Number Format
 Volume Number: 3 Issue Number: 11 Column Tag: Assembly Language Lab

# Formatted Output for Numbers

By Mike™ Scanlin, San Diego, CA

On most systems, programmers of high level languages have an advantage over assembly language programmers in that a lot of the nitty gritty detail work has been done for them by what ever compiler or interpretter they’re using. An example of this is in the outputting of numbers. High level language programmers usually take it for granted that they can output a number in just about any format they want to. Pascal’s writeln and C’s printf make it a trivial task to change the field width of both integers and reals. While it’s true that assembly programmers can make use of _NumToString or the SANE formatter, we still need to play with the resulting strings to get nice formatted numbers. Until now.

## CONVERTING INTEGERS

The basic idea when converting an integer into its string equivalent is to first break it down into its digits and then convert each digit into its ASCII equivalent. The only tricky part is that a number is represented as binary internally and we need its decimal equivalent.

There are at least 2 different ways to approach the problem of extracting base 10 digits from a binary number. The _NumToString routine that Apple provides in the system file (see listing 1) uses binary coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic to calculate the digits and then calls a separate subroutine to build the string two digits at a time (the least significant bytes of registers D1-D5 are used to store 2 BCD digits each). The main problem with this algorithm is that it runs in more or less constant time (the number 1 takes as long to convert as 2147483648 = 2^31) and isn’t very efficient except for very large numbers (about 7 or more digits).

Another way to get digits one by one is to subtract by successively smaller powers of 10, starting with 10^9 (since it is the largest power of 10 that can be represented by a 32 bit integer). Count how many times you can subtract each power of 10 from the number and then convert that number (which will be in the range 0..9) to its ASCII equivalent. If you use multi-word compares and subtracts, this method can be used to convert any size integers (like 64 or 128 bits) into strings.

My own NumToString routine (Shown in the program listing) uses the subtract method. How does the subtract method compare to the real _NumToString? As for size, _NumToString is 118 bytes (after all of the trap related instructions are removed) and my routine is 120 bytes. Pretty close. As for speed, time trials on 10,000 random 32 bit signed integers showed my routine to be faster by about 2% -- no big deal. But for time trials on 10,000 16 bit signed integers my routine was faster by 32% and for 10,000 8 bit signed integers my routine was faster by 45% (to be fair, _NumToString was timed after it had been isolated so there was no overhead for trap calling). The reason the smaller numbers showed so much improvement is because my routine doesn’t spend much time on little digits (0,1,2...) and virtually no time on leading zeros. If you have a time critical application that makes a lot of calls to _NumToString, it may be worthwhile to use my routine instead. Of course, you could just patch my routine over the existing _NumToString in the system file to speed up all applications that use _NumToString -- no, wait, I didn’t just say that (and I’m not responsible for the consequences. Is there any reason that wouldn’t work?).

Fig. 1 Demo Program formats numerical output

## CONVERTING FIXED POINT REALS

When you use DIVS or DIVU, the 32 bit result is made up of 16 bits of quotient and 16 bits of remainder. The FixPtToString routine uses these two pieces to convert a fixed point number to a string. Since the quotient is just an integer, we can use NumToString to convert it. Then add a decimal point and convert the remainder. But in order to convert the remainder into a fractional number, we need to know the original divisor. We also need to specify how many digits we want after the decimal point.

For each digit you want after the decimal point, the routine multiplies the remainder by 10 and then divides the it by the divisor, getting a new remainder in the process. It adds the digit to the string and then repeats the process for the next digit. However, there is a limited number of times that this can be done accurately (since we only have 16 bits of remainder to begin with). The number of digits that can be accurately calculated depends on the magnitude of the divisor, but 5 or 6 digits should be safe.

