TweetFollow Us on Twitter

PICT to RMaker
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:5
Column Tag:Toolbox Techniques

PICT to RMaker Source in MacForth

ArticleSubhead

By Larry Tannenbaum, Long Beach, CA

This program illustrates calling traps, using dialog boxes, the desk scrap, and the memory manager from MacFORTH. It takes a picture from the clipboard and converts it to RMaker resource format. The converted picture is put back into the desk scrap, so you can paste it into your resource file, using MockWrite or other editor.

Dialog boxes make programs more Mac-like and more "attractive", but they can be a bit tricky in MacFORTH. The reason is that the MacFORTH window always executes an ABORT when it is activated, and it is always activated when the dialog box is erased, if it was active before the dialog was drawn (To see what else is done when the MacFORTH window is activated, try SYS.WINDOW +ON.ACTIVATE W@. Use the forth decompiler from MacTutor Vol 1,#2 to decompile this token). For example, you start your program that calls a modal dialog box by typing the highest-level word in the MacFORTH window. When the dialog box is drawn in front, the MacFORTH window is de-activated. When the dialog is disposed of, the MacFORTH window is automatically activated and your program is aborted. This program works because all processing is done, before the dialog box is disposed of.

A couple of words in the program are from Thinking Forth:

: \  >IN @ 3C0 AND C/L + >IN ! ;  IMMEDIATE  (skips rest of line)
: ASCII  BL WORD 1+ C@ COMPILING IF [COMPILE] LITERAL THEN ;

IMMEDIATE  (leaves ascii value of following character on stack, or compiles 
it as a literal if used within a definition)

I also used one naming convention from Thinking Forth. Word names starting with "/" imply "bytes per", so /Row means bytes per row. I also tried to use descriptive names and ample comments. Forth can be hard to decipher, but doesn't have to be.

MacFORTH provides several pre-defined words for defining your own trap-calling words. What they do is compile machine code into your definitions that formats the stack for you, such as converting items that are supposed to be integers from the 32 bits that MacFORTH uses for everything, to 16 bits, or taking all of the arguments off the stack, reserving space for a returned result, then putting the arguments back on the stack. They also compile the trap code into the word.

Fig. 1 Pict to RMaker source Dialog Box

These pre-defined words are listed in table 1 along with the argument patterns they work for. Since the "FUNC" words must reserve space on the stack for a returned value underneath the arguments, they are for very specific cases only; the "MT" words are more general. For example, W>MT may be used with a trap that needs one 16-bit item on top of any number of 32-bit items, but W>FUNC>L must be used with a trap that takes one 16-bit argument only. If the trap you want to use doesn't fit any of these patterns, you must format the stack yourself and use MT for your definition.

Blocks 1 to 4 contain examples of calling traps from MacFORTH. The word WAdj, in Block 1, converts 32-bit items to 16 bits; it adds 2 to the stack pointer, essentially chopping off the two most significant bytes of the top stack item. I couldn't get OPEN.RSRC, supplied by MacFORTH 1.2 K2.3, to work, so I defined my own word, OpenRFile, to do the job. The 2nd line of code in block 2 is executed while the file is loading. It takes the name of the loading file as the resource file name. This way, if you rename the file, the resource fork will be opened properly without changing the code.

How do you get resources into a block's file? First, compile the resources with RMaker. The type and creator of the output file should be BLKS M4TH. Go to MacFORTH and open the new resource file with OPEN" rfilename". You have just opened the empty data fork of the file. Append enough blocks to it to hold the program (APPEND.BLOCKS). Either type in the program, or use XFER.BLOCKS (block 12 of Forth Blocks) to transfer it from another block's file. It's easier to use separate resource and blocks files, when developing a program. Finally, change the name of your completed file, because RMaker will delete it, if you recompile the resources.

I decided to use the desk scrap for the input and output of this program so that I could paste the picture resource into the middle of an existing file. It's also easy to select a portion of a picture with Paint Grabber or similar desk accessory and retrieve it from the desk scrap using GET.SCRAP.

