TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Color Capable
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Macintosh II

Lazy Man's Color

By Steven Sheets, Hoffman Estates, IL

Newsbreak....Cupertino, Calif.....Color is here!

The new Macintosh // computer has color capabilities. Most color video cards will allow up to 256 specific colors out of a possible color palatte of 16,777,216 selections. A new Color Quickdraw has been designed with Color Tables, Pixel Maps, Pixel Patterns, Color Icons, Color Grafports and Color Picture Handles to work with the new machine. Three new Managers have been added to facilitate color; the Color Manager, the Color Picker Package and the Palette Manager.

Are you ready to program with this new Color Quickdraw?

Before you answer that, did you know there was an alternative way to display color on the Mac? Use the old Quickdraw color routine! You didn’t know the older Quickdraw had color? Well...

Old Color

The original Macintosh displays were in black & white. 21,888 bytes of memory were used to display the normal 512 by 342 pixel screen (1 bit per pixel). However, the original Quickdraw had the capability to draw in color. In the original Grafport record, there were 2 fields (fgColor and bkColor) that determined the settings of the Foreground and Background color.

Quickdraw predefined 8 colors (Black, White, Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow). Each color had a long integer constant associated with it. By passing these constants to the procedures ForeColor and BackColor, the respective fields of the current Grafport were changed. When any Grafport was created, the default settings for the Foreground and Background were Black and White respectively.

Color fields were treated similar to the more often used Pen Pattern (pnPat) and Background Pattern (bkPat). Any drawing by the Pen was done in the Foreground color, any Erasing was done in the Background color. Also Foreground and Background color affect the Copybits call. When copying a bitmap onto a Grafport, any bit that was set in the source Bitmap would make the corresponding pixel appear in the Foreground color on the Grafport. Any unset bit would make the pixel appear in the Background color.

However on the black and white Macintosh, any color other than white appears as black. Thus drawing Red on White, Blue on White, or even Yellow on White has the same effect on the Pre-Mac // computers; Black on White. Interestingly the Imagewriter // printer driver does use the color commands, thus making the Imagewriter // with a color ribbon the first color Macintosh output device of any type. While the new Mac // also has the new Color Quickdraw commands, it also supports the old commands, including the use of Foreground and Background color.

Fig. 1 Our program uses classic color options

Why Use Old?

There are several reasons for not wanting to use Color Quickdraw for your first color program. It might prove simpler, until you get a handle on Color Quickdraw (and the three associated managers), to use the older Quickdraw routines. Color Quickdraw involves new conceptional models, new data structures, and new routines. While it is well worth the effort to learn (the graphic effects are stunning), there is a stiff learning curve.

The Color Quickdraw manual is even larger than the original Quickdraw manual. That is assuming that you have the new documentation. Inside Macintosh Vol. V is due out soon, but unless you currently have a beta version, you will have to wait for APDA’s final release.

Even if you have the new documentation and routines, your development system may not implement the new ROM calls. Lightspeed C, Lightspeed Pascal, MDS do not support the new Quickdraw, while MPW has to be updated to version 2.0. Many programmers will have to wait until the developers of their programming language come out with a new update until they can use the new routines. Some lucky users can input all the new calls themselves and do not need the updates. That means typing in dozens of new calls and data structures (again assuming they have the documentation). Lucky them! [Apple is still working on the equates file and rumor has it the Pallette Manager is still changing. -Ed]

Finally there is the actual code size and time in involved programming the new Quickdraw. Color Quickdraw does take more code to implement and it’s data structures are larger. The simple ForeColor and BackColor routines take very little code space.

Certainly Color Quickdraw should be used if someone is writing a color Drawing program for the Mac //. But if you only wish to add color to your existing programs, using Color Quickdraw requires you to rewrite your code, redo your graphics and in some cases, even redo your complicated bitmaps. Placing ForeColor and BackColor calls before your existing code segments is much simpler. If your Program is intended to run on any Macintosh, the older Quickdraw may be all you need or want to produce color.