Note that the number you pass to FixPtToString doesn’t have to be the result of a divide instruction. You can output any arbitrary fixed point number you want by using the same basic idea. If you wanted an integer part bigger than 16 bits, you could output the number in a two part process. FixPtToString could be modified to be FractionToString by eliminating instructions 3 (EXT.L D0) thru 17 (BEQ.S @6) inclusive. Then it will tack on whatever fraction you pass it to what ever string you pass it. For instance, to output the number 1864723135.24226 (.24226 = 47/194):

``` MOVE.L stringPtr(A5),A0
MOVE.L #1864723135,D0  ;quotient
JSR    NumToString
MOVE   #47,D0   ;remainder
SWAP   D0;no need to set quot
MOVE   #194,D1  ;divisor
MOVE   #5,D2    ;5 digits accuracy
JSR    FractionToString
MOVE.L A0,-(SP)
_DrawString
```

## FORMATTING

Now that we can get integers and reals into strings we need to be able to set field widths. Also, an option to add commas would be nice. The FormNumString routine does both of these. You pass it a pointer to a format string of the form: [‘,’][q[‘.’[r]]] where [ ] denotes something optional and ‘.’ and ‘,’ denote a constant character. Q and r are string variables in the range [‘0’..’99'] and represent how many spaces should be allocated for the quotient (including sign and commas) and remainder (not including decimal point). Notice that everything is optional, so the empty string is a legal one, but one that won’t do much (i.e. any) formatting. Also, the word “string” here does not mean a pascal string; i.e. there is no length byte. The nested brackets mean that you can’t have a ‘.’ if a q was not provided and you can’t have an r if a ‘.’ wasn’t provided. If q is too small to contain the number, space is used as needed. If it is too big, the number will be padded with spaces. If r is bigger than any existing remainder the number might have, zeros are appended after the decimal point (which doesn’t do much for the accuracy of the extra digits). If r is smaller than any existing remainder, then digits are just dropped. No attempt at rounding is made.

Another use for this routine is to reformat the output string from the SANE formatter. The SANE formatter can format any SANE data type into a fixed sytle number (see the Apple Numerics Manual for everything you ever wanted to know about SANE). So, you could use SANE to do all of your calculations in floating point and have your result formatted into a fixed style string and then use FormNumString to add commas, pad with spaces and delete decimal places (or add zeros) to make all your numbers uniform.

Fig. 2 Program supports easy updating with a picture

## PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

The 3 routines NumToString, FixPtToString and FormNumString have been pieced together to form DrawNumsInAString which can be used to output complete sentences containing any number of formatted numbers. For instance, you could pass it the string “result = \f,8.4.” along with the fixed point number 123456.789 and it will output “result = 12,3456.7890.” Each number you want formatted in the input string will begin with a ‘\’ character and be followed by an ‘i’ (for longints) or an ‘f’ (for fixed points). After that comes the FormNumString style format codes for the number. The only peculiar part of using the routine is that the numbers you want formatted have to be pushed on the stack in reverse of their occuring order in the string. For instance, if your input string looks like “x = \i4 y = \i4 z = \i4” then you would do this:

``` MOVE.L z,-(SP)  ;3rd parameter
MOVE.L y,-(SP)  ;2nd
MOVE.L x,-(SP)  ;1st
PEA    inputString
JSR    DrawNumsInAString
```

The reason for passing the parameters that way is (1) because we don’t know how many will be present in advance, and (2) so that they can be taken off the stack in the order needed.