Table 1: MacForth trap calling defining words

GET.SCRAP copies the scrap data to a handle that you pass to it. The handle is automatically sized, so it can be any length, including zero. You must also specify the type of data you are looking for. The most common types are text and pictures. Use the constant "TEXT or "PICT to designate the type you want. If the data in the scrap is different from the type you asked for, error code -102 is returned. An error code of zero indicates no error.

PUT.SCRAP works similarly. Give it the address and length of the data, and the data type. It will copy your data to the end of the desk scrap and return a result code.

ZERO.SCRAP deletes all data in the desk scrap and sets the scrap length to zero. You must execute ZERO.SCRAP before the first time you execute PUT.SCRAP, and before putting data into the scrap of the same type that is already there. This last restriction is necessary because GET.SCRAP always returns the first block of data of the type requested. If more than one chunk of data of a particular type is in the scrap, only the first one that was written is accessible.

Two other words help conserve memory: LOAD.SCRAP and UNLOAD.SCRAP. UNLOAD.SCRAP writes the desk scrap to the clipboard file on disk, releasing the memory used by the scrap. LOAD.SCRAP "knows" whether the scrap data is on disk or not and reads it into memory, if necessary. GET.SCRAP apparently will not get the data from the disk, even though Inside Macintosh says it will, so call LOAD.SCRAP first, if there is the possibility of it being in the clipboard file.

SCRAP.HANDLE returns the address where the handle to the desk scrap is stored. SCRAP.COUNTER returns the number of times the scrap has been zeroed since system start-up. According to Inside Macintosh, you can check to see if this value has changed during the operation of a desk accessory. If so, the accessory has probably put some data into the scrap.

SCRAP.LEN returns the address containing the length of the scrap data. This length includes 8 bytes for the scrap header. Sometimes the scrap is 8 bytes longer than the picture length, and sometimes it is 9 bytes longer. I suspect this has to do with whether the picture size is odd or even. The program needs the length of the picture. The easiest way to get it is from the first two bytes of the picture itself, so I don't use SCRAP.LEN. Block 8 contains the definitions using the scrap interface words.

Block 5 holds the memory manager interface definitions. Many programs in MacTutor have dealt with getting, releasing, resizing, locking, and unlocking handles, so I won't go into detail. The MacFORTH words that do these things have explicit names, except maybe FROM.HEAP, which gets a handle, and TO.HEAP, which releases one.

The program uses only one handle. GET.SCRAP copies the picture into it, then the handle is resized to hold the ascii. To avoid overwriting the data, the program starts converting from the end of the picture.

Blocks 9 and 10 contain the code that actually does the conversion. The constant /Row, in block 9, determines how many bytes of the picture are represented on each row of text. It can be changed to any convenient value.

Using this program, you can personalize your dialog and alert boxes, and keep the pictures in your source, rather than having to paste them in after compilation with ResEdit. The output format could also be changed to MDS or MacASM.

( Block 0    ***********Instructions*********** )

To use this program:
    1.  Cut or copy picture to be used as resource so it will
        be in the ClipBoard.
    2.  Load this file.
    3.  Execute Pict>Rsrc. The PICT in the clipboard
        will be converted to type TEXT in RMaker hex format.
    4.  Using MockWrite or other editor, paste the data from
        the clipboard into the RMaker file.

( Block #1   ***********Toolbox interface***********)

HEX

Create WAdj -2 Allot 548F { ADDQ.L #2,SP} W, 4ED4 W,

A997 L>FUNC>W <OpenRFile>        A99A W>MT <CloseRFile>
A97C MT <GetNewDlog>             A983 MT <DisposDlog>
A98D MT <GetDItem>               A991 MT <ModalDlog>
A990 MT <GetIText>               A98F MT <SetIText>
A95F MT <SetCTitle>              A95D W>MT <HiliteControl>
A987 MT <NoteAlert>

DECIMAL
    2 11 Thru

( Block #2   ******ToolBox InterfaceVariables*********)