The Code

The source example is an extremely simple, standard Macintosh program. It loads and displays any MacPaint document in any of the eight Foreground and eight Background colors. A few notes:

1) The CWindow (which will display the MacPaint document) is centered on large screens (like a SuperMac monitor) or placed in the offset position.

2) The actual picture is stored in two sets of Bitmaps and Data handles. Data is stored this way since the size of a MacPaint bitmap is too large to store in 1 set (32K limit). If there is not enough memory to create the bitmaps, the program will state this and not allow a MacPaint document to be loaded

3) ForeC and BackC store the selected menu number (1-8), not the predefined Color constant. GetColor is used to convert the menu number into the color constant.

4) DoColor is the pivotal procedure; it sets the new Foreground/Background colors. Then it causes an window update so the window is redrawn in the new colors.

{Lazy Man’s Color by Steve Sheets 4/20/87 }
{Simple Demonstration of Mac // Color using the 
{ForeColor & BackColor of classical Quickdraw. }
{This program Loads and displays a MacPaint document }
(in any 2 colors.}


{Various Constants:Menu ID Numbers, Window Size, }
{Window Placement, BitMap Size and Number of Colors. }
 AppleMenuID = 300;
 FileMenuID = 301;
 EditMenuID = 302;
 ForeMenuID = 303;
 BackMenuID = 304;

 OffV = 40;
 OffH = 40;
 AboutH = 300;
 AboutV = 140;
 SizeH = 576;
 SizeV1 = 360;
 SizeV2 = 720;
 BitW = 72;
 NumSec = 2;

 XColor = 8;

{Various Variables:Menus, Bitmaps, Window, Colors, }
{Done Flag & Title Name }
 Done : boolean;
 AppleMenu, FileMenu: EditMenu, 
 ForeMenu, BackMenu : MenuHandle;

 CWindow : windowptr;
 CMap : ARRAY[1..NumSec] OF bitmap;
 CData : ARRAY[1..NumSec] OF handle;

 ForeC, BackC : integer;
 Title : str255;

{Given Color Number ( 1 to XColor, as selected by Menu), }
{returns actual longint Color Number (for ForeColor or }
{BackColor). }
FUNCTION GetColor (N : integer) : longint;
 1 : 
 GetColor := BlackColor;
 2 : 
 GetColor := WhiteColor;
 3 : 
 GetColor := RedColor;
 4 : 
 GetColor := GreenColor;
 5 : 
 GetColor := BlueColor;
 6 : 
 GetColor := CyanColor;
 7 : 
 GetColor := MagentaColor;
 8 : 
 GetColor := YellowColor;
 GetColor := WhiteColor;

{Sets new ForeColor & BackColor and forces an Update} 
{so Window is redrawn in the new colors. }
PROCEDURE DoColor (F, B : integer);
 count : integer;
 tempPort : Grafptr;
 IF F <> ForeC THEN
 FOR count := 1 TO XColor DO
 CheckItem(ForeMenu, count, count = F);
 ForeC := F;
 IF B <> BackC THEN
 FOR count := 1 TO XColor DO
 CheckItem(BackMenu, count, count = B);
 BackC := B;

{ Loads MacPaint Picture in Bitmaps and displays it.}
 diskBlock = PACKED ARRAY[1..512] OF QDbyte;
 MyReply : SFReply;
 MyType : SFtypelist;
 tempPoint : point;
 count : longint;
 refNum, scanline, N : integer;
 error : OSErr;
 srcBuf : ARRAY[1..2] OF diskBlock;
 srcPtr, dstPtr : Ptr;
 tempPoint.v := 60;
 tempPoint.h := 60;
 MyType[0] := ‘PNTG’;
 SFGetFile(tempPoint, ‘’, NIL, 1, MyType, NIL, MyReply);
 IF MyReply.good THEN
 IF FSOpen(MyReply.fname, MyReply.vrefnum, refNum) = noErr THEN
 count := 512;
 error := FSRead(refNum, count, @srcBuf);
 count := 1024;
 error := FSRead(refNum, count, @srcBuf);
 srcPtr := @srcBuf;
 FOR N := 1 TO NumSec DO
 dstPtr := CData[N]^;
 FOR scanline := 1 TO SizeV1 DO
 UnpackBits(srcPtr, dstPtr, BitW);
 IF ord(srcPtr) > (ord(@srcBuf) + 512) THEN
 srcBuf[1] := srcBuf[2];
 count := 512;
 error := FSRead(refNum, count, @srcBuf[2]);
 srcPtr := pointer(ord(srcPtr) - 512);
 error := FSClose(refNum);
 DoColor(ForeC, BackC);