## DEMO PROGRAM

The FormatDemo program shows how all of this comes together. It is a bare bones application that demonstrates how the routines presented here might be used. A click in the window will generate another set of random numbers to format. Desk accessories are supported and you can see a simple technique for providing window updating without an update event. Whenever a content click is detected, a set of addition and division problems are displayed in formatted output using the formatting routines discussed. After displaying the numbers, a quickdraw picture is taken of the window output using copybits on the portRect of the window. The appropriate field in the window record is set with the pointer to this picture so that when the window needs updating, it is updated automatically from the picture. Figures 1 and 2 show the demo program in operation with a desk accessory showing this easy update method. A good reference book for this and all assembly language techniques is Dan Weston’s classic The Complete Book of Macintosh Assembly Language Programming, vol. 1 and 2, from Scott, Foresman and Company.

```{1}
Listing 1. The Apple Way
; NOTE: This code is Apple Computer’s. Only

;==========
NumToString
;==========
; convert a 32 bit longint into a pascal string
;  input: D0 longint
;  A0 points to a space of at least 12 bytes
; output: A0 points to pascal string

MOVEM.LD0-D6/A1,-(SP)
MOVEQ  #0,D1    ;init digits
MOVEQ  #0,D2
MOVEQ  #0,D3
MOVEQ  #0,D4
MOVEQ  #0,D5
MOVEQ  #31,D6   ;loop counter
LEA    1(A0),A1 ;skip length byte
TST.L  D0;is num zero?
BGT.S  @2
BMI.S  @1
MOVE.B #’0',(A1)+ ;special case for zero
BRA.S  @3
@1 MOVE.B #’-’,(A1)+ ;give string a minus sign
NEG.L  D0;make number positive
@2 ADD.LD0,D0    ;shift a bit into extend flag
ABCD   D5,D5    ;tens’ & ones’ digits
ABCD   D4,D4    ;thous’ & hunds’ digits
ABCD   D3,D3    ;hund thous’ & ten thous’ digits
ABCD   D2,D2    ;ten mils’ & mils’ digits
ABCD   D1,D1    ;bils’ & hund mils’ digits
DBRA   D6,@2    ;do next bit
; NOTE: at this point D6 = -1. It is used as a flag to
BSR.S  Do2Digits
MOVE.B D2,D1
BSR.S  Do2Digits
MOVE.B D3,D1
BSR.S  Do2Digits
MOVE.B D4,D1
BSR.S  Do2Digits
MOVE.B D5,D1
BSR.S  Do2Digits
;calculate length of string that was created
@3 MOVE A1,D0    ;end of string + 1
SUB    A0,D0    ;beginning of string
SUBQ.B #1,D0    ;minus 1 for length byte
MOVE.B D0,(A0)
MOVEM.L(SP)+,A1/D0-D6
RTS

Do2Digits
;convert BCD byte in D1 into 2 ASCII digits.
;do most significant digit
ROR    #4,D1
;do least significant digit
ROL    #4,D1
TST    D6;have we had a non-zero digit yet?
BPL.S  @6
TST.B  D1;is this a leading zero?
BEQ.S  @7
MOVEQ  #0,D6    ;print all zeros from now on
@6 ORI.B#\$30,D1  ;covert BCD digit to ASCII
MOVE.B D1,(A1)+ ;add it to the string
SUB.B  D1,D1
@7 RTS

; DrawNumsInAString.asm
;----------------------
; by Mike™ Scanlin

Include Traps.D

Xref  DrawNumsInAString,NumToString,FixPtToString,FormNumString
Xref  GetANumber

;================
DrawNumsInAString
;================
```