Create   RFileName    30 Allot \ same name as this file
Block-File @ @File.Name    Dup C@ 1+ RFileName Swap CMove
Variable RFileRefNum           \ returned by OpenRFile
Variable DlogPtr               \ returned by GetNewDlog
Create   ItemHit 2 Allot       \ returned by ModalDlog
Create   ItemType 2 Allot      \ returned by GetDItem
Variable ItemHandle            \ returned by GetDItem
Create   ItemRect 8 Allot      \ returned by GetDItem
Create   Item$ 30 Allot        \ for manipulating text items
Create   Ok$ ," Done"          \ new title for control
1 Constant ConvertButton       \ compared to ItemHit when
                               \ ModalDlog returns

( Block #3    ***********Resource File/Alert***********)

: OpenRFile    RFileName <OpenRFile> Dup 0>
    If   RFileRefNum !
    Else Abort" Couldn't open resource file!" Then ;
: CloseRFile   RFileRefNum @ <CloseRFile> ;
: NoPictAlert  128 WAdj ( id) 0 ( filter proc) <NoteAlert> ;

( Block #4    ***********Dialog Interface***********)

: GetDlog    0 ( reserve stack space for returned dptr)
    128 WAdj ( id) 0 ( on heap) -1 ( in front)
    <GetNewDlog>    DlogPtr ! ;
: DisposeDlog  DlogPtr @ <DisposDlog> ;
: ModalDlog    0 ( filter proc) ItemHit <ModalDlog> ;
: GetDItem    ( item#)    DlogPtr @ Swap WAdj
    ItemType  ItemHandle ItemRect <GetDItem> ;
: GetIHandle  ( item#--handle)    GetDItem ItemHandle @ ;
: GetIText    ( $\item#)    GetIHandle Swap <GetIText> ;
: SetIText    ( item#)    GetIHandle Item$ <SetIText> ;
: Ok>Done  1  ( item#) GetIHandle Ok$ <SetCTitle> ;
: Can'tCancel 2 ( item#) GetIHandle 255 <HiliteControl> ;

( Block #5    ***********Memory Manager***********)

Variable DataH    \ holds handle to data

: GetH ( size--handle)    From.Heap Dup DataH ! Dup 0=
    If DisposeDlog CloseRFile
        1 Abort" Handle Allocation Error!" Then ;
: DataPtr ( --ad of data)    DataH @@ Mask.Handle ;
: /Data ( --data size in bytes)    DataH @ Handle.Size ;
: ResizeH ( new size--)    DataH @ Dup Rot Resize.Handle
        0< If   DisposeDlog CloseRFile
            1 Abort" Handle Resize Error!"
        Else Lock.Handle Then ;
: ReleaseH
   /Data 0< Not If DataH @ Dup Unlock.Handle To.Heap Then ;

( Block #6    ***********PICT Resource Header***********)

13 Constant CRet    \ ascii for carriage return
: AddCR ( ad--)     Count 1- +    CRet Swap C! ;
\ Asterisk in string is place holder for carriage return
Create Type$ ," TYPE PICT = GNRL*"  Type$ AddCR
Create Hex$  ," .H*"                Hex$  AddCR
Create Name$ 25 Allot
Create ID#$  10 Allot
: /Header ( --n)    Type$ C@ Hex$ C@ Name$ C@ ID#$ C@ + + + ;
: (Header>Text) ( ptr\$--updated ptr)
    Count >R Over R@ CMove R> + ;
: !Header    DataPtr            Type$ (Header>Text)
             Name$ (Header>Text) Id#$  (Header>Text)
             Hex$  (Header>Text) Drop ;

( Block #7    ***********Get/Set Dialog Items***********)

: Num>Str ( n)       <# #S #> Item$ 2Dup C!    1+ Swap Cmove ;
: AddChar ( $\char)  Over Count + C!    Dup C@ 1+ Swap C! ;
: SetPictSize        DataPtr W@ Num>Str 9 SetIText ;
: SetPictWidth
    DataPtr Dup 8+ W@ Swap 4+ W@ - Num>Str 11 SetIText ;
: SetPictHeight
    DataPtr Dup 6+ W@ Swap 2+ W@ - Num>Str 13 SetIText ;
: GetPictName    Name$ Dup 5 GetIText Ascii , AddChar ;
: GetPictID#     ID#$ Dup 7 GetIText CRet AddChar ;
: GetHeader      GetPictName    GetPictID# ;
: SetUpDlog
    GetDlog SetPictSize SetPictWidth SetPictHeight ModalDlog ;
: DoneDlog       Ok>Done Can'tCancel ModalDlog ;

