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VIP
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:4
Column Tag:Visual Programming

C The Easy Way with VIP!

By Bill Luckie, Simi Valley, CA

Getting started

While thinking about how best to present information useful to new Mac programmers, I recalled some of my own frustrations in trying to learn Macintosh programming. Before V.I.P., there seemed to be at least two hurdles to achieving even a modest success in programming on the Macintosh. First was the requisite learning of the chosen language's rules and syntax, and then trying to fathom the complexities of dealing with the Mac toolbox specifics. What I wanted was a simple example program that featured all of the fundamental aspects of nearly every Mac program, i.e. Menus, Windows, Dialogs, and Events. The example I longed for had to be simple, logical, and easily modified for my own purposes. Well, to make a long story short, I never was able to jump both hurdles - until V.I.P.

Our introductory course in Visual Interactive Programming will attempt to lower the hurdles by providing a simple Macintosh program featuring all of the attributes mentioned above. Along the way we will experience the advantages of modularity, create menus and implement actions accordingly. Display and draw in a couple of types of windows. Learn about local and global objects, argument passing between routines, and hopefully have some fun too. VIP is truly an amazing new approach to Mac programming that is as fun and straight forward as MPW and MacApp are laborious and complex. And as we will see, creating C source code from VIP is really having your cake and eating it too!

The program presented here is a completely functional Macintosh program, although it is a little brain damaged, and really doesn't do much yet. It does provide a text edit window for displaying a file's contents and allows the file contents to be printed. Readers familar with our text edit shell program in the January issue will recall that those functions can generate a considerable amount of source code in "normal" languages. Moreover, with minor changes, this program can serve as a shell for most any application you wish to create. In a future article we will add the guts and feathers routines which perform the program's peculiar actions.

Routines have Relations

Before we begin, take a look at figure 1. This relations tree is created automatically by V.I.P. and graphically displays the relations of each routine making up our example program. A routine, as you may recall, is simply a logical grouping of V.I.P. procedures and logic forms which perform actions as specified by the programmer. Routines are called by other routines, or may even be called by themselves to control the execution sequence, or perform specific tasks. In other languages, a subroutine or procedure, but in VIP, there are no return statements to worry about.

Program flow

Main calls the DoSetup routine, which as its name suggests, does the program peculiar setup tasks. In this case the program's menus are created, and a window with user information is displayed briefly. The program's main event loop is entered and the routine DoSelect is called. When the while condition evaluates to true, the program exits.

VIP is in reality a high level ROM language that provides a mouse driven set of templates for filling in automatically, the necessary calls to the toolbox to create windows, menus, events and quickdraw functions. While Lightspeed C and Pascal give you a feeling of "instant" in compiling and running programs, VIP is another order of magnitude above that in the ease and speed of testing and trying various toolbox options. Variables are defined and assigned in boxes with the mouse so that changes such as the type of window to display can be made in a way that makes interactive BASIC seem like a chore. A quick click of the mouse, and the program puts up a new type of window! Experimentation with the toolbox is easy and educational in this environment.

The DoSelect routine includes the get next event procedure and directs program flow according to event type. VIP knows about events and pre-defines the events for most program functions so that event driven programming is greatly simplified. A type 1 event results in a call to the DoMenuSelect routine. The switch logic form branches to handle selection of the File, Edit, or Option menus. Each corresponding routine, DoFile, DoEdit, or DoOptions now determines the action to take as a result of a menu item selection. A type 4 event is processed when a click in a window close box is detected, and the routine DoCloseBox handles the details. Type 5 events are handled by the procedure DoDialogEvent.

Wait a minute...

The process of creating a computer program, regardless of the language used, normally doesn't start by writing specific code. Whether you subscribe to the 'top down', 'bottom up', or my personal favorite - 'omphaloskepsis' (try that one on your spell checker) method of computer programming, you will need to do a little designing.