{Creates a Rectangle centered on Screen (if window }
{size is smaller then the screen) or starting at a }
{standard offset (if window size is larger then }
{screen). }
PROCEDURE CenterRect (VAR R : rect;
 H, V : integer);
 tempH : integer;
 IF H > Screenbits.bounds.right THEN
 tempH := OffH
 tempH := ((Screenbits.bounds.right - H) DIV 2);
 SetRect(R, tempH, OffV, H + tempH, V + OffV);

{Draws text, centered in a rectangle in the About}
{  Box window in a certain color with a certain }
{justification }
PROCEDURE DoLine (S : str255;
 H, Top, Bottom, J : integer;
 C : longint);
 tempInteger : integer;
 tempRect : rect;
 tempInteger := ((AboutH - H) DIV 2);
 SetRect(tempRect, tempInteger, Top, tempInteger + H, Bottom);
 TextBox(POINTER(ord(@S) + 1), LENGTH(S), tempRect, J);

{Displays About Box (in color) until someone presses } 
{the button down.}
 tempWindow : windowptr;
 tempRect : rect;
 tempStr : str255;
 CenterRect(tempRect, AboutH, AboutV);
 tempWindow := NewWindow(NIL, tempRect, ‘’, true, dBoxProc, POINTER(-1), 
false, 0);

 DoLine(CONCAT(Title, ‘ by Steve Sheets’), AboutH, 20, 39, teJustCenter, 
 DoLine(‘Sample Mac // Color Program’, AboutH, 40, 59, teJustCenter, 
 DoLine(‘This program uses the ForeColor and BackColor Quickdraw commands 
to display a MacPaint document in two colors.’, AboutH - 50, 60, AboutV, 
teJustLeft, RedColor);

 WHILE NOT button DO

{Standard main menu procedure that handles }
{menu selections.  Can show About Box, open Desk }
{Accessories, Load in MacPaint file, change }
{the Done Flag (so the program quits), handle} 
{edit commands (Cut,Copy,Paste,Clear), and change }
{Foreground or Background color of the picture.}
PROCEDURE MainMenu (tempResult : LONGINT);
 tempInteger : integer;
 tempBoolean : boolean;
 tempStr : STR255;
 tempInteger := LoWord(tempResult);
 CASE HiWord(tempResult) OF
 AppleMenuID : 
 IF tempInteger = 1 THEN
 GetItem(appleMenu, tempInteger, tempStr);
 tempInteger := OpenDeskAcc(tempStr);
 FileMenuID : 
 CASE tempInteger OF
 1 : 
 3 : 
 Done := true;
 EditMenuID : 
 tempBoolean := SystemEdit(tempInteger - 1);
 ForeMenuID : 
 IF (tempInteger > 0) AND (tempInteger <= XColor) THEN
 DoColor(tempInteger, BackC);
 BackMenuID : 
 IF (tempInteger > 0) AND (tempInteger <= XColor) THEN
 DoColor(ForeC, tempInteger);