( Block #8    ***********Desk Scrap Interface***********)

: ScrapErr? ( result code--)
    0< IF ReleaseH DisposeDlog CloseRfile
          1 Abort" Scrap Error!" Then ;
: /Pict ( --bytes)
    Scrap.Handle @ Dup 0< If Drop 0 Else @ 4+ @ Then ;
: PictFromScrap ( --result code)   Load.Scrap ScrapErr?
    /Pict GetH    "PICT Get.Scrap ;
: Text>Scrap    Zero.Scrap ScrapErr?
    DataPtr /Data "TEXT Put.Scrap ScrapErr?
    ReleaseH    Unload.Scrap ScrapErr? ;

( Block #9    ***********Picture conversion***********)

16 Constant /Row   \ 1 row of text represents 16 bytes of pict
: #CR'S ( pict size--# of CR's in text )
    /Row W/Mod Swap If 1+ Then ;
: /Text ( --text size) /Pict Dup 2* Swap #CR'S + /Header + ;
: PictEnd ( --ad)    DataPtr /Pict + 1- ;
: TextEnd ( --ad)    DataPtr /Text + 1- ;
    Create Char$ ," 123456789ABCDEF"    Ascii 0 Char$ C!
:  >Ascii ( nybble--char)    Char$ + C@ ;
: !Byte  ( ad\byte--new ad)    Dup>R 15 And >Ascii Over C! 1-
                               R> 16/    >Ascii Over C! 1- ;
: !Cr    ( ad--new ad)    CRet Over C! 1- ;

( Block #10   ***********Picture conversion***********)

Variable PictAd

: RowLimits ( #bytes--limit\index)
    PictAd @ Dup Rot - Dup PictAd ! 1+ Swap ;
: !Row    ( dest ad\#bytes--new dest ad)
    RowLimits Do IC@ !Byte -1 +Loop ;
: !Pict    PictEnd PictAd !    TextEnd
    1 /Pict Do !Cr   I /Row Min !Row  /Row Negate +Loop Drop ;
: Pict>Text    Watch Set.Cursor  GetHeader
        /Text ResizeH    !Pict !Header   Init.Cursor ;

( Block #11    ***********User Interface***********)

: Convert?    ItemHit W@ ConvertButton = If
    Pict>Text Text>Scrap DoneDlog Then ;
: ConvertPict    SetUpDlog Convert? DisposeDlog ;
: Pict>Rsrc      OpenRFile PictFromScrap
    0< If   NoPictAlert
       Else ConvertPict
       Then CloseRFile ;
 
AAPL
$112.51
Apple Inc.
+0.73
MSFT
$47.89
Microsoft Corpora
+0.23
GOOG
$523.23
Google Inc.
+6.88

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

NeoOffice 2014.6 - Mac-tailored, OpenOff...
NeoOffice is a complete office suite for OS X. With NeoOffice, users can view, edit, and save OpenOffice documents, PDF files, and most Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint documents. NeoOffice 3.x... Read more
LibreOffice 4.3.5.2 - Free Open Source o...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
CleanApp 5.0.0 Beta 5 - Application dein...
CleanApp is an application deinstaller and archiver.... Your hard drive gets fuller day by day, but do you know why? CleanApp 5 provides you with insights how to reclaim disk space. There are... Read more
Monolingual 1.6.2 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. It requires a 64-bit capable Intel-based Mac and at least... Read more
NetShade 6.1 - Browse privately using an...
NetShade is an Internet security tool that conceals your IP address on the web. NetShade routes your Web connection through either a public anonymous proxy server, or one of NetShade's own dedicated... Read more
calibre 2.13 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Mellel 3.3.7 - Powerful word processor w...
Mellel is the leading word processor for OS X and has been widely considered the industry standard since its inception. Mellel focuses on writers and scholars for technical writing and multilingual... Read more
ScreenFlow 5.0.1 - Create screen recordi...
Save 10% with the exclusive MacUpdate coupon code: AFMacUpdate10 Buy now! ScreenFlow is powerful, easy-to-use screencasting software for the Mac. With ScreenFlow you can record the contents of your... Read more
Simon 4.0 - Monitor changes and crashes...
Simon monitors websites and alerts you of crashes and changes. Select pages to monitor, choose your alert options, and customize your settings. Simon does the rest. Keep a watchful eye on your... Read more
BBEdit 11.0.2 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

