TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Definition Routines
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Pascal Procedures

Introduction to Definition Routines

By Darryl Lovato, Lovato Programming, Salt Lake City, UT

Introduction

This is the first of a series of articles which will cover Macintosh Definition Routines. I will use TML Pascal for all the programming examples because it is rapidly becoming the most popular Development System on the Mac, and because the new TML linker will allow you to create procedure resources (MDEF's PROC's WDEF's FKEY's ect.) quickly and efficiently.

This month I will cover the issues in common to all the different types of definition routines. In the following months I will cover Menu definition routines (MDEF's), Window definition routines (WDEF's), Control definition routines (CDEF's), List definition routines (LDEF's), and function key routines (FKEY's) in depth.

Defintion routines allow you to create a variation of a standard type of "Object" to better fit your needs. That is, they effect the general appearance and behavior of whatever they define. The pattern selection Menu in MacDraw is a good example of this. Definition routines are usually stored as resources but they may also be set up as routines within your program.

The best way to develop a Definition Routine is to make it a routine in your code, and when its finished, to compile it into a resource which can then be used with any application. The Menu, Window, Contol, and List managers all allow you to use definition routines.

Fig. 1 A non-standard Menu Item

Getting a Handle On Things

When you create a new object (menu, window ect.), you can specify a non-standard definition routine (a routine other than the normal Mac ROM way of doing something) for it to use. There are two ways of doing this.

1. By making the procedure a resource in a seperate file.

An example of this process for a non-standard menu follows. Listing #1 is the code that creates the Menu Definition Resource and listing #2 shows how to use it.

{---------listing fragment #1 the resource def program-------}
{must be compiled with the DeskAcc option checked}
program TheMDEFProc;

{pascal directive to create a MDEf resource}
{---> $C type id [attribute] [name] <---}

{$C 'MENU' 256 4 'TheMDEFRes'}

var { no globals allowed }

  procedure theMDEFProcedure(...);

  begin
    { code to impliment the Menu Def }
  end;

begin {no main program allowed}
end.

{------listing fragment #2 the program that uses the res-----}

program UseTheMenu;

{$L TheMDEFProc} {link the file we created above}
          {it includes the menu def we created}

Two methods can be used to put a handle to your MDEF resource in the MenuProc field of the menu.

(1) In the menu resource, change the menuID field to the resource id of your MDEF. Then,when you call the GetMenu function, the Menu Manager will automatically read the MDEF resource from the resource file, and place a handle to it in the MenuProcField of the menu

(2) If you create the menu (or window) by any means other than reading a resource (by calling NewMenu, for instance), you must get a handle to the MDEF by executing the following code:

 MyMenuHand := NewMenu(100,'menuTitle');
 myProcHdl := GetResource('MDEF',256);
 MyMenuHand^^.menuProc := myProcHdl;

2. By putting the proc in your code and creating a handle to it.

First get a handle to your object, by calling NewMenu or GetNewMenu. Then get a handle to the definition routine, which may be part of your code, and shove it into the MenuProc field of your objects record. An Example of this method follows:

var
 myMenuHdl : MenuHandle;

procedure TheMenuProc(...);
begin
.
.
.
end;
.
.
.
myMenuHdl := GetNewMenu(...);
myMenuHdl^^.menuProc := NewHandle(0);
myMenuHdl^^.menuProc^ := Ptr(@TheMenuProc);

Fig. 2 A non-standard window definition

Things to Come

All of the definition routines are passed a message which tell them what kind of action the are to do. Typical actions are Initialize, Draw, Select, Drag, Size, ect. A brief introduction to the individual definition routines we will cover in the in the next couple of months follow:

Menu Defintion Procedure

The menu definition procedure has the following Pascal definition:

procedure MyMenu(message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 var menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 var whichItem : Integer);

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

mDrawMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should draw theMenu inside menuRect.

mChooseMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should hilite the item which hitPt is in, unhilite the old item, and return the new item in whichItem.

mSizeMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should calculate the width and height of the menu and put the results in theMenu^^.width and theMenu^^.height respectively.