{Setup for Menus, Window, Bitmaps,  Colors }
{settings, Title and Done flag.  }
 DD = PACKED ARRAY[1..32000] OF 0..255;
 PP = ^DD;
 HH = ^PP;
 tempStr : STR255;
 tempRect : rect;
 count : integer;
 tempLong : longint;
 tempH : HH;
 Title := ‘Lazy Man@s Color’;
 Title[9] := CHR(39);

 tempStr := ‘ ‘;
 tempStr[1] := CHR(appleMark);
 AppleMenu := NewMenu(AppleMenuID, tempStr);
 AppendMenu(AppleMenu, CONCAT(‘About ‘, Title, ‘...;(-’));
 AddResMenu(AppleMenu, ‘DRVR’);

 FileMenu := NewMenu(FileMenuID, ‘File’);
 AppendMenu(FileMenu, ‘Load MacPaint Documents/L;(-;Quit/Q’);

 EditMenu := NewMenu(EditMenuID, ‘Edit’);
 AppendMenu(EditMenu, ‘Undo/Z;(-;Cut/X;Copy/C; Paste/V;Clear’);

 ForeMenu := NewMenu(ForeMenuID, ‘Set Foreground’);
 AppendMenu(ForeMenu, ‘Black;White;Red;Green;Blue; Cyan;Magenta;Yellow’);

 BackMenu := NewMenu(BackMenuID, ‘Set Background’);
 AppendMenu(BackMenu, ‘Black;White;Red;Green;Blue;Cyan; Magenta;Yellow’);

 InsertMenu(AppleMenu, 0);
 InsertMenu(FileMenu, 0);
 InsertMenu(EditMenu, 0);
 InsertMenu(ForeMenu, 0);
 InsertMenu(BackMenu, 0);


 CenterRect(tempRect, SizeH, SizeV2);
 CWindow := NewWindow(NIL, tempRect, Title, true, 4, POINTER(-1), false, 

 CMap[1].rowBytes := BitW;
 SetRect(CMap[1].bounds, 0, 0, SizeH, SizeV1);
 CData[1] := NewHandle(BitW * SizeV1);
 IF CData[1] <> NIL THEN
 tempH := HH(CData[1]);
 FOR count := 1 TO BitW * SizeV1 DO
 tempH^^[count] := 0;
 CMap[2].rowBytes := BitW;
 SetRect(CMap[2].bounds, 0, SizeV1, SizeH, SizeV2);
 CData[2] := NewHandle(BitW * SizeV1);
 IF CData[2] <> NIL THEN
 tempH := HH(CData[2]);
 FOR count := 1 TO BitW * SizeV1 DO
 tempH^^[count] := 0;
 IF (CData[1] = NIL) OR (CData[2] = NIL) THEN
 SetWTitle(CWindow, ‘Not Enough Memmory’);
 DisableItem(FileMenu, 1);
 ForeC := 0;
 BackC := 0;
 DoColor(1, 2);
 Done := false;

{Standard main program loop that handles all }
{events (ie. mouse down, key downs & updates) until }
{the Done flag is set.  }
 tempEvent : EventRecord;
 tempWindow : windowptr;
 tempCode : integer;
 tempPort : Grafptr;
 tempRect : rect;
 IF GetNextEvent(everyEvent, tempEvent) THEN
 CASE tempEvent.what OF
 mouseDown : 
 tempCode := FindWindow(tempEvent.where, tempWindow);
 CASE tempCode OF
 inDrag, inContent : 
 IF tempWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
 IF Cwindow = tempWindow THEN
 IF CWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
 SetRect(tempRect, -25000, -25000, 25000, 25000);
 DragWindow(CWindow, tempEvent.where, tempRect);
 inMenuBar : 
 inSysWindow : 
 SystemClick(tempEvent, tempWindow);
 END; { of tempCode case }
 END; { of mouseDown }
 keydown, autoKey : 
 IF BitAnd(tempEvent.modifiers, cmdKey) <> 0 THEN
 MainMenu(MenuKey(CHR(tempEvent.message MOD 256)));
 updateEvt : 
 IF CWindow = WindowPtr(tempEvent.message) THEN
 IF CData[1] <> NIL THEN
 CMap[1].baseAddr := CData[1]^;
 CopyBits(CMap[1], CWindow^.portBits, CMap[1].bounds, CMap[1].bounds, 
srcCopy, NIL);
 IF CData[2] <> NIL THEN
 CMap[2].baseAddr := CData[2]^;
 CopyBits(CMap[2], CWindow^.portBits, CMap[2].bounds, CMap[2].bounds, 
srcCopy, NIL);
 UNTIL Done;