Draw a string that may contain implicit formatted numbers. input: stack contains numbers that will be needed and a pointer a string. The numbers should be pushed on the stack in order from last to first (so they can be poped off in order from first to last). The last thing to be pushed on the stack is the string pointer. Each formatted number within the input string begins with a ‘\’ and then either an ‘i’ (for longints) or a ‘f’ (for a fixed point number). For fixed points, first push the fixed point number, then the divisor to be used to calculate the remainder. The formatting after the ‘i’ or ‘f’ is the same as for the FormNumString routine. output: a string is drawn A0,D0 are trashed.

```{2}
MOVEM.LA0-A3/D1-D2,-(SP)
LEA    28(SP),A3;point to first parameter
MOVE.L A3,-(SP) ;save initial position
MOVE.L (A3)+,A2 ;string pointer
@1 MOVEQ#0,D0
MOVE.B (A2)+,D0
BEQ.S  @10 ;end of string found
CMPI.B #’\’,D0  ;is it a number?
BEQ.S  @2
MOVE   D0,-(SP)
_DrawChar
BRA.S  @1
;we got a number to format
@2 LEA  scratch,A0
MOVE.B (A2)+,D0
CMPI.B #’i’,D0  ;is it a longint?
BNE.S  @4
;handle integers
MOVE.L (A3)+,D0 ;get longint
JSR    NumToString
BRA.S  @5;go format it
@4 CMPI.B #’f’,D0;is it a fixed point?
BNE.S  @1;if not, ignore it
;handle fixed point
MOVEA.LA2,A1
;find out how many decimal places should be passed to
; FixPtToString
MOVE.B (A1)+,D0 ;skip comma, if present
CMPI.B #’,’,D0
BEQ.S  @4.1
SUBA   #1,A1
@4.1  JSR GetANumber
BMI.S  @1;no quotient present
MOVE.B (A1)+,D0
CMPI.B #’.’,D0
BNE.S  @4.2
JSR    GetANumber
MOVE   D0,D2
BPL.S  @4.3
@4.2  MOVEQ #0,D2;no remainder
@4.3  MOVE(A3)+,D1 ;get divisor
MOVE.L (A3)+,D0 ;get fixed point num
JSR    FixPtToString
;do the formatting
@5 MOVEA.LA2,A1  ;addr of format string
JSR    FormNumString
MOVEA.LA1,A2    ;point past format string
MOVE.L A0,-(SP)
_DrawString
BRA.S  @1
@10SUBA.L (SP)+,A3 ;calc len of params
MOVE   A3,D0
MOVEM.L(SP)+,D1-D2/A0-A3
JMP    (A0)

scratch DCB.B  40,0

; FixPtToString.asm
;------------------
; by Mike™ Scanlin

Xref  FixPtToString,NumToString

;============
FixPtToString
;============
; convert a 32 bit fixed point number into a pascal
; string.
;  input: D0 fixed point number
;  D1 16 bit divisor used when D0 was calculated
;  D2 # of digits after decimal point (D2=0 for no
;          dec point)
;  A0 points to a space of at least (8 + D2) bytes
; output: A0 points to pascal string

MOVEM.LD0-D3/A1,-(SP)
MOVE.L D0,D3    ;save quotient & remainder
EXT.L  D0;sign extend quotient
JSR    NumToString
;if q = 0 and the result should be < 0, we’ll have to
;(NumToString won’t know about it, since all it sees is
; a zero quotient)
