pictures into a resource file using ResEdit. The “Get Coin Resources” subroutine gets the handles to the resources by using the ROM function GETNAMEDRESOURCE. Each resource is then loaded into memory (from the disk). Each coin is displayed on right side of the screen to give you something to click on to select the coins in the game. The ZBasic PICTURE statement will display the PICT resources by using the handle for the resource which was retrieved with GETNAMED RESOURCE. The active area to select each coin is marked by the Qrect, Drect, Nrect and Prect rectangles. Here is where the first problem shows up. The SETRECT call is used to set up the coordinates of each rectangle. But the SETRECT parameters are mixed up. Inside Macintosh shows SetRect parameters as being left, top, right, bottom in that order (see IM page I-174), but the ZBasic manual says the ZBasic parameters for SETRECT are Top, Left, Bottom, Right. The call (fortunately) works like IM; there is a typo in the ZBasic manual, pg. E-169.

The event loop is established using menu, dialog and mouse events in the same way that has been demonstrated in other programs. There are a few funnies that show up though. In earlier versions of the program, when I was still working on it, I used MOUSE ON, MOUSE OFF to control the About menu dialog. The problem was that when the About dialog was closed the screen erased itself just after the refresh routine did its refresh. This left a blank where the dialog window was. The screen had been updated, but something in ZBasic was trying to do its own refresh (I guess?). When I turned off all the event trapping for the About routine, the screen refreshed properly. This appears to be one of those little obscure bugs in ZBasic that nobody has fixed yet. This one problem turned what should have been a few minutes of programming into several hours trying to figure out what was going on. The GETMOUSE routine turned out to be just the solution. I get the feeling that I should be writing all my code using the toolbox calls and leave the ZBasic routines to the cockroaches (or other ‘bugs’).

‘Professor Mac’s Coin Game
‘By Dave Kelly
‘ ©MacTutor, DEC.1987
‘ For ZBasic™ version 4.0

WINDOW OFF
COORDINATE WINDOW
DEF MOUSE=-1
False=0:True=NOT False
DIM Qrect%(3), Drect%(3), Nrect%(3), Prect%(3),    Displayrect%(3)
DIM 63 A$(4)
Mousy=0:’Set up point record
Mousx=0:’for mouse location
WINDOW 1,””,(2,22)-(510,335),4
CALL SETRECT(Qrect(0),388,0,510,80)
CALL SETRECT(Drect(0),388,81,510,140)
CALL SETRECT(Nrect(0),388,141,510,215)
CALL SETRECT(Prect(0),388,216,510,310)
CALL SETRECT(Displayrect(0),0,140,385,250)
BUTTON 1,0,”Add Coins”,(300,80)-(375,100),2
BUTTON 2,0,”Subtract”,(300,110)-(375,130),2
APPLE MENU “About Professor Mac’s Coins ”
MENU 1,0,1,”File”
MENU 1,1,1,”New Amount/N”
MENU 1,2,1,”Quit/Q”
EDIT MENU 2
Amount!=0
GOSUB “Get Coin Resources”
GOSUB “Draw Page”
ON MENU GOSUB “MenuEvent”
ON DIALOG GOSUB “DialogEvent”
ON MOUSE GOSUB “MouseEvent”
MENU ON:DIALOG ON:MOUSE ON
DO
UNTIL TheEnd
MENU OFF:DIALOG OFF:MOUSE OFF
END

“MenuEvent”
Menunumber=MENU(0)
Menuitem=MENU(1)
MENU
SELECT Menunumber
 CASE 255
 GOSUB “AppleMenu”
 GOSUB “Display Amount”
 GOSUB “Draw Page”
 CASE 1
 GOSUB “FileMenu”
 CASE 2
END SELECT
RETURN