Time spent in program design will save development time and simplify the coding process. However, the design and coding phases are not mutually exclusive activities, nor are they necessarily serial in occurrence. Before any of the code for this program was created, I had the concept of what I wanted the program to do. I knew that I wanted to demonstrate the use of menus, dialog, windows, and events. I also knew I wanted routines to store and retrieve data from disk, and to do some arithmetic using a couple of V.I.P.'s intrinsic functions. Well, as you can imagine, that brief concept hardly constituted a design, but I'm not one to let mere details stand in my way of having fun. So off I go simultaneously designing and coding. I'm not advocating this approach for others, it's just how my fragmented mind works, and V.I.P. is very accommodating to this approach.

Main revisited

A main routine is required in all executable V.I.P. programs. Program execution always begins in main, and a number of housekeeping tasks such as initializing global objects, and a bunch of other 'who cares' stuff is performed automatically by V.I.P. As a general guideline, the main routine in a well designed program should do a minimum amount of work. The first thing main does is call the routine, DoSetup. DoSetup defines the menus used by the program, and to add a little visual effect, a window as shown in figure 2 is displayed briefly. Of course, in a program of your own design, the actions to be performed by this routine would be different. V.I.P. also offers the ability to create menus, windows, dialogs, etc. as resources, which could be loaded by this routine if desired.

When the DoSetup routine has completed its tasks, program execution resumes in main. The while logic form sets up the main event loop of our program, which says in effect; While Quit = 0, call the routine named DoSelect, and whenever Quit 0, exit. So, how did Quit get the value of 0 to begin with, and why doesn't the expression shown in the program listing say Quit = 0? Good questions; which gives me the opportunity to talk about global and local objects. The symbol 'Quit' was declared to be a global object of type 'byte' by clicking on the 'b' icon in the upper group of icons to the left of V.I.P's Editor window. (Remember, VIP is programming by mouse; all the language commands are accessed from the on-screen icon lists!) Typing Quit in the dialog's text edit field, clicking the Global radio button, and clicking 'Insert', completed the declaration.

Global objects which are not specifically initialized to a particular value, are automatically allocated static memory with a value of 0 at the start of program execution. Ergo Quit = 0 until we change it. Global objects, as the name implies, have meaning to all of the routines in a program. Global objects are said to be declared outside of main, and as noted in the program listing, that's where they are. (They are assigned relative to A5 by VIP like other Mac languages, but the programmer doesn't need to worry about the details.) The second part of the question; why isn't the expression 'Quit = 0'? Well, it is. It's just written in a different fashion. The character '!' represents the logical 'not'. In V.I.P. falsity is 0, and anything else is true. So by saying, while ! Quit, we are saying in effect; while Quit = 0, or false, DoSelect. Take a look at the DoFile routine and you will see that the value of Quit is changed to 1 (true), and the program breaks out of the while loop and dutifully exits.

Local objects, on the other hand, are known only to the routine in which they are declared, and appear in the program listing just below the routine's name. Local objects belong to the automatic memory class, which isn't a particularly important piece of information. What is important, is the fact that the initial value of local objects is indeterminate, and cannot be predetermined at the beginning of a routine. Figure 3 is a table showing the characteristics of V.I.P. objects.

Since VIP objects include bytes, integers (long), reals, points, rectangles, and constants, one might wonder just how string variables are declared. This is not clearly brought out in the manual. A string variable is declared as a one dimensional byte array of length 255. The CopyString function is used to initialize the variable, rather than the assign statement. Clicking on the "cc" icon produces the list of string functions of which CopyString is one.

Routines can call other routines and they may communicate with each other by passing arguments. V.I.P. allows up to 64 arguments to be passed to the called routine. When the 'Routine Call' icon is clicked, a dialog asking how many arguments is displayed. Type in the appropriate number; 0 to 64, and click 'OK'. The Routine Call box is introduced in V.I.P.'s Editor window with its input window open. Figure 4 shows the Routine Call 'DoMenuSelect' as noted in the program listing in the DoSelect routine. In the printed listing, the arguments to be passed are contained within parentheses immediately following the name of the routine to be called. In the DoSelect routine, EventID, EventMessage, and EventType have been declared to be byte objects, and MouseLocation is a point object - all local to the DoSelect routine. One problem with such a visual programming environment is that it is hard to communicate the program intent. The print function does print the guts of the program, but re-producing a VIP program from such a listing is harder than just creating your own visual program from the program's intent! A VIP program is an example of dynamic documents that really want to be shared and passed on a network rather than be reduced to paper. Its a little like trying to describe a MacPaint picture from a written description!

