TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Menus, Windows
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:8
Column Tag:ABC's of C

Menus and Windows in LightSpeed C

By Bob Gordon, Apropos Publications, Contributing Editor

An easy to follow user interface is one component of good quality software. On the Macintosh, the design of the user interface is largely laid out for us. Use windows and menus. Last month, we used control keys to place a single window on the screen and make some modifications to it. This month we will do the same thing but use menus rather than control keys. You will notice that this month's program is very similar to last month's. There are some obvious differences from the addition of menus and some less obvious differences because I used a different compiler. Since the program contains functions from last month, we'll tie up a few loose ends, and cover a basic C concept as well.

C Assignment Statements

The assignment statement is probably the most basic statement in most languages. I don't think I've used it yet in any of these programs because we have done very little arithmetic. Since it is so basic, we'll go over it this month.

The C assignment operator is the equal sign:

 x = 7;
 y = a + b;
 z = max(x,y);

The effect of the assignment operator is to take the value of the right hand side and place in the variable on the left hand side.

With most languages, this would be about as much as we would say. C, however, also offers a set of specialized assignment operators. These apply when the variable on the left is also on the right as in:

 x = x + 1; /* increment x  by 1 */

The preferred C form is:

 x += 1;/* increment x by 1 */

This is a bit easier to follow as it is obvious that what we want to do is increment x. It would also be obvious to the compiler, which may generate more efficient code.

Here is a list of all the C assignment operators.

= assignment

+= addition assignment

-= subtraction assignment

*= multiplication assignment

/= division assignment

%= modulus assignment

>>= shift right assignment

<<= shift left assignment

&= bitwise AND assignment

|= bitwise inclusive OR

^= bitwise exclusive OR

The first three are the most frequently used, but you may run across another. Don't be too surprised when you see one.

Cleaning Up the Windows

There is one point from last months program about windows that deserve some clarification: The use of the "cast" in the call to NewWindow(). Each parameter of a function has to receive the correct type. C does not do type checking on external functions, and passing the wrong type can yield disastrous results. NewWindow() expects a WindowPtr for its behind parameter (specifies an existing window to place the new window behind). If the new window should be in front of all the other windows behind receives a minus one, but the minus one must be a window pointer.

To change the type of an object a cast is used. Place the type name in parentheses before the object you wish to change. The effect is as if there were a new variable of the proper type to which you assigned the orignal object. The original object is unchanged. It is preferrable to use a cast rather than an integer or long because the internal representation of an integer or long may not be the same as that of a pointer. So, to change minus one to a WindowPtr, do:

(WindowPtr)-1

This will ensure that the parameter is not only of the same size, but of the correct type as well.

LightspeedC

Since this column is devoted to learning to program in C on the Macintosh, I have been on the lookout for tools that will facilitate the learning process. LightspeedC is such a tool. Its major advantages from our point of view is that it is very fast at compiling and linking and that it places you at the correct position in your source file if the compiler detects an error. The result is that you can edit, compile, link, and run your program very rapidly, make small variations in the code and determine their effect, and generally have the opportunity to make more mistakes in a shorter period of time. If we learn from our mistakes, Lightspeed C is a useful tool for learning C on the Macintosh.

LightspeedC is different from the other available C compilers as it does not use a Unix-like setting [Yea! -Ed.] -nor does it use separate programs in the Macintosh window environment. Instead it creates its own enviornment (that follows the Macintosh User Interface) from which all editing, compiling, linking, and running take place. The integrated editor is roughly similar to the Edit application. Menus available from inside the editor allow you to run, compile, or just check the syntax. As soon as the compiler detects an error, you are returned to the editor with the cursor at the location the compiler found the error. In other words, you get one error at a time.

The link operation is extremely fast. With this month's small program, I often did not notice the link had happened. If you choose the run option from the editor, it will compile, link, and launch your program. When you quit your program, the LightspeedC environment reloads, and you can continue.