“AppleMenu”
WINDOW 2,””,(100,40)-(415,310),-2
TEXT 0,12
PRINT @(5,1)”Professor Mac’s Coin Game”
PRINT @(10,2)”by”
PRINT @(8,3)”Dave Kelly”
PRINT @(7,4)”©MacTutor, 1987"
PRINT @(7,5)”ZBasic version 4.0"
PRINT @(3,8)”Professor Mac’s MacTutor Store will”
PRINT @(3,9)”display prices on the price tag.”
PRINT @(3,10)”The object is to select (by clicking)”
PRINT @(3,11)”the fewest number of coins to equal”
PRINT @(3,12)”the price. Hopefully this may be of”
PRINT @(3,13)”assistance to children first learning”
PRINT @(3,14)”about money.”
DO
CALL GETMOUSE(Mousy)
outsiderect=(Mousx<0 OR Mousx>300 OR Mousy<0 OR Mousy>270)
UNTIL FN BUTTON AND NOT (outsiderect)
WINDOW CLOSE 2
RETURN

“FileMenu”
SELECT Menuitem
 CASE 1
 GOSUB “New”
 CASE 2
 GOSUB “Quit”
END SELECT
RETURN

“Quit”
‘Release all resource handles
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(QHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(DHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(NHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(PHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(THndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(MHndl&)
END

“New”
RANDOMIZE TIMER
Amount!=RND(100)*.01
Add=True
NumOfQ%=0
NumOfD%=0
NumOfN%=0
NumOfP%=0
Total!=0
GOSUB “Display Amount”
GOSUB “Display Total”
GOSUB “Draw Display”
BUTTON 1,2
BUTTON 2,1
RETURN

“DialogEvent”
Dilg=DIALOG(0)
SELECT Dilg
 CASE 5
 RefWin=DIALOG(5)
 ‘Get window to refresh
 WINDOW 1
 GOSUB “Display Amount”
 GOSUB “Draw Page”
 CASE 1
 Buttonpressed=DIALOG(1)
 BUTTON Buttonpressed,2
 LONG IF Buttonpressed=1
 BUTTON 2,1
 Add=True
 XELSE
 BUTTON 1,1
 Add=False
 END IF
END SELECT
RETURN

“Display Amount”
 TEXT 3,24,1,0
 PICTURE (60,50),THndl&
 CALL MOVETO (130,100)
 PRINT USING “$#.##”;Amount!;SPC(2)
RETURN

“Display Total”
 TEXT 2,12,1,0
 CALL MOVETO(5,285)
 PRINT NumOfQ;” Quarters, “; NumOfD;” Dimes, “;    NumOfN; “ Nickels, 
“; NumOfP;” Pennies”
 CALL MOVETO(5,300)
 PRINT “Total:”;USING “$#.##”;Total!
 ‘Check for winner
 IF Total!=Amount! AND Total!<>0 THEN GOSUB “WinDialog”

RETURN

“WinDialog”
Temp!=Amount!
CorrectNumOfQ%=Temp!/.25
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfQ%*.25
CorrectNumOfD%=Temp!/.1
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfD%*.1
CorrectNumOfN%=Temp!/.05
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfN%*.05
CorrectNumOfP%=Temp!*100
LONG IF NumOfQ%=CorrectNumOfQ% AND NumOfD%=        CorrectNumOfD% AND 
NumOfN%=  CorrectNumOfN% AND NumOfP%= CorrectNumOfP%
 A$(1)=”TA-DA!  You Did it!”
 A$(2)=”Select ‘New Amount’ to start again”
 A$(3)=””
 A$(4)=””
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
XELSE
 A$(1)=”Nice Try!”
 A$(2)=”You have too many coins!”
 A$(3)=”You should have: “+ STR$(CorrectNumOfQ%)+ “ Quarters, “ +STR$(CorrectNumOfD%)+ 
“ Dimes,”
 A$(4)=STR$(CorrectNumOfN%)+” Nickels, “+   STR$(CorrectNumOfP%)+” Pennies”
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
END IF
Amount!=0
BUTTON 1,0
BUTTON 2,0
RETURN

“TooMuchDialog”
 A$(1)=”Adding that coin will give you “+ USING  “$#.##”;Total!
 A$(2)=”Try a different coin!”
 A$(3)=” “
 A$(4)=” “
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
RETURN

