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Text Display
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:11
Column Tag:ABC's of C

Text Display from Quickdraw

By Bob Gordon, Apropos Publications, MacTutor Contributing Editor

Text Display on the Mac

Like last month's, this month's column deals with using QuickDraw routines for writing text to a window. Last month we only needed a couple of routines to get printw() working; this time I tried to use as many of the QuickDraw text functions as I could. [Note that Quickdraw is the only way text can be drawn to the screen. Ultimately, all programs no matter how sophisticated must use Quickdraw to get text on the screen. -Ed]

Those who have been reading along since the ABC's of C started will realize we have almost covered all of C. This does not mean we are done, but does reflect the nature of C as a language. C is a relatively small language. If you count keywords, for example, it has fewer than many dialects of Basic. On the other hand, much of the language's capabilities are not in the language itself but are in one or another libraries. Many capabilities included in other languages (such as file access and I/O) are in libraries. In learning to use C on the Macintosh, the main part of the problem is to learn to use the various Toolbox functions. We have done menus and started windows. The plan is to now follow the chapters in Using the Macintosh Toolbox with C and focus on the Toolbox. This will result in a distorted view of C, in that we will not generally discuss the standard C functions if there is an analogous Macintosh function.

Short Personal Digression

You may have noticed the note in the September issue. I came down with an exotic, flu-like disease that lasted about two weeks and had me bedridden for one of them. It must have been reasonably serious because my doctor threatened to stick an IV in my arm and put me in the hospital. I convinced her that such measures were not necessary and seem to have survived.

But then over Labor Day weekend, my Mac died. I stepped out of the room to check on the state of the children, and when I returned the screen was dark and there was the unmistakeable smell of fried electrons. I quickly turned everything off, but it was clear that some component had expired. My diagnosis was that the analog board had failed. I called around to get estimates for replacing the analog board. These ranged from just over $100 to over $200. If you are unlucky enough to have your Mac fail, be sure to get estimates. I figure I saved $90.00 to $100.00 just by spending some time on the phone.

Fig. 1 Text from Quickdraw

Text on the Macintosh

Anyone who has ever seen a Mac realizes that unlike conventional computers, the Macintosh displays text in different sizes, styles, and fonts. While the Macintosh Toolbox contains a set of text-editing functions (TextEdit), they are limited to displaying only one font/size/style at a time. By directly calling the QuickDraw functions, we can display text almost any way we want. In order to do this, I first set up menus to allow user control over the font, style, and size, and then placed a routine in the event loop to capture keys and write them to a window. That is all this month's program does. It does not word wrap, scroll, backspace, or do any other useful editing operation.

Text Menus

Like the Desk Accessories, the font menu is acquired with AddResMenu(). AddResMenu() searches resource files for resources of the type specified and appends them to the menu. So only two lines are needed to create the font menu:

 menuFont = NewMenu(Mfont), CtoPstr("Font"));
 AddResMenu (menuFont, 'FONT');

This creates the menu, but a program cannot use the information directly. The program needs to be able to use the font number that identifies the font. When a user pulls down a menu and selects an item, the program receives a number indicating which menu and which item. Since the program has no idea of the available fonts or their position in the menus, we need a way to determine the font number from the item number. Two functions accomplish this. The first supplies the item text given the number, and the second supplies the font number given the font name. These functions are called in dofont():


The parameter itemS is a Pascal string. There is no need to call CtoPstr() because both routines are from the Toolbox and both expect Pascal strings. cfont receives the font number which is passed to the editor routines with ed_cset(). (I am taking the liberty of calling them editor routines even though they do no editing. Perhaps someday they will.)

The operation of the size menu is simpler. The sizes displayed in the menu are 9, 10, 12, 14, 18, 24, 28, and 36 points. To get the correct size from the menu item, a global array called sizes is initialized to those values. In C, all arrays start at zero so the zero element is not used, at least not directly from the menu. You will note it is initialized to 8 points. One of the styles supported is “Small Caps,” and the 8 point size is used to make small caps for the 9 point size.