The key to the speed seems to be the system's use of a project. The necessary files are installed into the project, and I guess much of the linking takes place at intallation or compile time. The project also provides a make facility-it keeps track of changes in source, include, and library files, and recompiles them as necessary.

I came across a few problems in using LightspeedC. First, it follows the proposed ANSI standard for passing structures as parameters. As I mentioned last month, C traditionally only allowed passing pointers to structures and this complicates the passing of the Macintosh Point type (which is a four byte structure that the Mac expects to find passed by value rather than by reference). LightspeedC passes a Point correctly by value. This is not a problem except it took me over an hour to realize what was going on. I wrote the menu program under Mac C first, and then installed the source in Lightspeed.

A second problem is that Lightspeed does not include the QD variable we used last month to obtain the size of the screen. You will note in this month's program that the dragbound rectangle (which describes the limits for dragging a window) and the limit rectangle (which set the maximum size to which a window may grow) are set with hard coded numbers.

A more serious problem is that there is no way to easily print to the screen in the Macintosh environment. (LightspeedC includes printf() as well as a number of other Unix-type output functions, but the use of any of these invokes a Unix environment that eliminates the menu bar and windows. Since I was trying to debug a problem with windows, this was not at all useful. By the way, LightspeedC includes one of the larger collection of Unix compatible functions in its libraries.) Not having a printf() like routine for the Mac environment considerably reduces the usefulness of LightspeedC as a learning tool. [Too bad. They could use an assembler too! -Ed.]

The manual that comes with the package is a large format paperback. About a third of its pages are devoted to a description of all the Unix compatible functions. (Many of these, such as the string functions, are useful in the Macintosh environment. Whether such things as the memory management and file handling routines are useful would depend on whether they invoke the Unix environment and whether you wish to port your program off the Macintosh.) The descriptions of the Macintosh functions are limited to listing the name and calling sequence in the order they appear in Inside Macintosh. Alphabetical order would have been better. [Why is it developers keep slighting the Mac toolbox in their documentation? -Ed.]

Finally, Lightspeed uses different names for its header files There is no standard so this is not a problem. Since I moved the code to Lightspeed from Mac C, it would not compile immediately. I decided to change the names of the header files so they would look familiar to most people.

In general I am very impressed with the package as a learning environment. The fact that it generates fast, compact code (a fact I have not verified) is simply a bonus.

C What's on the Menu

This program does the same thing last month's program did except it's control is through menus. There is one additional visible (to the user) feature: an item in the File menu will add a new menu called Test. The Test menu allows items to be checked. The comments in the code describe other differences. I'll describe each function briefly.

main()

Main has basically disappeared. It simply calls two initialization functions. I prefer to keep the system initialization separate from the application. Eventually we'll have everything we need in the system application and will not have to change it.

initsys()

Initializes system stuff. If you compare the initialization this month with last month's, you will notice the first two lines were not in last time. They are handled automatically by Mac C.

initapp()

Sets up the menus. AppendMenu() adds the menu string(s) to the menu; InserMenu() adds the menu to the menu bar. Notice the string in the calls to AppendMenu(). It contains several metacharacters as Inside Macintosh calls them. They control the display and sometimes the operation of the menu items.

Meta Characters Explained

Character Meaning

; Separates items (can also use return)

^ Item has an icon; followed by icon number

! Item is marked with following character

< Item is in special style, followed by B, I, U, O, or S

/ Item has keyboard equivalent, followed by the character

( Item is disabled

eventloop()

An event loop like we have seen before. The test on theWindow at the begining enables/disables the items in the File menu to open/close the window. The disabled items are in gray. We probably should disable the Apple menu because we don't support Desk Accessories. Other items in other menus should switch as well. You might try to add these features.