“No More Coins”
 A$(1)=”Sorry, You don’t have any more “+Coin$
 A$(2)=” “
 A$(3)=” “
 A$(4)=” “
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
RETURN

“Get Coin Resources”
 QHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Quarter”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(QHndl&)
 DHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Dime”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(DHndl&)
 NHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Nickel”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(NHndl&)
 PHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Penny”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(PHndl&)
 THndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Tag”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(THndl&)
 MHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Professor Mac”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(MHndl&)
RETURN

“Draw Page”
 PICTURE (400,0),QHndl&
 PICTURE (406,78),DHndl&
 PICTURE (400,138),NHndl&
 PICTURE (406,220),PHndl&
 CALL MOVETO(385,0)
 CALL PENSIZE(2,2)
 CALL LINETO(385,340)
 CALL MOVETO(0,135)
 CALL LINETO(385,135)
 CALL PENNORMAL
 PICTURE (0,0),MHndl&
 CALL MOVETO(60,40)
 TEXT 2,18,0,0
 PRINT “Professor Mac’s Coin Game”
“Draw Display”
 CALL ERASERECT(Displayrect(0))
 IF NumOfQ>0 THEN PICTURE (0,140),QHndl&
 IF NumOfD>0 THEN PICTURE (100,140),DHndl&
 IF NumOfN>0 THEN PICTURE (200,140),NHndl&
 IF NumOfP>0 THEN PICTURE (300,140),PHndl&
RETURN

“MouseEvent”
IF Amount!=0 THEN FLUSHEVENTS:RETURN
CALL GETMOUSE(Mousy)
LONG IF (FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Qrect%(0)))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.25
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfQ-1<0
 Coin$=”Quarters!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ-1
 Total!=Total!-.25
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.25
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.25
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Drect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.1
 NumOfD=NumOfD+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfD-1<0
 Coin$=”Dimes!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfD=NumOfD-1
 Total!=Total!-.1
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.1
 NumOfD=NumOfD-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Nrect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.05
 NumOfN=NumOfN+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfN-1<0
 Coin$=”Nickels!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfN=NumOfN-1
 Total!=Total!-.05
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.05
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.05
 NumOfN=NumOfN-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Prect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.01
 NumOfP=NumOfP+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfP-1<0
 Coin$=”Pennies!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfP=NumOfP-1
 Total!=Total!-.01
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.01
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.01
 NumOfP=NumOfP-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
DO:UNTIL NOT (FN BUTTON)
FLUSHEVENTS
RETURN

 
AAPL
$117.68
Apple Inc.
+1.21
MSFT
$47.70
Microsoft Corpora
-0.29
GOOG
$541.23
Google Inc.
+3.73

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Cobook 3.0.7 - Intelligent address book....
Cobook Contacts is an intuitive, engaging address book. Solve the problem of contact management with Cobook Contacts and its simple interface and powerful syncing and integration possibilities.... Read more
StatsBar 1.9 - Monitor system processes...
StatsBar gives you a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the following areas of your Mac: CPU usage Memory usage Disk usage Network and bandwidth usage Battery power and health (MacBooks only)... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6 - FTP and SFTP browser. (F...
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
Maya 2015 - Professional 3D modeling and...
Maya is an award-winning software and powerful, integrated 3D modeling, animation, visual effects, and rendering solution. Because Maya is based on an open architecture, all your work can be scripted... Read more
Evernote 6.0.1 - Create searchable notes...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more
calibre 2.11 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital... Read more
Herald 5.0.1 - Notification plugin for M...
Note: Versions 2.1.3 (for OS X 10.7), 3.0.6 (for OS X 10.8), and 4.0.8 (for OS X 10.9) are no longer supported by the developer. Herald is a notification plugin for Mail.app, Apple's Mac OS X email... Read more
Firetask 3.7 - Innovative task managemen...
Firetask uniquely combines the advantages of classical priority-and-due-date-based task management with GTD. Stay focused and on top of your commitments - Firetask's "Today" view shows all relevant... Read more
TechTool Pro 7.0.6 - Hard drive and syst...
TechTool Pro is now 7, and this is the most advanced version of the acclaimed Macintosh troubleshooting utility created in its 20-year history. Micromat has redeveloped TechTool Pro 7 to be fully 64... Read more
PhotoDesk 3.0.1 - Instagram client for p...
PhotoDesk lets you view, like, comment, and download Instagram pictures/videos! (NO Uploads! / Image Posting! Instagram forbids that! AND you *need* an *existing* Instagram account). But you can do... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