TST    D3;q = 0?
BNE.S  @0
TST.L  D3;check remainder
BEQ.S  @0;q & r both zero
;if r & divisor have the same sign, then result will
; be > 0
EXT.L  D1
MOVE.L D1,D0
EOR.L  D3,D0
BPL.S  @0
MOVE.B #’-’,1(A0)
MOVE.B #’0',2(A0)
MOVE.B #2,(A0)  ;new length
@0 TST  D2;do we want a decimal point?
BEQ.S  @6
MOVEQ  #0,D0
MOVE.B (A0),D0  ;length of quotient
LEA    1(A0,D0),A1;end of string + 1
MOVE.B #’.’,(A1)+
TST.L  D1;make divisor positive
BPL.S  @1
NEG.L  D1
@1 TST.LD3;make remainder positive
BPL.S  @2
NEG.L  D3
@2 SWAP D3
ANDI.L #\$FFFF,D3;isolate remainder
SUBQ   #1,D2    ;loop control
@3 ADD.LD3,D3    ;mult r by 10
MOVE.L D3,D0
ADD.L  D0,D3    ;10x = 8x + 2x
MOVEQ  #’0',D0  ;init digit
@4 CMP.LD1,D3    ;is 10r > divisor?
BLT.S  @5
SUB.L  D1,D3    ;subtract divisor
BNE.S  @4
@5 MOVE.B D0,(A1)+ ;add to string
DBRA   D2,@3
MOVE   A1,D0    ;calc length of new string
SUB    A0,D0
SUBQ.B #1,D0    ;minus 1 for length byte
MOVE.B D0,(A0)
@6 MOVEM.L(SP)+,A1/D0-D3
RTS

; FormNumString.asm
;------------------
; by Mike™ Scanlin

Xref  FormNumString,GetANumber

;============
FormNumString
;============
; format the string representation of a number (integer
; or real) according to a format string.
; input: A0 points to string of a number (which should
; be in a space big enough for formatting result)
;  A1 points to format string
;  syntax of format string is [‘,’]d[d][‘.’[d[d]]]
;     where ‘’ denote a constant char and d denotes
;     a digit ‘0’..’9'
;  there is no length byte for these strings.
;   valid strings  invalid strings
;3 230. (230 too big [99 max])
;    4.0 or 4.   .0(need a d before ‘.’)
;,3.4   ,.4 (need a d between ‘,.’)
;,12.20 0.123  (123 too big)
; output: A0 points to formatted string of a number
;  A1 points to first byte after format string

MOVEM.LD0-D5/A2,-(SP)
CMPI.B #’,’,(A1)
BNE.S  @6
;do commas
;first find out if a decimal point in the string
MOVEQ  #0,D0
MOVE.B (A0),D0  ;length of string
MOVE   D0,D2    ;save in case it’s and int
SUBQ   #1,D0    ;loop control
; D0 counts how many digits from the end of the string
; to the decimal point (including the decimal
; point -- which is why it starts out as 1 and not 0).
; If the number is an int, then D0=0
MOVEQ  #1,D1
@1 CMPI.B #’.’,1(A0,D0) ;dec point, it’s a real
BEQ.S  @2
DBRA   D0,@1
;it’s an integer
MOVE   D2,D0
MOVEQ  #0,D1
@2 MOVE D1,D5    ;save length of fraction
MOVEQ  #3,D2    ;# of digits until next comma
SUBQ   #1,D0
@3 ADDQ #1,D1    ;total len, from end to cur pos
SUBQ   #1,D2
BNE.S  @5
MOVE   D0,D3
MOVE.B (A0,D0),D0
BNE.S  @6
MOVE   D3,D0
;move some chars, add a comma, increase string length.
MOVE   D1,D4    ;loop control