Notice the special handling of keyDown events. In case of keyDown, the modifers field is checked for the command key being down. If the command key is down, MenuKey() is used to generate the same code as MenuSelect(), and the code is passed to domenu(). This is how command keys work with menus. You might want to add some more command keys to the menus.

domouse()

This is almost identical to last month's. The only difference is that here we call domenu() if the mouse is in the menu bar. Remember to handle er->where correctly for your compiler.

domenu()

This is simply a switch. The menu code consists of two components packed into a long. HiWord() and LoWord() are two Toolbox functions that extract the lower and upper words of a long.

dofile()

Contains the code to handle the File menu. Note cases five and six. They contain a call to DrawMenuBar() because they change the menu bar. Any changes do not appear until the menu bar is redrawn.

dowind()

Handles the Window menu. Add DisableItem() and EnableItem() calls to this one.

dotest()

This does not do anything except mark and unmark the items.

The Program

/* menu and window manager demonstration 
 * base on program in 
 * Using Macintosh Toolbox with C
 * page 91
 *
 * Compiled with LightspeedC
 *
 * Important note for Mac C users:
 * Everyplace you see event->where,
 * replace it with &event->where
 */
 
 
 #include "abc.h"/* our own header, see last month */
 #include "Events.h"
 #include "Window.h"
 #include "Menu.h"
 
 /* defines for menu ID's */
 
 #defineMdesk    100
 #defineMfile    101
 #defineMedit    102
 #defineMwind    103
 #defineMtest    104
 
 /* Global variables */
 
 MenuHandle menuDesk;/* menu handles */
 MenuHandle menuFile;
 MenuHandle menuEdit;
 MenuHandle menuWind;
 MenuHandle menuTest;
 
 
 WindowPtrtheWindow;
 WindowRecord  windowRec;
 Rect   dragbound;
 Rect   limitRect;
 
main()
{
 initsys(); /* system initialization */
 initapp(); /* application initialization */
 eventloop();  /* Do it! */
}


/* system initialization 
 * note use of hard coded screen sizes
 * with LightspeedC.  This will work
 * with other compilers but is not
 * good practice
 */
initsys() 
{
 InitGraf(&thePort); /* these two lines done */
 InitFonts();    /* automatically by Mac C */
 InitWindows();
 InitCursor();
 InitMenus();
 theWindow = Nil;/*indicates no window */
 SetRect(&dragbound,0,0,512,342);
 SetRect(&limitRect,60,40,508,318);
}


/*
 * application initialization
 * Sets up menus.
 * Each menu is a separate group
 * of lines.  Note the last menu
 * is appended but not inserted.  This
 * makes it part of the menu list but 
 * not in the menu bar.
 */
initapp()
{
 menuDesk = NewMenu(Mdesk,CtoPstr("\24"));
 AddResMenu (menuDesk, 'DRVR');
 InsertMenu (menuDesk, 0);
 
 menuFile = NewMenu(Mfile, CtoPstr("File"));
 AppendMenu (menuFile, 
 CtoPstr("Open Window/M;Close Window/X;Quit/Q"));
 AppendMenu (menuFile, 
 CtoPstr("(-;Show Test;(Hide Test"));
 InsertMenu (menuFile, 0);
 
 menuEdit = NewMenu(Medit, CtoPstr("Edit"));
 AppendMenu (menuEdit, 
 CtoPstr("Undo;(-;Cut;Copy;Paste;Clear"));
 InsertMenu (menuEdit, 0);
 
 menuWind = NewMenu(Mwind, CtoPstr("Window"));
 AppendMenu (menuWind, 
 CtoPstr("Hide;Show;New Title"));
 InsertMenu (menuWind, 0);
 
 menuTest = NewMenu(Mtest, CtoPstr("Test"));
 AppendMenu (menuTest, 
 CtoPstr("Pick;One;Of;These"));
 