By selecting Set arguments... from the Routines menu, a dialog as shown in Figure 5 is displayed allowing the programmer to specify the order and type of arguments being passed to the called routine. The order of the arguments is very important to assure that argument passing between the calling and called routine is done correctly. The arguments defined for the Routine Call 'DoMenuSelect' (figure 4), will be successively assigned to their counterparts in the DoMenuSelect routine, i.e. menu and item. There must be an exact match of the number of arguments, their order, type and dimensions. Various object types can be defined in this dialog by specifying a number from 1 to 5 representing object types Byte to Rectangle respectively. Arguments may be defined to be either 'input' or 'output' by clicking the appropriate radio button. An input argument can only be read in the called routine, while an output argument can also be modified. The choice between the two depends upon the use envisioned by the programmer.

Where were we?

Let's start with a little refresher in creating a V.I.P. program by following the printed listing. Open V.I.P. and select New from the File menu. The first item in the listing is the routine call DoSetup. Click on the routine call icon, and when the argument dialog appears, enter 0, as we don't need to pass any arguments to this routine. Click OK, and enter the name of the routine to be called, i.e. DoSetup. Continue by clicking just below the routine call box to position the insertion arrow, and click on the while logic form icon. Enter the expression as shown within the parentheses following while. Again position the insertion arrow by clicking just below the 'T' in the while loop, and enter the routine call for the DoSelect routine as above. Click outside of the while loop and select the procedure exit to complete the main routine.

Select Set Routine... from the Routines menu, type DoSetup in the text edit field, and click insert. Do the same for DoSelect. Double click the routine call box to go directly to the DoSetup routine. Click on the menu class icon, select new menu in the selection dialog and click the Select button. The new menu procedure is now immediately displayed in V.I.P.'s Editor window with its input window open ready for programmer entered arguments.

For title, enter "File" ( Don't forget the quote marks.), and for menu, enter menu[1]. Continue by clicking the down arrow to close the procedure's input window, and click just below the procedure to position the insertion arrow for the next procedure. Click on the menu class icon again, select append menu item from the list and click the select button. Enter the arguments for menu and menu item exactly as shown in the listing. Note semicolons are used to separate menu items, and the entire list is a character string enclosed in quotes.

Now to save a little time, we can copy the first two procedures by shift clicking to extend the selection range. Select Copy from the Edit menu. As before click just below the last procedure to position the insertion arrow, and then select Paste. Edit the argument fields to match the listing for both procedures, and repeat again for the next set of procedures.

By now I'm sure you have grasped the mechanics of V.I.P. programming, so from here on let's concentrate on the structure of our example program, and I'll depend on you to select the procedures, enter the arguments, and declare objects as shown in the listing. If you do make a mistake and paste something where you didn't intend it to be, there is an Undo command in the Edit menu. Other goofs of a syntactic nature will usually be caught by V.I.P.. It's a good idea to save your work from time to time, and always before you run a program.

DoSelect

The DoSelect routine is made up of the get next event procedure, and a switch logic form having three active branches. Arguments for get next event have been declared to be local to this routine. The selector for the switch structure is the symbol 'EventType', and case 1 will be selected if EventType =1, case 2 if EventType =4, and case 3 if EventType =5. When an event occurs the get next event procedure records the fact by putting the value of the objects, type, location, message, and ID into the event queue. When the switch structure detects the symbol ' EventType' is equal to 1, 4, or 5, the appropriate routine call is made. Figure 6 is a table showing V.I.P.'s event handling technique.

DoMenuSelect

The DoMenuSelect routine uses the ubiquitous switch structure to select which routine should be called to process the actions of the three menus in our example program. DoFile, DoEdit, and DoOptions correspond to the menu names. Whichever routine is called, it is passed the argument 'item', i.e., the menu item.