SUBQ   #1,D4
LEA    1(A0,D0),A2
@4 MOVE.B (A2,D4),1(A2,D4)
DBRA   D4,@4
MOVE.B #’,’,(A2)
MOVEQ  #3,D2    ;reset counter
@5 DBRA D0,@3
;get next byte of format string
@6 BSR.SGetANumber ;D0 = q
BMI.S  @16 ;no q provided -- leave
MOVEQ  #0,D2
MOVE.B (A0),D2  ;length of string
MOVE   D2,D1
SUB    D5,D1    ;D1=len of quotient now
SUB    D1,D0
BMI.S  @10
BEQ.S  @10
ADD.B  D0,(A0)  ;increase length by D0 spaces
;add D0 # of preceeding spaces
@7 LEA  1(A0,D0),A2
SUBQ   #1,D2
@8 MOVE.B 1(A0,D2),(A2,D2)
DBRA   D2,@8
SUBQ   #1,D0
@9 MOVE.B #’ ‘,1(A0,D0)
DBRA   D0,@9
;do remainder
@10CMPI.B #’.’,(A1)
BNE.S  @16
;make sure there is a decimal point already
LEA    1(A0),A2
MOVEQ  #0,D0
MOVE.B (A0),D0
SUBQ   #1,D0
@11CMP.B#’.’,(A2)+
BEQ.S  @12
DBRA   D0,@11
MOVE.B #’.’,(A2)+
@12BSR.SGetANumber
BMI.S  @16 ;no r provided -- leave
; D0 is how many digits they want. D5 is
@13SUBQ #1,D5
@14CMP  D5,D0
BEQ.S  @16
BPL.S  @15
SUB.B  #1,(A0)
BRA.S  @13
BRA.S  @14
@16MOVEM.L(SP)+,A2/D0-D5
RTS

;=========
GetANumber
;=========
; convert a one or two digit ASCII integer into
; its numerical form
;  input: A1 points to digit(s)
; output: D0 is the decimal equivalent (-1 if A1
; didn’t point to a digit)
;  A1 points to byte after digit(s)
;  Z and N flags reflect the value of D0
MOVEM.LD1-D2,-(SP)
MOVEQ  #0,D0
MOVE.B (A1),D0
BEQ.S  @2
MOVEQ  #-1,D0
BRA.S  @4
MOVE   D0,D1    ;save first digit
MOVE.B (A1),D0
BEQ.S  @3
MOVE   D1,D0
BRA.S  @4
ADD    D1,D1    ;multiply first digit by 10
MOVE   D1,D2
@4 MOVEM.L(SP)+,D1-D2
TST    D0
RTS

;=========
;=========
; If the ASCII byte in D0 is in ‘0’..’9' it’s
; value [0..9]
; is returned in D0. If D0 is a digit, all
; flags are set.
CMPI.B #’0',D0
BLT.S  @1
CMPI.B #’9',D0
BGT.S  @1
SUBI.B #’0',D0
MOVE   #-1,CCR  ;set all flags
RTS
@1 MOVE #0,CCR   ;clear all flags
RTS

; NumToString.asm
;----------------
; by Mike™ Scanlin
; an alternative to _NumToString

Xref  NumToString

;==========
NumToString
;==========
; convert a 32 bit integer into a pascal string
;  input: D0 longint
;  A0 points to a space of at least 12 bytes
; output: A0 points to pascal string

MOVEM.LD0-D4/A1-A2,-(SP)
LEA    1(A0),A1 ;skip length byte
TST.L  D0;is number zero?
BGT.S  @2
BMI.S  @1
MOVE.B #’0',(A1)+ ;special case for zero
BRA.S  @8
@1 MOVE.B #’-’,(A1)+ ;give string a minus sign
NEG.L  D0;make number positive
@2 LEA  PowersTable,A2
MOVEQ  #1,D3    ;set leading zeros flag
MOVEQ  #9,D4    ;loop counter
@3 MOVE.L (A2)+,D2 ;get a power of 10
MOVEQ  #’0',D1  ;init digit
@4 CMP.LD2,D0    ;is # > power of 10?
BLT.S  @5
SUB.L  D2,D0    ;subtract power of 10
BNE.S  @4
@5 TST  D3;have we had a non-zero digit yet?
BEQ.S  @6