 DrawMenuBar();
}
 
 
/* Event Loop 
 * Loop forever until Quit
 */
eventloop()
{
 EventRecordtheEvent;
 char   c;
 short  windowcode;
 WindowPtrww;
 
 while(True)
 {
 if (theWindow)      /* this code is here to */
 { /* prevent closing an */
 EnableItem(menuFile,2);  /* a closed window */
 DisableItem(menuFile,1);
 }
 else   
 { 
 EnableItem(menuFile,1);
 DisableItem(menuFile,2);
 }
 
 if (GetNextEvent(everyEvent,&theEvent))
 switch(theEvent.what)    
 
 { /* only check key and */
 case keyDown:   /* mouse down events */
 if (theEvent.modifiers & cmdKey)
 {
 c = theEvent.message & charCodeMask;
 domenu(MenuKey(c));
 }
 break;
 case mouseDown:
 domouse(&theEvent);
 break;
 default:
 break;
 }
 }
}


/* domouse
 * handle mouse down events
 */
domouse(er)
 EventRecord*er;
{
 short  windowcode;
 WindowPtrwhichWindow;
 short  ingo;
 long   size;
 
 windowcode = FindWindow(er->where, 
 &whichWindow);
 switch (windowcode)
 {
 case inDesk:
 if (theWindow notequal 0)
 {
 HiliteWindow(theWindow, False);
 DrawGrowIcon(theWindow);
 }
 break;
 case inMenuBar:
 domenu(MenuSelect(er->where));
 break;
 case inSysWindow:
 SysBeep(1);
 break;
 case inContent:
 HiliteWindow(whichWindow,True);
 DrawGrowIcon(theWindow);
 break;
 case inDrag:
 DragWindow(whichWindow, 
   er->where, &dragbound);
 DrawGrowIcon(theWindow);
 break;
 case inGrow:
 /* not included this month */
 break;
 case inGoAway:
 ingo = TrackGoAway(whichWindow,er->where);
 if (ingo)
 {
 CloseWindow(whichWindow);
 theWindow = Nil;
 }
 break;
 }
}

/* domenu
 * handles menu activity
 * simply a dispatcher for each
 * menu.
 */
domenu(mc)
 long   mc; /* menu result */
{
 short  menuId;
 short  menuitem;
 
 menuId = HiWord(mc);
 menuitem = LoWord(mc);
 
 switch (menuId)
 {
 case Mdesk : break;
 /* not handling DA's */
 case Mfile : dofile(menuitem);
  break;
 case Medit : break;
 
 case Mwind : dowind(menuitem);
  break;
 case Mtest : dotest(menuitem);
  break;
 }
 HiliteMenu(0);
}

/* dofile
 * handles file menu
 */
dofile(item)
 short  item;
{
 char   *title1; /* first title for window */
 Rect   boundsRect;
 
switch (item)
 {
 case 1 : /* open the window */
 title1 = "ABC Window";
 SetRect(&boundsRect,50,50,300,150);
 theWindow = NewWindow(&windowRec, 
 &boundsRect,CtoPstr(title1),True,
 documentProc,(WindowPtr) -1, True, 0);
 DrawGrowIcon(theWindow);
 PtoCstr(title1);
 DisableItem(menuFile,1);
 EnableItem(menuFile,2);
 break;
 
 case 2 : /* close the window */
 CloseWindow(theWindow);
 theWindow = Nil;
 DisableItem(menuFile,2);
 EnableItem(menuFile,1);
 break;
 
 case 3 : /* Quit */
 ExitToShell();
 break;
 
 case 5 : /* Install additional menu */
 InsertMenu(menuTest,0);
 EnableItem(menuFile,6);
 DisableItem(menuFile,5);
 DrawMenuBar();
 break;
 
 case 6 : /* remove additional menu */
 DeleteMenu(Mtest);
 EnableItem(menuFile,5);
 DisableItem(menuFile,6);
 DrawMenuBar();
 break;
 
