TweetFollow Us on Twitter

PICT to RMaker
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:5
Column Tag:Toolbox Techniques

PICT to RMaker Source in MacForth

ArticleSubhead

By Larry Tannenbaum, Long Beach, CA

This program illustrates calling traps, using dialog boxes, the desk scrap, and the memory manager from MacFORTH. It takes a picture from the clipboard and converts it to RMaker resource format. The converted picture is put back into the desk scrap, so you can paste it into your resource file, using MockWrite or other editor.

Dialog boxes make programs more Mac-like and more "attractive", but they can be a bit tricky in MacFORTH. The reason is that the MacFORTH window always executes an ABORT when it is activated, and it is always activated when the dialog box is erased, if it was active before the dialog was drawn (To see what else is done when the MacFORTH window is activated, try SYS.WINDOW +ON.ACTIVATE W@. Use the forth decompiler from MacTutor Vol 1,#2 to decompile this token). For example, you start your program that calls a modal dialog box by typing the highest-level word in the MacFORTH window. When the dialog box is drawn in front, the MacFORTH window is de-activated. When the dialog is disposed of, the MacFORTH window is automatically activated and your program is aborted. This program works because all processing is done, before the dialog box is disposed of.

A couple of words in the program are from Thinking Forth:

: \  >IN @ 3C0 AND C/L + >IN ! ;  IMMEDIATE  (skips rest of line)
: ASCII  BL WORD 1+ C@ COMPILING IF [COMPILE] LITERAL THEN ;

IMMEDIATE  (leaves ascii value of following character on stack, or compiles 
it as a literal if used within a definition)

I also used one naming convention from Thinking Forth. Word names starting with "/" imply "bytes per", so /Row means bytes per row. I also tried to use descriptive names and ample comments. Forth can be hard to decipher, but doesn't have to be.

MacFORTH provides several pre-defined words for defining your own trap-calling words. What they do is compile machine code into your definitions that formats the stack for you, such as converting items that are supposed to be integers from the 32 bits that MacFORTH uses for everything, to 16 bits, or taking all of the arguments off the stack, reserving space for a returned result, then putting the arguments back on the stack. They also compile the trap code into the word.

Fig. 1 Pict to RMaker source Dialog Box

These pre-defined words are listed in table 1 along with the argument patterns they work for. Since the "FUNC" words must reserve space on the stack for a returned value underneath the arguments, they are for very specific cases only; the "MT" words are more general. For example, W>MT may be used with a trap that needs one 16-bit item on top of any number of 32-bit items, but W>FUNC>L must be used with a trap that takes one 16-bit argument only. If the trap you want to use doesn't fit any of these patterns, you must format the stack yourself and use MT for your definition.

Blocks 1 to 4 contain examples of calling traps from MacFORTH. The word WAdj, in Block 1, converts 32-bit items to 16 bits; it adds 2 to the stack pointer, essentially chopping off the two most significant bytes of the top stack item. I couldn't get OPEN.RSRC, supplied by MacFORTH 1.2 K2.3, to work, so I defined my own word, OpenRFile, to do the job. The 2nd line of code in block 2 is executed while the file is loading. It takes the name of the loading file as the resource file name. This way, if you rename the file, the resource fork will be opened properly without changing the code.

How do you get resources into a block's file? First, compile the resources with RMaker. The type and creator of the output file should be BLKS M4TH. Go to MacFORTH and open the new resource file with OPEN" rfilename". You have just opened the empty data fork of the file. Append enough blocks to it to hold the program (APPEND.BLOCKS). Either type in the program, or use XFER.BLOCKS (block 12 of Forth Blocks) to transfer it from another block's file. It's easier to use separate resource and blocks files, when developing a program. Finally, change the name of your completed file, because RMaker will delete it, if you recompile the resources.

I decided to use the desk scrap for the input and output of this program so that I could paste the picture resource into the middle of an existing file. It's also easy to select a portion of a picture with Paint Grabber or similar desk accessory and retrieve it from the desk scrap using GET.SCRAP.

Table 1: MacForth trap calling defining words

GET.SCRAP copies the scrap data to a handle that you pass to it. The handle is automatically sized, so it can be any length, including zero. You must also specify the type of data you are looking for. The most common types are text and pictures. Use the constant "TEXT or "PICT to designate the type you want. If the data in the scrap is different from the type you asked for, error code -102 is returned. An error code of zero indicates no error.