{***PROGRAM*** }

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Google Earth - View and contr...
Google Earth gives you a wealth of imagery and geographic information. Explore destinations like Maui and Paris, or browse content from Wikipedia, National Geographic, and more. Google Earth combines... Read more
Transmit 5.0 - Excellent FTP/SFTP client...
Transmit is an excellent FTP (file transfer protocol), SFTP, S3 ( file hosting) and iDisk/WebDAV client that allows you to upload, download, and delete files over the internet. With the... Read more
iMazing 2.3.2 - Complete iOS device mana...
iMazing (was DiskAid) is the ultimate iOS device manager with capabilities far beyond what iTunes offers. With iMazing and your iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod), you can: Copy music to and from... Read more
Cocktail 10.4.1 - General maintenance an...
Cocktail is a general purpose utility for macOS that lets you clean, repair and optimize your Mac. It is a powerful digital toolset that helps hundreds of thousands of Mac users around the world get... Read more
Backup and Sync 3.35.5978.2967 - File ba...
Backup and Sync (was Google Drive) is a place where you can create, share, collaborate, and keep all of your stuff. Whether you're working with a friend on a joint research project, planning a... Read more
Adobe Lightroom 6.12 - Import, develop,...
Adobe Lightroom is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $9.99/month bundled with Photoshop CC as part of the photography package. Lightroom 6 is also available for purchase as a... Read more
Apple iTunes 12.6.2 - Play Apple Music a...
Apple iTunes lets you organize and stream Apple Music, download and watch video and listen to Podcasts. It can automatically download new music, app, and book purchases across all your devices and... Read more
Apple macOS Sierra 10.12.6 - The latest...
With Apple macOS Sierra, Siri makes its debut on Mac, with new features designed just for the desktop. Your Mac works with iCloud and your Apple devices in smart new ways, and intelligent... Read more
VMware Fusion 8.5.8 - Run Windows apps a...
VMware Fusion 8 and Fusion 8 Pro--the latest versions of its virtualization software for running Windows on a Mac without rebooting--include full support for Windows 10, OS X El Capitan, and the... Read more
Apple Safari 10.1.2 - Apple's Web b...
Note: The direct download link is currently unavailable. It is available in the OS X 10.12.6 release, as well as in the Apple Security Updates. Apple Safari is Apple's web browser that comes with OS... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

The best deals on the App Store this wee...
There are quite a few truly superb games on sale on the App Store this week. If you haven't played some of these, many of which are true classics, now's the time to jump on the bandwagon. Here are the deals you need to know about. [Read more] | Read more »
Realpolitiks Mobile (Games)
Realpolitiks Mobile 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $5.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: PLEASE NOTE: The game might not work properly on discontinued 1GB of RAM devices (iPhone 5s, iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, iPad... | Read more »
Layton’s Mystery Journey (Games)
Layton’s Mystery Journey 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $15.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: THE MUCH-LOVED LAYTON SERIES IS BACK WITH A 10TH ANNIVERSARY INSTALLMENT! Developed by LEVEL-5, LAYTON’S... | Read more »
Full Throttle Remastered (Games)
Full Throttle Remastered 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Originally released by LucasArts in 1995, Full Throttle is a classic graphic adventure game from industry legend Tim... | Read more »
Stunning shooter Morphite gets a new tra...
Morphite is officially landing on iOS in September. The game looks like the space shooter we've been needing on mobile, and we're going to see if it fits the bill quite shortly. The game's a collaborative effort between Blowfish Studios, We're Five... | Read more »
Layton's Mystery Journey arrives to...
As you might recall, Layton's Mystery Journey is headed to iOS and Android -- tomorrow! To celebrate the impending launch, Level-5's released a new trailer, complete with an adorable hamster. [Read more] | Read more »
Sidewords (Games)
Sidewords 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Grab a cup of coffee and relax with Sidewords. Sidewords is part logic puzzle, part word game, all original. No timers. No... | Read more »
Noodlecake Games' 'Leap On!...
Noodlecake Games is always good for some light-hearted arcade fun, and its latest project, Leap On! could carry on that tradition. It's a bit like high stakes tetherball in a way. Your job is to guide a cute little blob around a series of floating... | Read more »
RuneScape goes mobile later this year
Yes, RuneScape still exists. In fact, it's coming to iOS and Android in just a few short months. Jagex, creators of the hit fantasy MMORPG of yesteryear, is releasing RuneScape Mobile and Old School RuneScape for mobile devices, complete with... | Read more »
Crash of Cars wants you to capture the c...
Crash of Cars is going full on medieval in its latest update, introducing castles and all manner of new cars and skins fresh from the Dark Ages. The update introduces a new castle-themed map (complete with catapults) and a gladiator-style battle... | Read more »