Window Defintion function

The window definition function has the following Pascal definition:

function MyWindow(varCode : integer;
 theWindow : WindowPtr;
 message : integer;
 param : LongInt)
 : LongInt;

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

wDraw

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw the window frame. Before doing this, however, the routine should check to see if the window frame should show hiliting, if the window is visible, if the window has a go-away box, ect.

wHit

If the window definition function is passed this value it should inspect param, which is the point where the mouse was pressed. Then it should check to see if the point is in one of the windows regions, such as the GoAway region, and return the appropriate result.

wCalcRgns

If the window definition function is passed this value it should calculate the windows current structure and content regions and store the results in the window record.

wNew

If the window definition function is passed this value it should perform any extra initialization and allocation it may require.

wDispose

If the window definition function is passed this value it should perform any additional disposal actions which it may require. This message "Undo's" whatever was done in the wNew routine.

wGrow

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw a grow image of the window to fit the given rectangle. This operation is called repeatedly when the user drags inside the grow region.

wDrawGIcon

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw the size box icon in the window.

Control Defintion Function

The control definition function has the following Pascal definition:

function MyControl(varCode : integer;
 theControl : ControlHandle;
 message : integer;
 param : LongInt)
 : LongInt;

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

drawCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should draw all or part of theControl.

testCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should test where the mouse button was pressed.

calcCRgns

If the control definition function is passed this value it should calculate the control or its indicators regions.

initCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should do any extra initialization actions it needs to perform.

dispCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should take any additional disposal actions.

posCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should reposition the controls indicator, and update it.

thumbCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should calculate parameters for dragging indicator.

dragCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should drag the control or its indicator.

autoTrack

If the control definition function is passed this value it should execute the control's action procedure.

List Defintion Procedure

The list definition procedure has the following Pascal definition:

procedure MyList(lmessage : integer;
 lSelect : Boolean;
 lRect : Rect;
 lCell : Cell;
 lDataOffset : integer;
 lDataLen : integer;
 lHandle : ListHandle);

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

lInitMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should do any additional list initialization.

lDrawMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should draw the cell.

lHiliteMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should invert the cell's highlite state.

lCloseMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should take any additional disposal actions.

A Warning From Apple

Apple has stated, "For the convienience of the application's user, remember to conform to the Macintosh User Interface Guidlines as much as possable". I agree totally. So don't make a round menu or a window in the shape of a Apple. (I've already done them both anyway!) [Wow! How about publishing the Apple window? -Ed.]

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Macs Fan Control 1.4.4.0 - Monitor and c...
Macs Fan Control allows you to monitor and control almost any aspect of your computer's fans, with support for controlling fan speed, temperature sensors pane, menu-bar icon, and autostart with... Read more
calibre 2.69.0 - Complete e-book library...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Evernote 6.9.1 - Create searchable notes...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more
jAlbum Pro 13.5 - Organize your digital...
jAlbum Pro has all the features you love in jAlbum, but comes with a commercial license. You can create gorgeous custom photo galleries for the Web without writing a line of code! Beginner-friendly... Read more
jAlbum 13.5 - Create custom photo galler...
With jAlbum, you can create gorgeous custom photo galleries for the Web without writing a line of code! Beginner-friendly, with pro results - Simply drag and drop photos into groups, choose a design... Read more
Google Chrome 53.0.2785.143 - Modern and...
Google Chrome is a Web browser by Google, created to be a modern platform for Web pages and applications. It utilizes very fast loading of Web pages and has a V8 engine, which is a custom built... Read more
Chromium 53.0.2785.143 - Fast and stable...
Chromium is an open-source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable way for all Internet users to experience the web. Version 53.0.2785.143: [Security Fix] High CVE-2016-... Read more
QuickBooks 2015 16.1.7.1524 R8 - Financi...
Save 20% on QuickBooks Pro for Mac today through this special discount link QuickBooks 2015 helps you manage your business easily and efficiently. Organize your finances all in one place, track... Read more
Sierra Cache Cleaner 11.0.1 - Clear cach...
Sierra Cache Cleaner is an award-winning general purpose tool for macOS X. SCC makes system maintenance simple with an easy point-and-click interface to many macOS X functions. Novice and expert... Read more
Default Folder X 5.0.7 - Enhances Open a...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more