The Hunted Review
The Hunted Review By Jordan Minor on November 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: A GROAN IN THE DARKUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad The Hunted’s multiplayer thrills are overshadowed by bland visuals and average gameplay.   | Read more »
Need for Speed No Limits has Been Unveil...
Need for Speed No Limits has Been Unveiled for iOS Posted by Ellis Spice on November 24th, 2014 [ permalink ] EA and Firemonkeys have announced Need for Speed No Limits, the next mobile installment | Read more »
Space Expedition Review
Space Expedition Review By Jordan Minor on November 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: ONE SMALL STEPUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad The only thing boring about Space Expedition’s lonely journey is its title.   | Read more »
Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to E...
Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to Earn In-Game Stuff for Far Cry 4 Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Golfinity – Tips, Tricks, Strategies, an...
Dig this: Would you like to know what we thought of being an infinite golfer? Check out our Golfinity review! Golfinity offers unlimited ways to test your skills at golf. Here are a few ways to make sure your score doesn’t get too high and your... | Read more »
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Meli...
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Melissa, is Available Now Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Meowza! Toyze Brings Talking Tom to Life...
Meowza! | Read more »
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG f...
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG for Mobile, Heavenstrike Rivals. Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] With their epic stories and gorgeous graphics, | Read more »
Quest for Revenge (Games)
Quest for Revenge 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: The great Kingdom of the west has fallen. The gods ignore the prayers of the desperate. A dark warlord has extinguished... | Read more »
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for Y...
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for You and Your Friends Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] In the tradition of round-robin storytelling, | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Jumptuit Launches One-Tap Windows 8.1 iTunes...
Jumptuit has launched Windows 8.1 support for One-Tap iTunes Sync. with which Windows 8.1 users can now easily sync their iTunes libraries with Microsoft OneDrive. Jumptuit provides easy access from... Read more
CEA Study Finds More People Recycling Electro...
A new study by the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) finds that electronics recycling receives the continued and growing support of consumers. According to the CEA,s Recycling and Reuse Study,... Read more
15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $17...
 B&H Photo has the 2014 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale today for $1749. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. B&H will also include free copies of Parallels Desktop... Read more
27-inch 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on...
 B&H Photo has the new 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on sale for $2299 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available... Read more
21-inch 1.4GHz iMac on sale for $979, save $1...
B&H Photo has the new 21″ 1.4GHz iMac on sale for $979.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP. B&H will also include free copies of Parallels Desktop... Read more
13-inch 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air on sale for...
B&H Photo has lowered their price on the 13″ 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air to $1059.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $140 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for this... Read more
Save up to $400 with Apple refurbished 2014 1...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping... Read more
New 13-inch 1.4GHz MacBook Air on sale for $8...
 Adorama has the 2014 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $899.99 including free shipping plus NY & NJ tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook... Read more
Apple Expected to Reverse Nine-Month Tablet S...
Apple and Samsung combined accounted for 62 percent of the nearly 36 million branded tablets shipped in 3Q 2014, according to early vendor shipment share estimates from market intelligence firm ABI... Read more
Stratos: 30 Percent of US Smartphone Owners t...
Stratos, Inc., creator of the Bluetooth Connected Card Platform, has announced results from its 2014 Holiday Mobile Payments Survey. The consumer survey found that nearly one out of three (30 percent... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC)- Retail S...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Store Leader Program - College Gradu...
Job Description: Job Summary As an Apple Store Leader Program agent, you can continue your education as you major in the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.