PUT.SCRAP works similarly. Give it the address and length of the data, and the data type. It will copy your data to the end of the desk scrap and return a result code.

ZERO.SCRAP deletes all data in the desk scrap and sets the scrap length to zero. You must execute ZERO.SCRAP before the first time you execute PUT.SCRAP, and before putting data into the scrap of the same type that is already there. This last restriction is necessary because GET.SCRAP always returns the first block of data of the type requested. If more than one chunk of data of a particular type is in the scrap, only the first one that was written is accessible.

Two other words help conserve memory: LOAD.SCRAP and UNLOAD.SCRAP. UNLOAD.SCRAP writes the desk scrap to the clipboard file on disk, releasing the memory used by the scrap. LOAD.SCRAP "knows" whether the scrap data is on disk or not and reads it into memory, if necessary. GET.SCRAP apparently will not get the data from the disk, even though Inside Macintosh says it will, so call LOAD.SCRAP first, if there is the possibility of it being in the clipboard file.

SCRAP.HANDLE returns the address where the handle to the desk scrap is stored. SCRAP.COUNTER returns the number of times the scrap has been zeroed since system start-up. According to Inside Macintosh, you can check to see if this value has changed during the operation of a desk accessory. If so, the accessory has probably put some data into the scrap.

SCRAP.LEN returns the address containing the length of the scrap data. This length includes 8 bytes for the scrap header. Sometimes the scrap is 8 bytes longer than the picture length, and sometimes it is 9 bytes longer. I suspect this has to do with whether the picture size is odd or even. The program needs the length of the picture. The easiest way to get it is from the first two bytes of the picture itself, so I don't use SCRAP.LEN. Block 8 contains the definitions using the scrap interface words.

Block 5 holds the memory manager interface definitions. Many programs in MacTutor have dealt with getting, releasing, resizing, locking, and unlocking handles, so I won't go into detail. The MacFORTH words that do these things have explicit names, except maybe FROM.HEAP, which gets a handle, and TO.HEAP, which releases one.

The program uses only one handle. GET.SCRAP copies the picture into it, then the handle is resized to hold the ascii. To avoid overwriting the data, the program starts converting from the end of the picture.

Blocks 9 and 10 contain the code that actually does the conversion. The constant /Row, in block 9, determines how many bytes of the picture are represented on each row of text. It can be changed to any convenient value.

Using this program, you can personalize your dialog and alert boxes, and keep the pictures in your source, rather than having to paste them in after compilation with ResEdit. The output format could also be changed to MDS or MacASM.

( Block 0    ***********Instructions*********** )

To use this program:
    1.  Cut or copy picture to be used as resource so it will
        be in the ClipBoard.
    2.  Load this file.
    3.  Execute Pict>Rsrc. The PICT in the clipboard
        will be converted to type TEXT in RMaker hex format.
    4.  Using MockWrite or other editor, paste the data from
        the clipboard into the RMaker file.

( Block #1   ***********Toolbox interface***********)

HEX

Create WAdj -2 Allot 548F { ADDQ.L #2,SP} W, 4ED4 W,

A997 L>FUNC>W <OpenRFile>        A99A W>MT <CloseRFile>
A97C MT <GetNewDlog>             A983 MT <DisposDlog>
A98D MT <GetDItem>               A991 MT <ModalDlog>
A990 MT <GetIText>               A98F MT <SetIText>
A95F MT <SetCTitle>              A95D W>MT <HiliteControl>
A987 MT <NoteAlert>

DECIMAL
    2 11 Thru

( Block #2   ******ToolBox InterfaceVariables*********)

Create   RFileName    30 Allot \ same name as this file
Block-File @ @File.Name    Dup C@ 1+ RFileName Swap CMove
Variable RFileRefNum           \ returned by OpenRFile
Variable DlogPtr               \ returned by GetNewDlog
Create   ItemHit 2 Allot       \ returned by ModalDlog
Create   ItemType 2 Allot      \ returned by GetDItem
Variable ItemHandle            \ returned by GetDItem
Create   ItemRect 8 Allot      \ returned by GetDItem
Create   Item$ 30 Allot        \ for manipulating text items
Create   Ok$ ," Done"          \ new title for control
1 Constant ConvertButton       \ compared to ItemHit when
                               \ ModalDlog returns