3 tips to aid your journey in Banner Sag...
Stoic Games brings us another viking epic in the guise of Banner Saga 2 this week. It’s a sweeping tale, richly animated and draped in melancholy and moments of beauty. The game’s been received as a much improved follow up to the first entry in the... | Read more »
Pumped BMX 3: Beginner tips and tricks
There’s a whole lot more to Pumped BMX 3 than meets the eye. Your goal is to perform a wide array of sweet flips and tricks, but that’s easier said than done. It takes well practiced timing and coordination, and the game doesn’t really explain that... | Read more »
Cybird’s latest release - BFB Champions...
Launched in the UK in early September, BFB Champions’ newest update is loaded with great new features, and looks set to outshine the original version by taking it out of soft launch and giving it a new lease of life. | Read more »
3 apps to boost your focus
As someone who works from home, my workspace is a minefield of distraction. Cats, tasty snacks, the wind blowing past my window, that cleaning that I suddenly can’t put off any longer. If I let distraction takes its course, I find that soon half... | Read more »
Pumped BMX 3 (Games)
Pumped BMX 3 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The final instalment of the smash hit #1 rated BMX game is here! Following on from the insane success of Pumped BMX 2, Pumped 3... | Read more »
4 games like Burly Men at Sea to inspire...
Burly Men at Sea is out today and it looks a treat. It tells the tale of three Scandinavian fishermen who leave the humdrum of their daily lives to go exploring. It’s a beautiful folksy story that unfurls as you interact with the environment... | Read more »
3 reasons you need to play Kingdom: New...
Developed by a tag team of indie developers - Thomas "Noio" van den Berg and Marco "Licorice" Bancale - Kingdom is a vibrant medieval fantasy adventure that casts players as a king or queen who must expand their empire by exploring the vasts lands... | Read more »
JoyCity have launched a brand new King o...
Great news for all of you Game of Dice fans out there - JoyCity have just released a brand new limited edition pack with a really cool twist. The premise of Game of Dice is fairly straightforward, asking you to roll dice to navigate your way around... | Read more »
Burly Men at Sea (Games)
Burly Men at Sea 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Burly Men at Sea is a folktale about a trio of large, bearded fishermen who step away from the ordinary to seek adventure. | Read more »
3 tips for catching the gnarliest waves...
Like a wave breaking on the shore, Tidal Rider swept its way onto the App Store charts this week settling firmly in the top 10. It’s a one-touch high score-chaser in which you pull surfing stunts while dodging seagulls and collecting coins. The... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

CAZE Annouces New Zero 5 Case for Jet Black i...
Hong Kong basd CAZE has announced Zero 5 case for iPhone 7/ 7 Plus, one of the world’s thinnest clear hard cases, measuring just 0.5 millimeters. CAZE has been producing and improving the Zero 5... Read more
Nest Egg Inventory App for iOS Offers Conven...
Campbell, California based Winprogger LLC has announced the release and immediate availability of Nest Egg – Inventory 4.1.22, an important update to their easy-to-use, yet comprehensive inventory... Read more
Factor4, LLC Launches Apple iOS and Android G...
Factor4, LLC, which offers gift and loyalty services to the SMB marketplace, has released free mobile applications that enable merchants to process via all Apple and Android devices. The Apple and... Read more
15-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $200...
B&H Photo has 15″ Retina Apple MacBook Pros on sale for $200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1799 $200 off MSRP - 15″ 2.5GHz Retina... Read more
Apple refurbished iMacs available for up to $...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 21″ & 27″ iMacs available for up to $350 off MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are available: - 21″ 3.... Read more
Check Apple prices on any device with the iTr...
MacPrices is proud to offer readers a free iOS app (iPhones, iPads, & iPod touch) and Android app (Google Play and Amazon App Store) called iTracx, which allows you to glance at today’s lowest... Read more
Apple price trackers, updated continuously
Scan our Apple Price Trackers for the latest information on sales, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers. We update the trackers continuously: - 15″... Read more
Apple refurbished 2016 13-inch MacBook Airs a...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at $849. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: - 2016 13″ 1.6GHz/8GB/128GB MacBook... Read more
1.4GHz Mac mini on sale for $449, save $50
Adorama has the 1.4GHz Mac mini on sale for $50 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini (Apple sku# MGEM2LL/A): $449 $50 off MSRP To purchase a mini at... Read more
Apple refurbished 2015 13-inch MacBook Airs a...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at $759. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: - 2015 13″ 1.6GHz/4GB/128GB MacBook... Read more

Jobs Board

Systems Architecture Prototyping - *Apple*...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Akron,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Hardware Design Validation Engineer - *Apple...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more Read more
Systems Architecture Prototyping - *Apple*...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- South B...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.