DoFile

In our example program the only actions to be performed from the File menu are Page Setup..., Print..., and Quit. Another switch structure (sound familiar?) switches based on the value of 'item' which was passed as an argument by the DoSelect routine.

Case 1 envokes the procedure set up page which requires no arguments. Case 2 is selected when Print... is chosen. An if logic form is used to check if there is an active window, and if not to display an Alert informing the user of that fact. Case 3 is selected when the fourth menu item is selected. The object Quit is assigned the value of 1, and the program quits. Remember that every item in a menu list is counted, even if it is disabled or is just a separator line.

DoEdit

The DoEdit routine is mostly for show. Edit menus are normally provided for use by desk accessories even if their functions aren't particularly useful in the host program. V.I.P.'s procedures, cut text, copy text, paste text, and clear text take care of these chores and require no arguments.

DoOptions

As before a switch structure directs program flow depending on the value of the object 'item'. Now for the clever part. To test the functionality of our example program without the necessity of completing the details of each called routine, we simply put an Alert in each branch. These Alert's with appropriate messages serve as stubs giving visual indication of proper program execution. Later these stubs are replaced with the specific code as desired by the programmer. For now, 'About' is the only active routine in DoOptions.

About

This routine creates a fixed size document window using the dimensions specified by the set rect procedures. The new window routine is used to create our window. The new version of VIP, 2.14, has fixed a number of shortcomings regarding windows. Window type 7 now allows a fully functional window frame with a grow box, zoom box, close box and working scroll bars. Most of the window mechanics are provided for automaticaly, so in our example program here, the text displayed can be scrolled without our having to invent a scrolling routine. The same is true for the zoom and grow functions. Programmers familar with the toolbox will recall that new window trap is a complex operation with many parameters. In VIP, the process is simplified considerably. We specify the graf port rectangle, the displayed window rectangle, title and type. The window pointer returned by the ROM trap is managed in the overhead of VIP for us. A simple byte variable allows us to keep track of which of our windows we are looking at.

A TEXT file is opened, and the text is displayed in the window by the load text procedure. The file is then closed . If desired, a printed copy of this window's text may be printed by selecting Print... from the File menu. When the user is finished reading the text, a click in the window close box is detected by the get next event procedure and the routine DoCloseBox is called. See figure 7.

DoCloseBox

Gee, I bet you can't guess what this routine does. Well, just in case; an if logic form checks to see if a window called Window is the one to close. If it is, the procedures kill window and assign are executed, else do nothing. So far in our example program there is but one window which can be closed by clicking its close box, so the if statement is really superfluous. The assign procedure is used to restore the global value of 0 to Window to ensure the Print... selection will work properly after the window has been closed.

DoDialogEvent

DoDialogEvent is called when the get next event procedure detects an event of type 5. This routine is currently empty, and its details will be added in our next session.

DoTryIt

This is not the name of a routine in our example program, it is rather my recommendation to you. In a future article we will explore the subject of Dialogs, records, saving and retrieving data from disk, and use a few of V.I.P.'s intrinsic functions. Add more menus, open additional windows, disable menu items when their selection is not appropriate, experiment, have fun. VIP is an addicting way to explore the Mac that does not require knowledge of a programming syntax. Why, I even taught my wife how to use it! Yet the real power of VIP may lie in its ability to produce old fashioned source code in a variety of languages. The VIP to LS C translator is now available, and a LS Pascal module is due out shortly.

Fig. 7 About Text File Display

VIP to C

To convert our VIP program to C source code, we simply execute the VIP translator utility. This program reads our VIP file and outputs a C source text file. The Lightspeed project window in figure 8 shows the include files necessary to create a working program. All these files are either provided for by Mainstay, if they are VIP libraries, or in the case of the Unix files, are provided for in Lightspeed C. A ready-made resource file is provided that we must combine with our program file to create a working C program. Both the VIP and C versions of this program are included on our source code disk. As long as the files shown are included in the project, I had no trouble compiling and making the C program into a stand-alone application. As you look at the C listing and compare it to the VIP listing, you'll see that even the comments in our VIP boxes have been inserted properly into the code. It would be nice if there were some way to re-generate VIP programs from either the VIP program listing or the C source listing. As we mentioned previously, there is no good way to communicate a VIP program on paper, a real problem for programming journals!