CMP.B  #’0',D1  ;is this a leading zero?
BEQ.S  @7
MOVEQ  #0,D3    ;print all zeros from now on
@6 MOVE.B D1,(A1)+
@7 DBRA D4,@3
@8 MOVE A1,D0    ;calc length of new string
SUB    A0,D0
SUBQ.B #1,D0    ;minus 1 for length byte
MOVE.B D0,(A0)
MOVEM.L(SP)+,A1-A2/D0-D4
RTS

PowersTable:
DC.L 1000000000
DC.L 100000000
DC.L 10000000
DC.L 1000000
DC.L 100000
DC.L 10000
DC.L 1000
DC.L 100
DC.L 10
DC.L 1

; Resource File
RESOURCE ‘FRED’ 0 ‘IDENTIFICATION’
DC.B 14, ‘Format Program’

.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE ‘BNDL’ 128 ‘BUNDLE’

DC.L ‘FRED’;name
DC.W 0,1‘;data
DC.L ‘ICN#’;icon map
DC.W 0 ;mapping-1
DC.W 0,128 ;map 0 to 128

DC.L ‘FREF’;file ref
DC.W 0 ;maps-1
DC.W 0,128 ;map 0 to 128

RESOURCE ‘FREF’ 128 ‘FREF 1’

DC.B ‘APPL’,0,0,0

.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE ‘ICN#’ 128 ‘MY ICON’

DC.L \$00000000, \$00000000, \$07FFFFC0, \$18000030
DC.L \$202038E8, \$40604514, \$80204412, \$80204422
DC.L \$80204441, \$80204481, \$802139F1, \$80000001
DC.L \$80000001, \$80F81021, \$80103061, \$802010A1
DC.L \$80701121, \$800811F1, \$80881021, \$80711021
DC.L \$80000001, \$80201801, \$80602001, \$80204001
DC.L \$9E207802, \$80204402, \$40204404, \$20213808
DC.L \$18000030, \$07FFFFC0, \$00000000, \$00000000
DC.L \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF
DC.L \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF
DC.L \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF
DC.L \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF
DC.L \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF
DC.L \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF
DC.L \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF
DC.L \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF, \$FFFFFFFF

.ALIGN 2
DC.W 0 ;width holder
DC.W 0 ;height holder
DC.L 0 ;resource id holder
DC.L \$1FB;flags enable all except 2
DC.B 1 ;title length
DC.B 20;title apple symbol

DC.B 0 ;no icon
DC.B 0 ;no keyboard equiv
DC.B 0 ;marking char
DC.B 0 ;style of item text

DC.B ‘--’
DC.B 0 ;no icon
DC.B 0 ;no keyboard equiv
DC.B 0 ;marking char
DC.B 0 ;style of item text

DC.B 0 ;end of menu items

.ALIGN 2
DC.W 0 ;width holder
DC.W 0 ;height holder
DC.L 0 ;resource id
DC.L \$1FF;flags
DC.B 4 ;title length
DC.B ‘File’;title

DC.B ‘Quit/Q’
DC.B 0 ;no icon
DC.B 0 ;no keyboard
DC.B 0 ;no marking
DC.B 0 ;style

DC.B 0 ;end of menu items

.ALIGN 2
DC.W 0 ;width holder
DC.W 0 ;height holder
DC.L 0 ;resource id
DC.L \$1F8;flags - DISABLE
DC.B 16;title length
DC.B ‘Click in Window ‘  ;title

DC.B ‘’
DC.B 0 ;no icon
DC.B 0 ;no keyboard
DC.B 0 ;no marking
DC.B 0 ;style

DC.B 0 ;end of menu items
```