One of the features of size menus is that they let the user know which sizes are available and which must be scaled. This varies with the font and so is included in dofont(). A function from the font manager, RealFont() returns a true value if the font in a given size actually exists. The following little loop provides this feature.

 for (i = 1; i < Nsize; i++)
 if (RealFont(cfont, sizes[i]))

This also shows a for loop. The statement consists of five components:

 for ( initialize ; test ; increment ) 

This directly translates into the following while loop:

 while ( test )

This translation shows how the loop is constructed. The initialization takes place once before the loop begins. The test occurs at the top of the loop, and the increment at the bottom. The primary advantage of using a for over a while is that all the loop components are available on one line. You may omit any of the components on the for line but the semicolons must be there as place holders.

It is also possible to have several statements in the for:

 for (i = 0, j = 0; i < 10; i++, j++)

Commas separate statements within each line section.

The final text menu handles the style. I have included all the styles I have seen, which include:









Small Caps



The first eight are standard Macintosh styles; the others are in MacWrite or Word. As anyone familiar with the Mac is aware, the styles generally may be combined. I assumed that it makes no sense to combine Condensed and Extended or Superscript and Subscript. This complicates the menu arrangement a bit, as selection of an item does not mean just setting or removing a check mark. The total style is collected in a short, in which each bit represents one style. Since only ten bits are in use so far (Plain is all bits off) suggestions for additional styles are open (would it, for example, be nice to set a block of text to all upper case or lower case as in MacDraw?). Where possible, the style menu illustrates the style through the use of the menu meta-characters.

Getting the Text

The eventloop() detects keyDown events. If the command key is not down, it calls ed_key() to send the character to the window. The event loop does not call ed_key() unless the window has been opened to prevent writing to an unopened window. At the moment it does not detect auto-key events. This would be something to add.

The Edit Functions

There are several Edit functions, but only two of them are of real importance. Two, ed_init() and ed_new() do some simple initialization. For this program they probably could have been combined. The most important thing that ed_new() does is to call each of the text-setting functions, dofont(), dosize(), and dostyle(), to establish initial conditions and set the menus accordingly. Each of those functions contains special code to handle the situation where the item equals zero. Since the item cannot equal zero when it is the result of mouse input, I used it for initialization.

Any time there is a change in font, size, or style, the relevant function calls ed_cset() where the change is noted and stored. ed_cset does not effect the change; it just keeps it around. This allows users to change their minds by making repeated changes through the menu without affecting anything. The change is put into effect when ed_key() is called from the event loop.

The function ed_key() does most of the work. It calls the various QuickDraw routines for changing font, size, and style, uses DrawChar() to write the character. For each kind of change it checks the flag in edbuf.cesc, and if the flag is set, it gets the value and does the change.

The styles not built into QuickDraw require special handling. To deal with the super and subscripts, ed_key() retrieves the pen position and adjusts it vertically. It does this for every character written. It probably could be done only when the the styles involved changed, but this logic is simpler.

Prior to writing each character, ed_key() checks if small caps is on. If it is, and the character is a lower case letter, it sets the size to the next smaller size (in the menu), converts the character to upper case, draws it and sets the size back to the original size. The actual character itself is not affected. Two library functions, islower() and toupper(), provide the test of lower case and change to upper case. These are part of a set of character functions that most C compilers include. I have not used the library, but included the functions right in the program. This is not due to any aversion to using libraries, but because the functions in the Lightspeed library use a C construct we have not used before:

 char c;
 return( c>='a')&&(c<='z') ? (c-32) : c);

This construction may be read:

 test ? do if true : do if false

As can be seen in toupper(), this form can be rather cryptic at first. toupper() simply asks if the character, c, is greater or equal to 'a' and less than or equal to 'z.' If it is, subtract 32 (converts to upper case in ASCII) and return that value; if not, return c unchanged.

Organization of the Program

The edit functions are in a separate file, and there is a separate header file, ed.h, that is included in the main program and in ed.c.

You will notice several lines in ed_key() that serve no apparent purpose. The structure edbuf contains a buffer in all characters and font/size/style changes are written (though the line that writes to the buffer is commented out). This is to allow eventual updating of the window.


There have been two changes to printw(). First, I fixed a bug. Previously it determined the line size on each call from the Grafport that was open when it was called. This resulted in rather odd interaction between the window being written by ed_key(), the printw() window and the menus. At one time I had menus with text in one or two point type. I moved the determination of line size inside the if-statement that is done the first time printw() is called.