Fig. 8 LS C Project Files for VIP to C

VIP Improvements

There are two areas that jump out as needing attention in VIP. When programming by mouse, you tend to quickly define statements and variables on the fly. Once a variable is specified in a statement box, you must add the variable to the variable list as either a global or local variable. It would be natural to use the variable name in a new window procedure box for example, and then copy and paste the name into the objects window where the variables are defined. However, the objects window is a modal dialog box, and so the edit menu is locked out! This requires you to re-type the name of the variable from memory, a distinctly non-Mac'ish way to do things in a dynamic environment like VIP.

The second design bug in VIP is the way in which you can move easily from one level to a nested subroutine. Because programming VIP involves working with what we will call a "dynamic flowchart", the program has a kind of ResEdit quality to it that lets you move from one procedure to another by clicking on the call box of the routine. This moves you down one level in the calling sequence to the nested routine. However, there is no "pop-up" button to click to return you up one level to the previous routine you were working in. To get back, you have to go to the menu bar and re-select the routine by name to make it the current window display. Hence it's easy to move down a level into a subroutine, but a pain to come back up.

The new version of VIP, 2.14, has fix a number of bugs and shortcomings so that the product now is very functional. With the addition of various translator programs, VIP may become a kind of universal programming language for the Mac. "Mouse up" a program in VIP, then translate it to the language of your choice: C, Pascal, even Ada! Then take the listings and compare them. Could be a whole new way to learn programming language syntax!

{1}
VIP Program Listing (Text File)
byte
 Menu[3]
 Quit
 Window
 result

main

V.I.P. Demo program for MacTutor™
by Bill Luckie  © 1987

Visual Interactive Programming
V.I.P. by Dominique Lienart
 Published by Mainstay.
...................................................
DoSetup
while (! Quit)
 DoSelect
exit

About
.....................................................
byte
 AboutFile
rectangle
 PortRect
 WindowRect
set rect (50,40,312,472,WindowRect)
set rect (0,0,1000,432,PortRect)
new window (2,1,1,WindowRect,PortRect,"About GC_ Dist",Window)
open file ("AboutGCDist",1,"TEXT",AboutFile)
load text (AboutFile,Window)
close file (AboutFile)

DoCloseBox
........................................................
if (Window)
 kill window (Window)
 assign (0,Window)
else 
 
DoDialogEvent
...........................................................

DoEdit (item)
...........................................................
--> byte item

switch (item,3,4,5,6)
case 1
 cut text
case 2
 copy text
case 3
 paste text
case 4
 clear text
default 
 
DoFile (item)
.......................................................
--> byte item

switch (item,1,2,4)
case 1
 set up page
case 2
 if (Window)
 print text (Window)
 else 
 alert (1,"There is no window to print from.",result)
case 3
 assign (1,Quit)
default 

DoMenuSelect (menu,item)
................................................................
--> byte menu
--> byte item

switch (menu,Menu[1],Menu[2],Menu[3])
case 1
 DoFile (item)
case 2
 DoEdit (item)
case 3
 DoOptions (item)
default 
 
DoOptions (item)
...........................................................
--> byte item

switch (item,1,2,3,5)
case 1
 alert (1,"This is the Create_Records routine.",result)
case 2
 alert (1,"This is the View_Records routine.",result)
case 3
 alert (1,"This is the Compute Distance... routine.",result)
case 4
 About
default 
 
DoSelect
............................................................
byte
 EventID
 EventMessage
 EventType

point
 MouseLocation
get next event (EventType,MouseLocation,EventMessage,EventID)
switch (EventType,1,4,5)
case 1
 DoMenuSelect (EventMessage,EventID)
case 2
 DoCloseBox
case 3
 DoDialogEvent
default 
 