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WebSnapperPro 2.0.5 - \$20.00
WebSnapperPro lets you capture full web pages exactly as they appear in your browser, with a single mouse click, without the need to "stitch" or cut-and-paste. Save the page as an image file or as... Read more
VOX 3.2.1 - Music player that supports m...
VOX just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all audio formats you should ever need.... Read more
Evernote 7.0 - Create searchable notes a...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more
Hopper Disassembler 4.3.16- - Binary dis...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
VOX 3.2.1 - Music player that supports m...
VOX just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all audio formats you should ever need.... Read more
Evernote 7.0 - Create searchable notes a...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more
Hopper Disassembler 4.3.16- - Binary dis...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
Default Folder X 5.2.2 - Enhances Open a...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more
EtreCheck 4.0.1 - For troubleshooting yo...
EtreCheck is an app that displays the important details of your system configuration and allow you to copy that information to the Clipboard. It is meant to be used with Apple Support Communities to... Read more
Carbon Copy Cloner 5.0.9 - Easy-to-use b...
Carbon Copy Cloner backups are better than ordinary backups. Suppose the unthinkable happens while you're under deadline to finish a project: your Mac is unresponsive and all you hear is an ominous,... Read more

## Latest Forum Discussions

Our top 5 characters from casual RPG Cre...
Creature Quest definitely lives up to its name with a host of collectible creatures based on fantasy tales and world mythologies. To celebrate Creature Quest’s first birthday, we’re going to lay out what we think are the five best characters in the... | Read more »
Around the Empire: What have you missed...
Did you know that Steel Media has a whole swathe of other sites dedicated to all aspects of mobile gaming? Sure you'll get the very best iPhone news, reviews, and opinions right here at 148Apps, but we don't want you missing out on a single piece... | Read more »
All the best games on sale for iPhone an...
Oh hi there, and welcome to our round-up of the best games that are currently on sale for iPhone and iPad. You thought I didn't see you there, did you, skulking behind the bushes? Trust me though, the bushes aren't where the best deals are. The... | Read more »
The Battle of Polytopia Guide - How to H...
A new update just released for The Battle of Polytopia (formerly Super Tribes), which introduces online multiplayer. For all the fans of Midjiwan’s lite take on Civilization, this is certainly welcome news, but playing online isn’t as easy and... | Read more »
Here are the very best mobile games to p...
It's Valentine's Day! Did you get loads of cards and chocolates and other tacky, simple expressions of human affection? Did you send out tat because you find it almost impossible to express emotion unless there's a section dedicated to it at your... | Read more »
Florence (Games)
Florence 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: \$2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Florence is an interactive storybook from the award-winning lead designer of Monument Valley about the heart-racing highs and... | Read more »
Purrfect Date (Games)
Purrfect Date 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: \$4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Cats are a lil’ like marmite. Either you absolutely head-over-heels love’ em, or… nahhh, who are we kidding?! Everyone... | Read more »
More monsters to collect and evolve in C...
A laid-back mix of RPG and TCG, Creature Quest is all about building your deck, evolving your creatures and winning in battle. It’s the creation of VC Mobile, set up by Might and Magic producer Jon Van Caneghem. There are elements of that classic... | Read more »
Check out this awesome hands-on with the...
Well, PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds has come out on mobile. This isn't a clone, this isn't a riff on the battleroyale mechanics of the game, it's the official mobile port by Tencent. But there's a little bit of a hitch. [Read more] | Read more »
Hostage Negotiator (Entertainment)
Hostage Negotiator 1.1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Entertainment Price: \$3.99, Version: 1.1.0 (iTunes) Description: Official app of the board game by AJ Porfirio and Van Ryder Games. In Hostage Negotiator, you play the part of... | Read more »

## Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

13″ 3.1GHz/256GB Silver Touch Bar MacBook Pro...
Amazon has the Silver 13″ 3.1GHz/256GB Touch Bar MacBook Pro (MPXX2LL/A) on sale for \$1649.99 including free shipping. Their price is \$150 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for a new 13″... Read more
Saturday Sale: Amazon offers 13″ 1.8GHz/256GB...
Amazon has the 13″ 1.8GHz/256B Apple MacBook Air on sale today for \$250 off MSRP including free shipping: – 13″ 1.8GHz/256GB MacBook Air (MQD42LL/A): \$949.99, \$250 off MSRP Their price is the lowest... Read more
Roundup of Apple Certified Refurbished 12″ Ma...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2017 12″ Retina MacBooks available for \$200-\$240 off the cost of new models. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping is free.... Read more
Apple offers Certified Refurbished 10″ and 12...
Apple is now offering Certified Refurbished 2017 10″ and 12″ iPad Pros for \$100-\$190 off MSRP, depending on the model. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: –... Read more
Apple Canada offers Certified Refurbished Mac...
Canadian shoppers can save up to \$560 on the purchase of a 2017 current-generation MacBook Pro, MacBook, or MacBook Air with Certified Refurbished models at Apple Canada. Apple’s refurbished prices... Read more
Sale! 13″ MacBook Airs for up to \$180 off MSR...
B&H Photo has 13″ MacBook Airs on sale for \$50-\$120 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents only: – 13″ 1.8GHz/128GB MacBook Air (MQD32LL/A): \$899, \$... Read more
Sale! New 8-core iMac Pro for \$4799, \$200 off...
Adorama has the 8-core iMac Pro on sale for \$4799 including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. Their price is \$200 off MSRP, and it’s the currently lowest price available for an iMac Pro. Read more
Sale! Walmart lowers prices even more on 9″ i...
Walmart has lowered their sale price on 9.7″ Apple iPads to \$80 off MSRP for a limited time. Sale prices are for online orders only, in-store prices may vary: – 9″ 32GB iPad: \$249.99 \$80 off – 9″... Read more
Roundup of 13″ MacBook Pro sales, models avai...
B&H Photo has 13″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to \$200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents only. Their prices are the lowest available for these... Read more
Roundup of 15″ MacBook Pros sale, models up t...
B&H Photo has 15″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to \$200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents only: – 15″ 2.8GHz Touch Bar MacBook Pro Space Gray (... Read more

## Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
# Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 113501424 Norman, Oklahoma, United States Posted: 15-Feb-2018 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** Are you passionate about Read more
Senior Program Manager - *Apple* Music - Ap...
# Senior Program Manager - Apple Music Job Number: 113393020 Seattle, Washington, United States Posted: 02-Feb-2018 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** Apple is Read more