The other change is the addition of code to print strings. This prints only C strings. We probably should add the ability to print Pascal strings and points and rectangles. Some of these changes may happen for next month.

Next Month

I hope to get my Mac upgraded with the 128K ROMs and the 800K drive. I also hope to stay healthy. We will continue to explore QuickDraw. I intend to draw various shapes on the screen.

/* QD1.C
 *    Sending text to window with
 *    function that accepts a variable
 * number of parameters
 * Compiled with LightspeedC
 * Important note for Mac C users:
 * Every place you see event->where,
 * replace it with &event->where
 #include "abc.h"
 #include "Quickdraw.h"
 #include "EventMgr.h"
 #include "WindowMgr.h"
 #include "MenuMgr.h"
 #include "FontMgr.h"
 #include "ed.h" 
 /* defines for menu ID's */
 #defineMdesk    100
 #defineMfile    101
 #defineMedit    102
 #defineMfont    103
 #defineMstyl    104
 #defineMsize    105
 /* Window items */
 /* File */
 #defineiClose 2
 #defineiQuit  3
 /* Edit */
 #defineiUndo  1
 #defineiCopy  4
 #defineiPaste 5
 /* Style */
 #defineiPlain 1
 #defineiBold  2
 #defineiItalic  3
 #defineiUline 4
 #defineiOline 5
 #defineiShado 6
 #defineiScaps 9
 #defineiSuper 10
 #definePlainStyle 0
 #defineUnderStyle 4
 #defineOutlineStyle 8
 #defineExtStyle 64
 /* Global variables */
 MenuHandle menuDesk;/* menu handles */
 MenuHandle menuFile;
 MenuHandle menuEdit;
 MenuHandle menuFont;
 MenuHandle menuStyl;
 MenuHandle menuSize;
 WindowRecord    windowRec;
 Rect   dragbound;
 Rect   limitRect;
 #defineNsize  9
 uchar  sizes[Nsize] = {8,9,10,12,14,18,24,28,36};
 initsys(); /* system initialization */
 initapp(); /* application initialization */

/* system initialization 
 * note use of hard coded screen sizes
 * with LightspeedC.  This will work
 * with other compilers but is not
 * good practice
 InitGraf(&thePort); /* these two lines done */
 InitFonts();    /* automatically by Mac C */
 theWindow = Nil;/*indicates no window */

 * application initialization
 * Sets up menus.
 * Initialize ed

 * set up application's menus
 * Each menu is a separate group
 * of lines.  
 menuDesk = NewMenu(Mdesk,CtoPstr("\24"));
 AddResMenu (menuDesk, 'DRVR');
 InsertMenu (menuDesk, 0);
 menuFile = NewMenu(Mfile, CtoPstr("File"));
 AppendMenu (menuFile, CtoPstr("New;Close;Quit/Q"));
 InsertMenu (menuFile, 0);
 menuEdit = NewMenu(Medit, CtoPstr("Edit"));
 AppendMenu (menuEdit, CtoPstr( "(Undo/Z;(-;(Cut/X;(Copy/C;(Paste/V;(Clear"));
 InsertMenu (menuEdit, 0);
 menuFont = NewMenu(Mfont, CtoPstr("Font"));
 AddResMenu (menuFont, 'FONT');
 InsertMenu (menuFont, 0);
 menuStyl = NewMenu(Mstyl, CtoPstr("Style"));
 AppendMenu (menuStyl, 
 AppendMenu (menuStyl,CtoPstr( "<OOutline/O;<SShadow/S;Condensed;Extended"));
 AppendMenu (menuStyl,CtoPstr( "SmallCaps;Superscript/H;Subscript/L"));
 InsertMenu (menuStyl, 0);
 menuSize = NewMenu(Msize, CtoPstr("Size"));
 AppendMenu (menuSize,CtoPstr( "09 Point;10 Point;12 Point;14 Point"));
 AppendMenu (menuSize,CtoPstr( "18 Point;24 Point;28 Point;36 Point"));
 InsertMenu (menuSize, 0);
/* Event Loop 
 * Loop forever until Quit
 char   c;
 short  windowcode;
 if (theWindow)      /* this code is here to */
 { /* prevent closing an already */
 EnableItem(menuFile,2);  /* closed window */
 if (GetNextEvent(everyEvent,&theEvent))
 { /* only check key and */
 case keyDown:   /* mouse down events */
 c = theEvent.message & charCodeMask;
 if (theEvent.modifiers & cmdKey)
 else if (theWindow)
 case mouseDown:

/* domouse
 * handle mouse down events
 short  windowcode;
 short  ingo;
 long   size;
 long   newsize;
 windowcode = FindWindow(er->where, 
 switch (windowcode)
 case inDesk:
 if (theWindow notequal 0)
 HiliteWindow(theWindow, False);
 case inMenuBar:
 case inSysWindow:
 case inContent:
 if (whichWindow equals theWindow)
 case inDrag:
   er->where, &dragbound);
 case inGrow:
 case inGoAway:
 ingo = TrackGoAway(whichWindow,er->where);
 if (ingo)
 theWindow = Nil;

/* domenu
 * handles menu activity
 * simply a dispatcher for each
 * menu.
 long   mc; /* menu result */
 short  menuId;
 short  menuitem;
 menuId = HiWord(mc);
 menuitem = LoWord(mc);
 switch (menuId)
 case Mdesk : break; 
 /*apple menu not handling DA's */
 case Mfile : dofile(menuitem);
 case Medit : /* all disabled */
 case Mfont : dofont(menuitem);
 case Mstyl : dostyle(menuitem);
 case Msize : dosize(menuitem);

/* dofont
 * marks selected font and obtains
 * font number.  modifies size 
 * menu to reflect available sizes
 * If item is zero, sets item to 3
 * (geneva, the application default)
 short  item;
 Str255 itemS;
 short  cfont; /* actual font number */
 short  i;
 static short  lastitem = 0;
 if (item equals 0)
 while (cfont notequal 3);
 CheckItem (menuFont,lastitem,False);
 CheckItem (menuFont,item,True);
 lastitem = item;
 for (i = 1; i < Nsize; i++)
 if (RealFont(cfont,sizes[i]))
  * sets size menu, if item
  * is 0, sets item to 3 (12pt)
 dosize (item)
 short  item;
 static short  lastitem = 0;
 if (item equals 0)
   item = 3;
 CheckItem (menuSize,lastitem,False);
 CheckItem (menuSize,item,True);
 lastitem = item;
 short  item;
 static short  thestyle = 0;
 short  mitems;
 short  i;
 short  style;
 short  styleflag;
 short  offflag;
 if (item equals 0)
 item = 1;
 style = item - 1; /* move item to style range */
 if (style) /* if not plain */
 styleflag = 1;
 styleflag = styleflag << (style - 1);
 CheckItem (menuStyl,1,False); /* unmark plain */
 if (thestyle & styleflag) /* if style is marked */
 { /* un mark it */
 CheckItem (menuStyl,item,False);
 thestyle = thestyle & ~styleflag;
 offflag = 0;
 switch (item)
 case iCon :
 offflag = 64;
 case iExt :
 offflag = 32;
 case iSuper :
 offflag = 512;
 case iSub :
 offflag = 256;
 CheckItem (menuStyl,item,True);
 thestyle &= ~offflag;
 thestyle ^= styleflag;
 thestyle = 0;
 mitems = CountMItems(menuStyl);
 for (i = 2; i <= mitems; i++)
 CheckItem (menuStyl,i,False);
 CheckItem (menuStyl,1,True);

/* dofile
 * handles file menu
 short  item;
 char   *title1; /* first title for window */
 Rect   boundsRect;
 switch (item)
 case iNew :/* open the window */
 title1 = "ABC Window";
 theWindow = NewWindow(&windowRec, &boundsRect,
 CtoPstr( title1),True,documentProc,
 (WindowPtr) -1, True, 0);
 case iClose :   /* close the window */
 theWindow = Nil;
 case iQuit :    /* Quit */