( Block #3    ***********Resource File/Alert***********)

: OpenRFile    RFileName <OpenRFile> Dup 0>
    If   RFileRefNum !
    Else Abort" Couldn't open resource file!" Then ;
: CloseRFile   RFileRefNum @ <CloseRFile> ;
: NoPictAlert  128 WAdj ( id) 0 ( filter proc) <NoteAlert> ;

( Block #4    ***********Dialog Interface***********)

: GetDlog    0 ( reserve stack space for returned dptr)
    128 WAdj ( id) 0 ( on heap) -1 ( in front)
    <GetNewDlog>    DlogPtr ! ;
: DisposeDlog  DlogPtr @ <DisposDlog> ;
: ModalDlog    0 ( filter proc) ItemHit <ModalDlog> ;
: GetDItem    ( item#)    DlogPtr @ Swap WAdj
    ItemType  ItemHandle ItemRect <GetDItem> ;
: GetIHandle  ( item#--handle)    GetDItem ItemHandle @ ;
: GetIText    ( $\item#)    GetIHandle Swap <GetIText> ;
: SetIText    ( item#)    GetIHandle Item$ <SetIText> ;
: Ok>Done  1  ( item#) GetIHandle Ok$ <SetCTitle> ;
: Can'tCancel 2 ( item#) GetIHandle 255 <HiliteControl> ;

( Block #5    ***********Memory Manager***********)

Variable DataH    \ holds handle to data

: GetH ( size--handle)    From.Heap Dup DataH ! Dup 0=
    If DisposeDlog CloseRFile
        1 Abort" Handle Allocation Error!" Then ;
: DataPtr ( --ad of data)    DataH @@ Mask.Handle ;
: /Data ( --data size in bytes)    DataH @ Handle.Size ;
: ResizeH ( new size--)    DataH @ Dup Rot Resize.Handle
        0< If   DisposeDlog CloseRFile
            1 Abort" Handle Resize Error!"
        Else Lock.Handle Then ;
: ReleaseH
   /Data 0< Not If DataH @ Dup Unlock.Handle To.Heap Then ;

( Block #6    ***********PICT Resource Header***********)

13 Constant CRet    \ ascii for carriage return
: AddCR ( ad--)     Count 1- +    CRet Swap C! ;
\ Asterisk in string is place holder for carriage return
Create Type$ ," TYPE PICT = GNRL*"  Type$ AddCR
Create Hex$  ," .H*"                Hex$  AddCR
Create Name$ 25 Allot
Create ID#$  10 Allot
: /Header ( --n)    Type$ C@ Hex$ C@ Name$ C@ ID#$ C@ + + + ;
: (Header>Text) ( ptr\$--updated ptr)
    Count >R Over R@ CMove R> + ;
: !Header    DataPtr            Type$ (Header>Text)
             Name$ (Header>Text) Id#$  (Header>Text)
             Hex$  (Header>Text) Drop ;

( Block #7    ***********Get/Set Dialog Items***********)

: Num>Str ( n)       <# #S #> Item$ 2Dup C!    1+ Swap Cmove ;
: AddChar ( $\char)  Over Count + C!    Dup C@ 1+ Swap C! ;
: SetPictSize        DataPtr W@ Num>Str 9 SetIText ;
: SetPictWidth
    DataPtr Dup 8+ W@ Swap 4+ W@ - Num>Str 11 SetIText ;
: SetPictHeight
    DataPtr Dup 6+ W@ Swap 2+ W@ - Num>Str 13 SetIText ;
: GetPictName    Name$ Dup 5 GetIText Ascii , AddChar ;
: GetPictID#     ID#$ Dup 7 GetIText CRet AddChar ;
: GetHeader      GetPictName    GetPictID# ;
: SetUpDlog
    GetDlog SetPictSize SetPictWidth SetPictHeight ModalDlog ;
: DoneDlog       Ok>Done Can'tCancel ModalDlog ;

( Block #8    ***********Desk Scrap Interface***********)

: ScrapErr? ( result code--)
    0< IF ReleaseH DisposeDlog CloseRfile
          1 Abort" Scrap Error!" Then ;
: /Pict ( --bytes)
    Scrap.Handle @ Dup 0< If Drop 0 Else @ 4+ @ Then ;
: PictFromScrap ( --result code)   Load.Scrap ScrapErr?
    /Pict GetH    "PICT Get.Scrap ;
: Text>Scrap    Zero.Scrap ScrapErr?
    DataPtr /Data "TEXT Put.Scrap ScrapErr?
    ReleaseH    Unload.Scrap ScrapErr? ;