DoSetup
..........................................................
rectangle
 Portrect
 Windowrect

new menu ("File",Menu[1])
append menu item (Menu[1],"Page Setup...;Print...;(-;Quit/Q")
new menu ("Edit",Menu[2])
append menu item (Menu[2],"(Undo/Z;(-;Cut/X; Copy/C;Paste/V;Clear")
new menu ("Options",Menu[3])
append menu item (Menu[3],"Create new Records...; View or Edit Records...; 
Compute Distance...;(-; About GC_Dist")
set rect (60,60,120,450,Windowrect)
set rect (0,0,120,450,Portrect)
new window (4,1,1,Windowrect,Portrect,"",Window)
set text font (0)
move to (15,75)
draw string ("V.I.P. Demo program for MacTutor™",0)
move to (30,145)
draw string (" by Bill Luckie.",0)
move to (45,168)
draw string ("© 1987",0)
wait (200)
kill window (Window)
{2}
VIP Program "C" Listing
#include "VIPtoC.h"
/* Global symbols */
char
 Menu[3],
 Quit,
 Window,
 result;
/*
-------------- main --------------
V.I.P. Demo program for MacTutor™
by Bill Luckie  © 1987
Visual Interactive Programming
V.I.P. by Dominique Lienart, published by Mainstay.
*/
main ()
{
VIP_Init ();
vip_DoSetup ();
while (! Quit)
 {
 vip_DoSelect ();
 }
VIP_Exit ();
}
/*
-------------- About --------------
*/
vip_About ()
{
char
 AboutFile;
Rect
 PortRect,
 WindowRect;
VIP_set_rect ((long)(50),(long)(40),(long)(312),(long)(472),&WindowRect);
VIP_set_rect ((long)(0),(long)(0),(long)(1000),(long)(432),&PortRect);
VIP_new_window ((char)(2),(char)(1),(char)(1),WindowRect,PortRect,"About 
GC_ Dist",
 &Window);
VIP_open_file ("AboutGCDist",(char)(1),"TEXT",&AboutFile);
VIP_load_text ((char)(AboutFile),(char)(Window));
VIP_close_file ((char)(AboutFile));
}
/*
-------------- DoCloseBox --------------
*/
vip_DoCloseBox ()
{
if (Window)
 {
 VIP_kill_window ((char)(Window));
 Window = 0;
 }
}
/*
-------------- DoDialogEvent --------------
*/
vip_DoDialogEvent ()
{
}

/*
-------------- DoEdit --------------
*/
vip_DoEdit (item)
 char item;
{
switch ((long)(item))
 {
 case 3:
 {
 VIP_cut_text ();
 break;
 }
 case 4:
 {
 VIP_copy_text ();
 break;
 }
 case 5:
 {
 VIP_paste_text ();
 break;
 }
 case 6:
 {
 VIP_clear_text ();
 break;
 }
 }
}
/*
-------------- DoFile --------------
*/
vip_DoFile (item)
 char item;
{
switch ((long)(item))
 {
 case 1:
 {
 VIP_set_up_page ();
 break;
 }
 case 2:
 {
 if (Window)
 {
 VIP_print_text ((char)(Window));
 }
 else
 {
 VIP_alert ((char)(1),"There is no window to print from.",&result);
 }
 break;
 }
 case 4:
 {
 Quit = 1;
 break;
 }
 }
}
/*
-------------- DoMenuSelect --------------
*/
vip_DoMenuSelect (menu,item)
 char menu;
 char item;
{
if (menu == Menu[(1) - 1])
 {
 vip_DoFile ((char)(item));
 }
else if (menu == Menu[(2) - 1])
 {
 vip_DoEdit ((char)(item));
 }
else if (menu == Menu[(3) - 1])
 {
 vip_DoOptions ((char)(item));
 }
}