/* printw()
 * Displays strings and numbers in a 
 * special window
 * This function is designed to receive
 * a variable number of parameters. The 
 * number is computed by the number of
 * percent signs in the control string.
 * If the number of parameters following the 
 * control string does not match the 
 * number of percent signs, expect 
 * the unexpected.
 char   *cs;/* the control string */
#define Bufsz  14/* size of buffer to hold */
 /* converted numbers */  

 static RectboundsRect; /* variables for */
 static RectwindowRect; /* defining printw */
 static WindowRecord wrc; /* window, pw is */
 static WindowPtrpw = 0;  /* initialized to 0 */
 static short    linesz;  /* size of line */
 WindowPtroldport; /* save grafport here */
 FontInfo info;  
 short  nl;
 Point  pt;
 RgnHandleupdrgn;/* needed for scrolling */
 char   numAsStr[Bufsz];  /* number conversion */
 short  nsz;/* size of numbers (2 or 4) */
 char   **ts;  /* ptr to ptr to ctrl string */
 char   *ps;/* ptr to parameters */
 ulong  num;/* for number conversion */
 short  convchar;/* found conversion char */
 short  islong;  /* number is a long */
 char   c;/* char parameter */
 char   *s; /* string pointer parameter */
 long   tcs;
 char   *tps;
/* Window rectancgle coordinates */

#define wl0
#define wr512
#define wt250
#define wb342
 GetPort(&oldport);/* save current graph port */
 if (pw equals 0)/* if window does not exist, */
 { /*  open it */
 pw = NewWindow(&wrc, &boundsRect,
 (WindowPtr) -1, True, 0);
 GetFontInfo(&info); /* compute line height */
 linesz = info.ascent + info.descent;
 nl = linesz;    /* move down one line as */
 } /*  writing will be above */
 else   /*  boundary.  No need to  */
 nl = 0;/*  move line if already open */
 SetPort(pw);    /* Set graf port to this window */
 Move(0,nl);/* Move (relative) */
 ts = &cs;/* get address of control string ptr */
 ps = (char *)ts;/* convert to pointer to params */
 ps += sizeof(long); /* skip over control string ptr */
 tcs = (long)cs;
 tps = ps;
 while (*cs)/* loop until end of control string */
 switch (*cs)    /* check each character */
 case '%' : /* percent sign: check conversion */
 cs++;  /* point to next char */
 convchar = False; /* init for conv loop */
 islong = False;
 do {   /* loop til reach conversion char */
 switch (*cs)
 case 'l' : /* indicates a long */
 islong = True;
 case 'u' : /* unsigned decimal */
 case 'd' : /* signed decimal */
 if (islong)   /* extract numb */
 num = *(ulong*)ps;
 nsz = sizeof(long);
 num = *(ushort*)ps;
 nsz = sizeof(short);
 ps += nsz; /* point to next */
 ntoa(num,nsz,'u' - *cs,numAsStr); /* convert & write number */
 convchar = True;
 case 's' :
 num = *(ulong*)ps;
 ps += sizeof(char*);
 convchar = True;
 case 'c' :
 c = *(ushort*)ps;
 nsz = sizeof(short);
 convchar = True;
 ps += nsz;
 default: /* all other char */
 DrawChar(*cs); /* write char */
 convchar = True;
 } while (not convchar);
 case '\n' :/* newline ('\n') control string */
 GetPen(&pt);  /* find current pen position */
 if (pt.v+linesz > wb-wt)
 /* if it goes off window, */
 { /* scroll the window */
 updrgn = NewRgn();
 ScrollRect(&(pw->portRect), 0,-linesz,updrgn);
 DisposeRgn(updrgn); /* no update */
 Move(0,-linesz);/* move onto window */
 Move(-pt.h,linesz); /* move beg of next line */
 default :/* any other character just gets */
 DrawChar(*cs);  /*  written on the window */
 cs++;  /* move pointer to next char */
 } /*  in control string and continue */
 SetPort(oldport); /* restore orignal graf port */