 }
}

/*
 * dowind
 * handles window menu 
 * Note that each case contains an
 * if testing the existance of the
 * window.  This could be written
 * with one if before the switch.
 */
dowind(item)
 short  item;
{
 char   *title2; /* second title for window */
 
 switch (item)
 {
 case 1 : /* Hide */
 if (theWindow)
 HideWindow(theWindow);
 break;
 case 2 : /* Show */
 if (theWindow)
 ShowWindow(theWindow);
 break;
 case 3 : /* Change title */
 if (theWindow)
 {
 title2 = "A Different Title";
 SetWTitle(theWindow, CtoPstr(title2));
 PtoCstr(title2);
 }
 break;
 }
}

/* dotest
 * Handles new menu.
 * All this does is mark menu
 * items if they are not marked and
 * unmark them if they are.
 */
dotest(item)
 short  item;
{
 short  mark;
 
 GetItemMark(menuTest,item,&mark);
 if (mark)
 CheckItem(menuTest,item,False);
 else
 CheckItem(menuTest,item,True);
}  
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

OmniGraffle 7.2.2 - Create diagrams, flo...
OmniGraffle helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use Graffle to... Read more
OmniGraffle Pro 7.2.2 - Create diagrams,...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
OmniGraffle Pro 7.2.2 - Create diagrams,...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
OmniGraffle 7.2.2 - Create diagrams, flo...
OmniGraffle helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use Graffle to... Read more
Spotify 1.0.44.100. - Stream music, crea...
Spotify is a streaming music service that gives you on-demand access to millions of songs. Whether you like driving rock, silky R&B, or grandiose classical music, Spotify's massive catalogue puts... Read more
Microsoft OneNote 15.29 - Free digital n...
OneNote is your very own digital notebook. With OneNote, you can capture that flash of genius, that moment of inspiration, or that list of errands that's too important to forget. Whether you're at... Read more
WALTR 2 2.0.8 - $39.95
WALTR 2 helps you wirelessly drag-and-drop any music, ringtones, videos, PDF, and ePub files onto your iPhone, iPad, or iPod without iTunes. It is the second major version of Softorino's critically-... Read more
Dropbox 16.3.27 - Cloud backup and synch...
Dropbox is an application that creates a special Finder folder that automatically syncs online and between your computers. It allows you to both backup files and keep them up-to-date between systems... Read more
EtreCheck 3.1.5 - For troubleshooting yo...
EtreCheck is an app that displays the important details of your system configuration and allow you to copy that information to the Clipboard. It is meant to be used with Apple Support Communities to... Read more
Carbon Copy Cloner 4.1.12 - Easy-to-use...
Carbon Copy Cloner backups are better than ordinary backups. Suppose the unthinkable happens while you're under deadline to finish a project: your Mac is unresponsive and all you hear is an ominous,... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Track Santa with these three festive app...
Christmas is fast approaching and that means it's time to prepare for Santa's yearly pilgrimage around the globe. Christmas Eve is an exciting time as parents help their kids get ready to welcome Santa. You've got the cookies and milk all planned... | Read more »
Galaxy on Fire 3 and four other fantasti...
Galaxy on Fire 3 - Manticore brings the series back for another round of daring space battles. It's familiar territory for folks who are familiar with the franchise. If you've beaten the game and are looking to broaden your horizons, might we... | Read more »
The best apps for your holiday gift exch...
What's that, you say? You still haven't started your holiday shopping? Don't beat yourself up over it -- a lot of people have been putting it off, too. It's become easier and easier to procrastinate gift shopping thanks to a number of apps that... | Read more »
Toca Hair Salon 3 (Education)
Toca Hair Salon 3 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Winter comes to Darkwood as Seekers Note...
MyTona, based in the chilly Siberian city of Yakutsk, has brought a little festive fun to its hidden object game Seekers Notes: Hidden Mystery. The Christmas update introduces some new inhabitants to players, and with them a chance to win plenty of... | Read more »
Bully: Anniversary Edition (Games)
Bully: Anniversary Edition 1.03.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $6.99, Version: 1.03.1 (iTunes) Description: *** PLEASE NOTE: This game is officially supported on the following devices: iPhone 5 and newer, iPod Touch... | Read more »
PINE GROVE (Games)
PINE GROVE 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: A pine grove where there are no footsteps of people due to continuous missing cases. The case is still unsolved and nothing has... | Read more »
Niantic teases new Pokémon announcement...
After rumors started swirling yesterday, it turns out there is an official Pokémon GO update on its way. We’ll find out what’s in store for us and our growing Pokémon collections tomorrow during the Starbucks event, but Niantic will be revealing... | Read more »
3 reasons why Nicki Minaj: The Empire is...
Nicki Minaj is as business-savvy as she is musically talented and she’s proved that by launching her own game. Designed by Glu, purveyors of other fine celebrity games like cult favorite Kim Kardashian: Hollywood, Nicki Minaj: The Empire launched... | Read more »
Clash of Clans is getting its own animat...
Riding on its unending wave of fame and success, Clash of Clans is getting an animated web series based on its Clash-A-Rama animated shorts.As opposed to the current shorts' 60 second run time, the new and improved Clash-A-Rama will be comprised of... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