( Block #9    ***********Picture conversion***********)

16 Constant /Row   \ 1 row of text represents 16 bytes of pict
: #CR'S ( pict size--# of CR's in text )
    /Row W/Mod Swap If 1+ Then ;
: /Text ( --text size) /Pict Dup 2* Swap #CR'S + /Header + ;
: PictEnd ( --ad)    DataPtr /Pict + 1- ;
: TextEnd ( --ad)    DataPtr /Text + 1- ;
    Create Char$ ," 123456789ABCDEF"    Ascii 0 Char$ C!
:  >Ascii ( nybble--char)    Char$ + C@ ;
: !Byte  ( ad\byte--new ad)    Dup>R 15 And >Ascii Over C! 1-
                               R> 16/    >Ascii Over C! 1- ;
: !Cr    ( ad--new ad)    CRet Over C! 1- ;

( Block #10   ***********Picture conversion***********)

Variable PictAd

: RowLimits ( #bytes--limit\index)
    PictAd @ Dup Rot - Dup PictAd ! 1+ Swap ;
: !Row    ( dest ad\#bytes--new dest ad)
    RowLimits Do IC@ !Byte -1 +Loop ;
: !Pict    PictEnd PictAd !    TextEnd
    1 /Pict Do !Cr   I /Row Min !Row  /Row Negate +Loop Drop ;
: Pict>Text    Watch Set.Cursor  GetHeader
        /Text ResizeH    !Pict !Header   Init.Cursor ;

( Block #11    ***********User Interface***********)

: Convert?    ItemHit W@ ConvertButton = If
    Pict>Text Text>Scrap DoneDlog Then ;
: ConvertPict    SetUpDlog Convert? DisposeDlog ;
: Pict>Rsrc      OpenRFile PictFromScrap
    0< If   NoPictAlert
       Else ConvertPict
       Then CloseRFile ;
 
AAPL
$103.61
Apple Inc.
+1.11
MSFT
$44.94
Microsoft Corpora
-0.50
GOOG
$574.98
Google Inc.
+3.38