/*
-------------- DoOptions --------------
*/
vip_DoOptions (item)
 char item;
{
switch ((long)(item))
 {
 case 1:
 {
 VIP_alert ((char)(1),"This is the Create_Records routine.",&result);
 break;
 }
 case 2:
 {
 VIP_alert ((char)(1),"This is the View_Records routine.",&result);
 break;
 }
 case 3:
 {
 VIP_alert ((char)(1),"This is the Compute Distance... routine.",
 &result);
 break;
 }
 case 5:
 {
 vip_About ();
 break;
 }
 }
}

/*
-------------- DoSelect --------------
*/
vip_DoSelect ()
{
char
 EventID,
 EventMessage,
 EventType;
Point
 MouseLocation;
VIP_get_next_event (&EventType,&MouseLocation, &EventMessage,&EventID);
switch ((long)(EventType))
 {
 case 1:
 {
 vip_DoMenuSelect ((char)(EventMessage),(char)(EventID));
 break;
 }
 case 4:
 {
 vip_DoCloseBox ();
 break;
 }
 case 5:
 {
 vip_DoDialogEvent ();
 break;
 }
 }
}
/*
-------------- DoSetup --------------
*/
vip_DoSetup ()
{
Rect
 Portrect,
 Windowrect;

VIP_new_menu ("File",&Menu[(1) - 1]);
VIP_append_menu_item ((char)(Menu[(1) - 1]),"Page Setup...;Print...;(-;Quit/Q");
VIP_new_menu ("Edit",&Menu[(2) - 1]);
VIP_append_menu_item ((char)(Menu[(2) - 1]),"(Undo/Z;(-;Cut/X;Copy/C;Paste/V;Clear");
VIP_new_menu ("Options",&Menu[(3) - 1]);
VIP_append_menu_item ((char)(Menu[(3) - 1]),"Create new Records...;View 
or Edit Records...;Compute Distance...;(-;About GC_Dist");
VIP_set_rect ((long)(60),(long)(60),(long)(120),(long)(450),&Windowrect);
VIP_set_rect ((long)(0),(long)(0),(long)(120),(long)(450),&Portrect);
VIP_new_window ((char)(4),(char)(1),(char)(1),Windowrect,Portrect,"",
 &Window);
VIP_set_text_font ((char)(0));
VIP_move_to ((long)(15),(long)(75));
VIP_draw_string ("V.I.P. Demo program for MacTutor™",(char)(0));
VIP_move_to ((long)(30),(long)(145));
VIP_draw_string (" by Bill Luckie.",(char)(0));
VIP_move_to ((long)(45),(long)(168));
VIP_draw_string ("© 1987",(char)(0));
VIP_wait ((long)(200));
VIP_kill_window ((char)(Window));
}
vip_draw_port (wndwID)
 char wndwID;
{
}
 

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File Juicer is a drag-and-drop can opener and data archaeologist. Its specialty is to find and extract images, video, audio, or text from files which are hard to open in other ways. In computer... Read more
1Password 6.7 - Powerful password manage...
1Password is a password manager that uniquely brings you both security and convenience. It is the only program that provides anti-phishing protection and goes beyond password management by adding Web... Read more
CleanMyMac 3.8.1 - $39.95
CleanMyMac makes space for the things you love. Sporting a range of ingenious new features, CleanMyMac lets you safely and intelligently scan and clean your entire system, delete large, unused files... Read more
Monolingual 1.7.8 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. If you use your computer in only one (human) language, you... Read more
Lyn 1.8.9 - Lightweight image browser an...
Lyn is a fast, lightweight image browser and viewer designed for photographers, graphic artists, and Web designers. Featuring an extremely versatile and aesthetically pleasing interface, it delivers... Read more
Tweetbot 2.5 - Popular Twitter client.
Tweetbot is a full-featured OS X Twitter client with a lot of personality. Whether it's the meticulously-crafted interface, sounds and animation, or features like multiple timelines and column views... Read more