/* Convert numbers to ascii strings
 * Handles signed and unsigned
 * short and long values
 * Note:Length of string returned 
 * must be large enough to 
 * hold -2G (12 bytes)
 ulong  n;/* number to convert */
 short  len;/* size of n (2 or 4)*/
 short  issigned;/* signed flag */
 char   *s; /* string to return */
 char   ts[12];  /* temporary string */
 int    i = 0; /* counter, initialized */
 ulong  m;/* working copy of */
 long   sm; /* to convert signed values */
 if (n equals 0) /* if n is zero, place '0' */
 ts[i++] = '0';  /*  in temporary string */
 if (issigned)   /* if sign flag is set, */
 { /*  convert to signed value */
 if (len equals sizeof(long))
 sm = (long)n;
 sm = (short)n;
 if (issigned = sm < 0) /* Check if value is */
 n = -sm; /*  negative. If so, */
 } /*  keep the flag and */
 /*  get the absolute value */
 while (n)/* Convert number into ascii */
 { /*  by repeatedly taking mod */
 ts[i++] = n % 10 + '0';  /*  and dividing.  This */
 n /= 10; /*  gives a string in */
 } /*  reverse order */
 if (issigned)   /* If number was negative, */
 ts[i++] = '-';  /*  stick a minus sign in */
 } /*  the string.*/
 do{    /* Reverse the string */
 *s++ = ts[--i]; /*  to the correct direction*/
 while (i);

 *s = '\0'; /* Place null terminator on */
}/*  string */

 *  ed.c source

extern  charsizes[];

edrec edbuf;

 * Initialize some parts of the
 * edbuf structure.  This coulb
 * easily be combined with ed_new()
 edbuf.cesc = 0;
 edbuf.cndx = 0;
 edbuf.supsub = 0;
 edbuf.chars[0] = 0;
 edbuf.linenum = 0;

 * save grafport, moves to
 * top of port, initializes
 * font, style, and size.
 * Initialize edbuf values so
 * the calls to dofont will
 * find different values than
 * are being set.
 edbuf.edport = aport;
 edbuf.face[edFont] = -1;
 edbuf.face[edStyle] = -1;
 edbuf.face[edSize] = -1;

 * Allows setting or getting
 * a value (size,font,style).
 * Is not used.
 short  what;
 short  value;
 if (value >= 0)
 edbuf.face[what] = value;

 * Called by any routine wishing
 * to change the size, style or font.
 * The change is indicated in the
 * cesc element of the edbuf structure, 
 * and the value stored in the cface 
 * element.  The change is not applied
 * until a new character is written.
 short  what;
 short  value;
 char wbit = 1;
 wbit <<= what;
 if (edbuf.face[what] equals value)
 edbuf.cesc &= ~wbit;
 edbuf.cesc |= wbit;
 edbuf.cface[what] = value;

 * Writes the character c to the
 * window.  Before writing any 
 * character, it checks to see if 
 * size/font/style have changed and
 * effects the necessary changes.
 * Since sub and super scripts and 
 * small caps styles are not supported
 * by quick draw, they are handled
 * here.
 * Small Caps is implemented by using
 * the font size one smaller on the 
 * menu for the lower case letters.
 * Sub and superscripts are generated
 * by shifting the position up or down
 * one third of a line of the the current
 * size.
 char c;
 short  *sp;
 FontInfo info;
 static short  linesz;
 Point  pt;
 short  lineinc;
 short  linedec;
 lineinc = linedec = 0;
 if (edbuf.cesc)
 if (edbuf.face[edStyle] & Supbit + Subbit)
 linedec = -edbuf.supsub;
 edbuf.chars[edbuf.cndx++] = edbuf.cesc;
 sp = (short *)&edbuf.chars[edbuf.cndx];
 if (edbuf.cesc & 1) /* Font */
 *sp = edbuf.cface[edFont];
 edbuf.face[edFont] = *sp;
 edbuf.cndx +=2;
 if (edbuf.cesc & 2) /* Size */
 *sp = edbuf.cface[edSize];
 edbuf.face[edSize] = *sp;
 edbuf.cndx +=2;
 if (edbuf.cesc & 4) /* Style */
 *sp = edbuf.cface[edStyle];
 edbuf.face[edStyle] = *sp;
 TextFace((Style)*sp & 0x7F);
 edbuf.cndx += 2;
 edbuf.chars[edbuf.cndx++] = edbuf.cesc;
 edbuf.cesc = 0;
 linesz = info.ascent + info.descent;
 if (edbuf.face[edStyle] & Subbit)
 edbuf.supsub = linesz / 3;
 else if (edbuf.face[edStyle] & Supbit)
   edbuf.supsub = -linesz/3;
 edbuf.supsub = 0;
 lineinc = edbuf.supsub;
 /*edbuf.chars[edbuf.cndx++] = c;*/
  if (c equals '\r')
   Move(-pt.h,linesz + lineinc + linedec);
   Move (0,linedec + lineinc);
   if (edbuf.face[edStyle] & Capbit and islower(c))
   TextSize(sizes[edbuf.face[edSize] - 1]);
 char c;
 return( (c>='a')&&(c<='z') ? (c-32) : c );
 char c;
 return( (c >= 'a') and (c <= 'z') ? True : False);
/* abc.h 
 * Local definitions to improve readability
#define True1
#define False  0
#define Nil 0
#define and &&
#define or||
#define not !
#define equals ==
#define notequal !=