New 2016 13-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sa...
B&H Photo the new 2016 Apple 13″ 2.9GHz/256GB Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for $50 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.9GHz/256GB Touch Bar MacBook Pro Space... Read more
12-inch 1.2GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook on s...
B&H Photo has dropped their price on the 2016 Apple 12″ 1.2GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook (MLH82LL/A) to $1399 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’... Read more
Never Settle for Low Performing Wifi With iOS...
AppYogi Software has announced the release of WiFi Signal Strength Status App 1.0, the company’s new utility developed exclusively for macOS. WiFi Signal Strength Status App features a unique, single... Read more
New 2016 13-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros in st...
B&H Photo has stock of new 2016 Apple 13″ Touch Bar MacBook Pro models, each including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.9GHz/512GB Touch Bar MacBook Pro Space Gray: $1999 - 13″ 2.... Read more
New 2016 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock...
B&H Photo has new 2016 Apple 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pro models in stock today including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar MacBook Pro Space Gray: $2799 - 15″ 2.7GHz... Read more
DietSensor App Targeting Diabetes and Obesity...
DietSensor, Inc., a developer of smart food and nutrition applications designed to fight diabetes and obesity and help improve overall fitness, has announced the launch of its DietSensor app for... Read more
Holiday 2016 13-inch 2.0GHz MacBook Pro sales...
B&H has the non-Touch Bar 13″ MacBook Pros in stock today for $50-$100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (MLL42LL/A): $1449 $... Read more
Holiday sale: Apple TVs for $51-$40 off MSRP,...
Best Buy has dropped their price on the 64GB Apple TV to $159.99 including free shipping. That’s $40 off MSRP. 32GB Apple TVs are on sale right now for $98 on Sams Club’s online store. That’s $51 off... Read more
12-inch Retina MacBooks, Apple refurbished, n...
Apple has restocked a full line of Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ Retina MacBooks, now available for $200-$260 off MSRP. Refurbished 2015 models are available starting at $929. Apple will include a... Read more
Holiday sale: 12-inch Retina MacBook for $100...
B&H has 12″ Retina MacBooks on sale for $100 off MSRP as part of their Holiday sale. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1199 $100... Read more

Jobs Board

Integration Technician, *Apple* - Zones, In...
…at Zones and for our customers each day. Position Overview The Apple Integration Technician will be responsible for performing customer specific configuration Read more
*Apple* Brand Ambassador (Macy's) - The...
…(T-ROC), is proud of its unprecedented relationship with our partner and client, APPLE ,in bringing amazing" APPLE ADVOCATES"to "non" Apple store locations. Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Trumbul...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.