DICETINY is coming to iOS in 2015
DICETINY is coming to iOS in 2015 Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 22nd, 2014 [ permalink ] Fakedice has announced that they’re bringing their digital board game DICETINY to iOS. | Read more »
Living Room 3D for IKEA Makes All In-App...
Living Room 3D for IKEA Makes All In-App Purchases Free Until 2015 Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 22nd, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Crossbow Warrior – The Legend of William...
Crossbow Warrior – The Legend of William Tell Review By Lee Hamlet on December 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: MISSES THE MARKUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Crossbow Warrior details the entertaining adventures of legendary... | Read more »
Workflow: Powerful Automation Made Simpl...
Workflow: Powerful Automation Made Simple Review By Campbell Bird on December 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: GO WITH THE FLOWUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad This powerful app lets users accomplish multiple tasks at touch of... | Read more »
My Little Monster Review
My Little Monster Review By Jordan Minor on December 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: IT'S ALIVE!Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad What’s it worth to make your own monster?   | Read more »
Galaxy Trucker Pocket (Games)
Galaxy Trucker Pocket 1.0.8 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.8 (iTunes) Description: Galaxy Truckers Wanted!================================================================= (5/5) "Galaxy Trucker isn’t... | Read more »
Make your own Tribez Figures (and More)...
Make your own Tribez Figures (and More) with Toyze Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
So Many Holiday iOS Sales Oh My Goodness...
The holiday season is in full-swing, which means a whole lot of iOS apps and games are going on sale. A bunch already have, in fact. Naturally this means we’re putting together a hand-picked list of the best discounts and sales we can find in order... | Read more »
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode f...
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode for Angry Birds Epic Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minec...
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minecraft: Story Mode – A Telltale Games Series Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

13-inch 2.4GHz Retina MacBook Pro (Apple refu...
The Apple Store has previous-generation Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.4GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pros available for $999. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.4GHz/... Read more
Apple resellers offer free overnight shipping
The Apple Store is now offering free next-day shipping on all in stock items if ordered before 12/23/14 at 10:00am PT. Local store pickup is also available within an hour of ordering for any in stock... Read more
Holiday sales continue: MacBook Airs for up t...
 B&H Photo has 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP, for a limited time, for the Thanksgiving/Christmas Holiday shopping season. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax... Read more
Holiday sale continues: 13-inch Retina MacBoo...
 B&H Photo has new 13″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $150 off MSRP as part of their Holiday pricing. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro: $979 save... Read more
Holiday sale continues: 15-inch Retina MacBoo...
 B&H Photo has the new 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $... Read more
Holiday sale: 13-inch 128GB MacBook Air for $...
 Best Buy has the 2014 13-inch 1.4GHz 128GB MacBook Air on sale for $849.99, or $150 off MSRP, on their online store. Choose free home shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Price valid... Read more
13-inch 2.6GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
Best Buy has lowered their price on the 2014 13″ 2.6GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro to $1149.99 on their online store for a limited time. That’s $150 off MSRP and the lowest price available for this... Read more
Kodak Returns to CES With New Consumer Produ...
Former photography colossus Kodak is returning to CES for the first time in three years where the Kodak booth (#21818 South Hall 1) will showcase a wide range of innovative, imaging-related products... Read more
Invaluable Launches New Eponymously -Named A...
Invaluable, the world’s largest online live auction marketplace, hhas announced the official launch of the Invaluable app for iPad, now available for download in the iTunes App Store. Invaluable... Read more
IDC Reveals Worldwide Mobile Enterprise Appli...
International Data Corporation (IDC) last week hosted the IDC FutureScape: Worldwide Mobile Enterprise Applications and Solutions 2015 Predictions Web conference. The session provided organizations... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Store Leader Program (US) - Apple, I...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on experience, Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.