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Sudoku Sweeper (Games)
Sudoku Sweeper 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: A minimalist mashup of Minesweeper and Sudoku. Logic puzzle perfection. Every row, column and zone contains a bomb and one of... | Read more »
Under Leaves (Games)
Under Leaves 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Journey into the forest, the jungle or the depths of the deep blue sea. Find chestnuts for the pigs, a caterpillar for the... | Read more »
Ninja Pizza Girl (Games)
Ninja Pizza Girl 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: In the not-so-distant future, rampart traffic congestion has resulted in only one way to deliver pizzas across town in thirty... | Read more »
SCRAP (Games)
SCRAP 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: That day, for no apparent reason, SCRAP decided to wake up and run. He had to, because his activation was a mistake the "Factory" could... | Read more »
The Bunker (Games)
The Bunker 1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: The critically acclaimed console hit "The Bunker" comes to iOS, The groundbreaking live-action thriller adventure set in a real... | Read more »
Die With Glory (Games)
Die With Glory 1.2.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.2.0 (iTunes) Description: Die with Glory is an epic adventure game where your goal is to die in glorious fashion. You must help Sigurd, a brave old... | Read more »
Get Ike in the new Fire Emblem: Heroes u...
One of the most popular Fire Emblem characters is finally available in a new update to Nintendo'sFire Emblem: Heroes. [Read more] | Read more »
Die With Glory in a new viking adventure...
If you're a fan of classic adventure games you'll do well to pick upDie With Glory, the gorgeous new title from Cloud Castle inc. Die With Glory updatesthe gameplay of the same kind of adventure classics such asMonkey Island for modern, mobile... | Read more »
Get up to speed with everything you need...
In case you haven’t heard, MU Origin just got a colossal new update with new all-server events, battle modes, and systems making their way to the land of MU. Here’s a handy guide to everything you need to know about the latest content. [Read... | Read more »
Minimalist puzzle game, Cuts, free on iO...
If you're looking for a gorgeous puzzle experience on iOS devices, developer Gamebra.in's aesthetically interesting puzzler, Cuts, is discounted to free on the iOS App Store right now. [Read more] | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Save up to $260 with Apple refurbished 12-inc...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ Retina MacBooks available for $200-$260 off MSRP. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping is free. The following... Read more
Digital Paper Tablet Offers Distraction Free...
I typically spend 8-10 hours a day gazing at the screens in my laptops and iPad, as tools of my livelihood, I don’t as a rule use electronic devices for pleasure reading. I subscribe to a daily... Read more
“Today at Apple” Bringing New Educational Ses...
Apple has announced plans to launch dozens of new educational sessions next month in all 495 Apple Stores ranging in topics from photo and video to music, coding, art and design, and more. The hands-... Read more
Smart Finance Free Comprehensive Personal Fin...
Moscow-based indie developer, Alexander Survillo has announced the release and immediate availability of Smart Finance: Personal Finance, Budget & Money 1.1.4, an update to his comprehensive... Read more
12-inch 1.1GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $1...
B&H has 12″ 1.1GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1199.99 $100 off MSRP - 12... Read more
13-inch 2.7GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.7GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $130 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro (MF839LL/A): $1169 $... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pros available...
B&H Photo has the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro available for $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro (MJLQ2LL/A): $1799.99 $200 off... Read more
13-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for up...
B&H Photo has the 2016 Apple 13″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: - 13″ 2.9GHz/512GB Touch Bar... Read more
Apple refurbished Apple TVs available for up...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 32GB and 64GB Apple TVs available for up to $30 off the cost of new models. Apple’s standard one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: -... Read more
12-inch 1.2GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for up...
B&H has 12″ 1.2GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for up to $160 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.2GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1439.99 $160 off MSRP - 12″ 1... Read more

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*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**501042BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Location Number:** 000416-East Lansing-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**501195BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Location Number:** 000211-Colorado Blvd-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Read more
*Apple* Mac Computer Technician - GeekHampto...
…complex computer issues over the phone and in person? GeekHampton, Long Island's Apple Premium Service Provider, is looking for you! Come work with our crew Read more
Product Manager, *Apple* Platforms - Viacom...
…Product Manager to drive the execution of its iOS and AppleTV experiences. The Apple Platform Product Manager will be a leader in our Agile/Scrum environment and Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Master Consultation Agen...
**500662BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Master Consultation Agent **Location Number:** 000286-Canton-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Geek Squad Read more
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