Price Scanner via

DEVONthink To Go 2.1.7 For iOS Brings Usabili...
DEVONtechnologies has updated DEVONthink To Go, the iOS companion to DEVONthink for Mac, with enhancements and bug fixes. Version 2.1.7 adds an option to clear the Global Inbox and makes the grid... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro, Apple refu...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pros available for $1699. That’s $300 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for a 15″ MacBook Pro. An Apple one-year warranty is... Read more
13-inch 2.3GHz Silver MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the new 2017 13″ 2.3GHz/256GB Silver MacBook Pro (MPXU2LL/A) on sale for $1399 including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Read more
Apple Tackles Distracted Driving With iOS 11...
One of the most important new features coming in iOS 11 is Do Not Disturb while driving, intended to help drivers stay more focused on the road. With Do Not Disturb while driving, your iPhone can... Read more
iMazing Mini for Mac: Free Automatic and Priv...
Geneva, Switzerland-based indie developer DigiDNA has released iMazing Mini, their free macOS utility designed to automatically back up iOS devices over any local Wi-Fi network. The app offers users... Read more
Clearance 2016 13-inch MacBook Airs, Apple re...
Apple dropped prices recently on Certified Refurbished 2016 13″ MacBook Airs, with models now available starting at $809. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is... Read more
9.7-inch 2017 iPads available for $299, save...
B&H Photo has 2017 9.7″ 32GB WiFi iPads on sale for $30 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free, and pay sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 32GB iPad WiFi: $299, $30 off Read more
Welcome to the new!
Welcome to the newly redesigned! MacPrices has been comprehensively redesigned from the ground up over the past couple of weeks. The new design is cleaner, with less clutter, minimal... Read more
Clearance iMacs available for up to $370 off...
B&H Photo has clearance 21″ and 27″ Apple iMacs available for up to $370 off original MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: – 27″ 3.3GHz iMac 5K: $1929 $370 off... Read more
Sale! 15-inch 2.8GHz MacBook Pros for $100 of...
B&H Photo has the new 2017 15″ 2.8GHz Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only: – 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray: $... Read more

Jobs Board

Search, Recommendation & Personalization...
Job Summary Apple is seeking a product manager for Search, Recommendation and Personalization for our media products. This includes Apple Music, Podcasts, iBooks Read more
Frameworks Engineering Manager, *Apple* Wat...
Frameworks Engineering Manager, Apple Watch Job Number: 41632321 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jun. 15, 2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Summary Read more
*Apple* Customer Experience (ACE) Leader - A...
…management to deliver on business objectivesTraining partner store staff on Apple products, services, and merchandising guidelinesCoaching partner store staff on Read more
Frameworks Engineering Manager, *Apple* Wat...
Frameworks Engineering Manager, Apple Watch Job Number: 41632321 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jun. 15, 2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Summary Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple Inc. (U...
…about helping others on a team while also delighting customers? As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC), you will discover customers needs and help connect them Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.