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

NetShade 6.0.2 - Browse privately using...
NetShade is an Internet security tool that conceals your IP address on the web. NetShade routes your Web connection through either a public anonymous proxy server, or one of NetShade's own dedicated... Read more
Mac DVDRipper Pro 5.0 - Copy, backup, an...
Mac DVDRipper Pro is the DVD backup solution that lets you protect your DVDs from scratches, save your batteries by reading your movies from your hard disk, manage your collection with just a few... Read more
pwSafe 3.1 - Secure password management...
pwSafe provides simple and secure password management across devices and computers. pwSafe uses iCloud to keep your password databases backed-up and synced between Macs and iOS devices. It is... Read more
StatsBar 1.8 - Monitor system processes...
StatsBar gives you a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the following areas of your Mac: CPU usage Memory usage Disk usage Network and bandwidth usage Battery power and health (MacBooks only)... Read more
Path Finder 6.5.5 - Powerful, award-winn...
Path Finder is a file browser that combines the familiar Finder interface with the powerful utilities and innovative features. Just a small selection of the Path Finder 6 feature set: Dual pane... Read more
QuarkXPress 10.2.1 - Desktop publishing...
With QuarkXPress, you can communicate in all the ways you need to -- and always look professional -- in print and digital media, all in a single tool. Features include: Easy to Use -- QuarkXPress is... Read more
Skype 6.19.0.450 - Voice-over-internet p...
Skype allows you to talk to friends, family and co-workers across the Internet without the inconvenience of long distance telephone charges. Using peer-to-peer data transmission technology, Skype... Read more
VueScan 9.4.41 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
Cloud 3.0.0 - File sharing from your men...
Cloud is simple file sharing for the Mac. Drag a file from your Mac to the CloudApp icon in the menubar and we take care of the rest. A link to the file will automatically be copied to your clipboard... Read more
LibreOffice 4.3.1.2 - Free Open Source o...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Tiny Tower Vegas Review
Tiny Tower Vegas Review By Jennifer Allen on September 2nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: STEADY DEVELOPMENTUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Build a huge tower again but Vegas-style in Tiny Tower Vegas.   | Read more »
The Manhattan Project Review
The Manhattan Project Review By Andrew Fisher on September 2nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: ROCKET SCIENCEUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad The Manhattan Project offers a great Euro-style gameplay experience, but it is totally... | Read more »
Rhonna Designs Magic (Photography)
Rhonna Designs Magic 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Photography Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Want to sprinkle *magic* on your photos? With RD Magic, you can add colors, filters, light leaks, bokeh, edges,... | Read more »
This Week at 148Apps: August 25-29, 2014
Shiny Happy App Reviews   | Read more »
Qube Kingdom – Tips, Tricks, Strategies,...
Qube Kingdom is a tower defense game from DeNA. You rally your troops – magicians, archers, knights, barbarians, and others – and fight against an evil menace looking to dominate your kingdom of tiny squares. Planning a war isn’t easy, so here are a... | Read more »
Qube Kingdom Review
Qube Kingdom Review By Nadia Oxford on August 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: KIND OF A SQUARE KINGDOMUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Qube Kingdom has cute visuals, but it’s a pretty basic tower defense game at heart.   | Read more »
Fire in the Hole Review
Fire in the Hole Review By Rob Thomas on August 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: WALK THE PLANKUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Seafoam’s Fire in the Hole looks like a bright, 8-bit throwback, but there’s not enough booty to... | Read more »
Alien Creeps TD is Now Available Worldwi...
Alien Creeps TD is Now Available Worldwide Posted by Ellis Spice on August 29th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Dodo Master Review
Dodo Master Review By Jordan Minor on August 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: NEST EGGiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Dodo Master is tough but fair, and that’s what makes it a joy to play.   | Read more »
Motorsport Manager Review
Motorsport Manager Review By Lee Hamlet on August 29th, 2014 Our Rating: :: MARVELOUS MANAGEMENTUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Despite its depth and sense of tactical freedom, Motorsport Manager is one of the most... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple refurbished iPads available for up to $...
Apple is offering Certified Refurbished iPad Airs for up to $140 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free. Stock tends to come and go with some of these... Read more
Are We Now In The Post-Post-PC Era?
A longtime and thoroughgoing laptop aficionado, I was more than a little dismayed by Steve Jobs’s declaration back in 2010 when he sprang the iPad on an unsuspecting world. that we’d entered a “post-... Read more
PC Outlook Improves, But 2014 Shipments Still...
According to the International Data Corporation (IDC) Worldwide Quarterly PC Tracker, worldwide PC shipments are expected to fall by -3.7 percent in 2014. To hat’s actually an improvement from the... Read more
IDC Lowers Tablet Sales Projections for 2014...
Following a second consecutive quarter of softer than expected demand, International Data Corporation (IDC) has lowered its worldwide tablet plus 2-in-1 forecast for 2014 to 233.1 million units. The... Read more
Apple now offering refurbished 21-inch 1.4GHz...
The Apple Store is now offering Apple Certified Refurbished 21″ 1.4GHz iMacs for $929 including free shipping plus Apple’s standard one-year warranty. Their price is $170 off the cost of new models,... Read more
Save $50 on the 2.5GHz Mac mini, on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 2.5GHz Mac mini on sale for $549.99 including free shipping. That’s $50 off MSRP, and B&H will also include a free copy of Parallels Desktop software. NY sales tax only. Read more
Save up to $300 on an iMac with Apple refurbi...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished iMacs available for up to $300 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. These are the best prices on... Read more
The Rise of Phablets
Carlisle & Gallagher Consulting Group, a businesses and technology consulting firm focused solely on the financial services industry, has released an infographic depicting the convergence of... Read more
Bad Driver Database App Allows Good Drivers t...
Bad Driver Database 1.4 by Facile Group is a new iOS and Android app that lets users instantly input and see how many times a careless, reckless or just plain stupid driver has been added to the... Read more
Eddy – Cloud Music Player for iPhone/iPad Fre...
Ukraine based CapableBits announces the release of Eddy, its tiny, but smart and powerful cloud music player for iPhone and iPad that allows users to stream or download music directly from cloud... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Senior Event Manager, *Apple* Retail Market...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global event strategy. Delivering an overarching brand story; in-store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.