/* unsigned longs and shorts
 * (unsigned longs may not be 
 *  available with all compilers
#define ushort   unsigned short
#define ulong    unsigned long
#define uchar    unsigned char

/* General purpose external routines 
 * String conversion routines 
 * return a pointer to a char 
extern  char*CtoPstr();
extern  char*PtoCstr(); 

 * ed.h
 * definitions for edit functions
#define edFont 0
#define edSize 1
#define edStyle  2

#define Capbit 128
#define Supbit 256
#define Subbit 512

struct edstruct
 Rect   edrect;
 short  face[3];
 short  cface[3];
 short  supsub;
 short  linenum;
 char   cesc;
 char   chars[1000];
 short  cndx;
typedef struct edstruct edrec;
typedef edrec *edpointer;

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Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more
Amazon Chime 4.1.5587 - Amazon-based com...
Amazon Chime is a communications service that transforms online meetings with a secure, easy-to-use application that you can trust. Amazon Chime works seamlessly across your devices so that you can... Read more
Persecond 1.0.9 - Timelapse video made e...
Persecond is the easy, fun way to create a beautiful timelapse video. Import an image sequence from any camera, trim the length of your video, adjust the speed and playback direction, and you’re done... Read more
CrossOver 16.2 - Run Windows apps on you...
CrossOver can get your Windows productivity applications and PC games up and running on your Mac quickly and easily. CrossOver runs the Windows software that you need on Mac at home, in the office,... Read more
MegaSeg 6.0.2 - Professional DJ and radi...
MegaSeg is a complete solution for pro audio/video DJ mixing, radio automation, and music scheduling with rock-solid performance and an easy-to-use design. Mix with visual waveforms and Magic... Read more
Apple iTunes 12.6 - Play Apple Music and...
Apple iTunes lets you organize and stream Apple Music, download and watch video and listen to Podcasts. It can automatically download new music, app, and book purchases across all your devices and... Read more
GraphicConverter 10.4 - $39.95
GraphicConverter is an all-purpose image-editing program that can import 200 different graphic-based formats, edit the image, and export it to any of 80 available file formats. The high-end editing... Read more
OpenEmu 2.0.5 - Open Source game-emulati...
OpenEmu is about to change the world of video game emulation, one console at a time... For the first time, the 'It just works' philosophy now extends to open source video game emulation on the Mac.... Read more

The Elder Scrolls: Legends is now availa...
| Read more »
Ticket to Earth beginner's guide: H...
Robot Circus launched Ticket to Earth as part of the App Store's indie games event last week. If you're not quite digging the space operatics Mass Effect: Andromeda is serving up, you'll be pleased to know that there's a surprising alternative on... | Read more »
Leap to victory in Nexx Studios new plat...
You’re always a hop, skip, and a jump away from a fiery death in Temple Jump, a new platformer-cum-endless runner from Nexx Studio. It’s out now on both iOS and Android if you’re an adventurer seeking treasure in a crumbling, pixel-laden temple. | Read more »
Failbetter Games details changes coming...
Sunless Sea, Failbetter Games' dark and gloomy sea explorer, sets sail for the iPad tomorrow. Ahead of the game's launch, Failbetter took to Twitter to discuss what will be different in the mobile version of the game. Many of the changes make... | Read more »
Splish, splash! The Pokémon GO Water Fes...
Niantic is back with a new festival for dedicated Pokémon GO collectors. The Water Festival officially kicks off today at 1 P.M. PDT and runs through March 29. Magikarp, Squirtle, Totodile, and their assorted evolved forms will be appearing at... | Read more »
Death Road to Canada (Games)
Death Road to Canada 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $7.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Get it now at the low launch price! Price will go up a dollar every major update. Update news at the bottom of this... | Read more »
Bean's Quest Beginner's Guide:...
Bean's Quest is a new take on both the classic platformer and the endless runner, and it's free on the App Store for the time being. Instead of running constantly, you can't stop jumping. That adds a surprising new level of challenge to the game... | Read more »
How to rake in the cash in Bit City
Our last Bit City guide covered the basics. Now it's time to get into some of the more advanced techniques. In the later cities, cash flow becomes much more difficult, so you'll want to develop some strategies if you want to complete each level.... | Read more »
PixelTerra (Games)
PixelTerra 1.1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.1.1 (iTunes) Description: The world of PixelTerra is quite dangerous so you need to build a shelter, find some food supply and get ready to protect... | Read more »
Tokaido™ (Games)
Tokaido™ 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Discover the digital adaptation of Tokaido, the boardgame phenomenon that has already sold more than 250,000 copies worldwide, and... | Read more »

Price Scanner via

SSD Speeder RAM Disk SSD Life Extender App Fo...
Fehraltorf, Switzerland based B-Eng has announced they are making their SSD Speeder app for macOS publicly available for purchase on their website. SSD Speeder is a RAM disk utility that prevents... Read more
iPhone Scores Highest Overall in Smartphone D...
Customer satisfaction is much higher among smartphone owners who use their device to operate other connected home services such as smart thermostats and smart appliances, according to the J.D. Power... Read more
Swipe CRM Free Photo-Centric CRM Sales DEal C...
Swipe CRM LLC has introduced Swipe CRM: Visual Sales 1.0 for iPad, an app for creating, managing, and sharing visually stunning sales deals. Swipe CRM is targeted to small-and-medium creative... Read more
13-inch 2.0GHz Apple MacBook Pros on sale for...
B&H has the non-Touch Bar 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (... Read more
15-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for up...
B&H Photo has the new 2016 15″ Apple Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar... Read more
Apple’s iPhone 6s Tops Best-Selling Smartphon...
In terms of shipments, the iPhone 6s from Apple bested all competitors for sales in 2016, according to new analysis from IHS Markit, a world leader in critical information, analytics and solutions.... Read more
Logitech Rugged Combo Protective iPad Case an...
Logitech has announced its Logitech Rugged Combo, Logitech Rugged Case, and Logitech Add-on Keyboard for Rugged Case for Apple’s new, more affordable $329 9.7-inch iPad, a complete solution designed... Read more
T-Mobile To Offer iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus...
T-Mobile has announced it will offer iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus (PRODUCT)RED Special Edition in a vibrant red aluminum finish. The introduction of this special edition iPhone celebrates Apple’s 10... Read more
9-inch 128GB iPad Pros on sale for $50-$70 of...
B&H Photo has 9.7″ 128GB Apple WiFi iPad Pros on sale for up to $70 off MSRP, each including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 9″ Space Gray 128GB WiFi iPad Pro: $649 $50... Read more
27-inch iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP...
B&H Photo has 27″ Apple iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 27″ 3.3GHz iMac 5K: $2099 $200 off MSRP - 27″ 3.2GHz/1TB Fusion iMac 5K: $... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Chicago...
SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Fulltime aan de slag als shopmanager in een h...
Ben jij helemaal gek van Apple -producten en vind je het helemaal super om fulltime shopmanager te zijn in een jonge en hippe elektronicazaak? Wil jij werken in Read more
Starte Dein Karriere-Abenteuer in den Hauptst...
…mehrsprachigen Teams betreust Du Kunden von bekannten globale Marken wie Apple , Mercedes, Facebook, Expedia, und vielen anderen! Funktion Du wolltest schon Read more
*Apple* macOS Systems Integration Administra...
…most exceptional support available in the industry. SCI is seeking an Junior Apple macOS systems integration administrator that will be responsible for providing Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
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