TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Definition Routines
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Pascal Procedures

Introduction to Definition Routines

By Darryl Lovato, Lovato Programming, Salt Lake City, UT

Introduction

This is the first of a series of articles which will cover Macintosh Definition Routines. I will use TML Pascal for all the programming examples because it is rapidly becoming the most popular Development System on the Mac, and because the new TML linker will allow you to create procedure resources (MDEF's PROC's WDEF's FKEY's ect.) quickly and efficiently.

This month I will cover the issues in common to all the different types of definition routines. In the following months I will cover Menu definition routines (MDEF's), Window definition routines (WDEF's), Control definition routines (CDEF's), List definition routines (LDEF's), and function key routines (FKEY's) in depth.

Defintion routines allow you to create a variation of a standard type of "Object" to better fit your needs. That is, they effect the general appearance and behavior of whatever they define. The pattern selection Menu in MacDraw is a good example of this. Definition routines are usually stored as resources but they may also be set up as routines within your program.

The best way to develop a Definition Routine is to make it a routine in your code, and when its finished, to compile it into a resource which can then be used with any application. The Menu, Window, Contol, and List managers all allow you to use definition routines.

Fig. 1 A non-standard Menu Item

Getting a Handle On Things

When you create a new object (menu, window ect.), you can specify a non-standard definition routine (a routine other than the normal Mac ROM way of doing something) for it to use. There are two ways of doing this.

1. By making the procedure a resource in a seperate file.

An example of this process for a non-standard menu follows. Listing #1 is the code that creates the Menu Definition Resource and listing #2 shows how to use it.

{---------listing fragment #1 the resource def program-------}
{must be compiled with the DeskAcc option checked}
program TheMDEFProc;

{pascal directive to create a MDEf resource}
{---> $C type id [attribute] [name] <---}

{$C 'MENU' 256 4 'TheMDEFRes'}

var { no globals allowed }

  procedure theMDEFProcedure(...);

  begin
    { code to impliment the Menu Def }
  end;

begin {no main program allowed}
end.

{------listing fragment #2 the program that uses the res-----}

program UseTheMenu;

{$L TheMDEFProc} {link the file we created above}
          {it includes the menu def we created}

Two methods can be used to put a handle to your MDEF resource in the MenuProc field of the menu.

(1) In the menu resource, change the menuID field to the resource id of your MDEF. Then,when you call the GetMenu function, the Menu Manager will automatically read the MDEF resource from the resource file, and place a handle to it in the MenuProcField of the menu

(2) If you create the menu (or window) by any means other than reading a resource (by calling NewMenu, for instance), you must get a handle to the MDEF by executing the following code:

 MyMenuHand := NewMenu(100,'menuTitle');
 myProcHdl := GetResource('MDEF',256);
 MyMenuHand^^.menuProc := myProcHdl;

2. By putting the proc in your code and creating a handle to it.

First get a handle to your object, by calling NewMenu or GetNewMenu. Then get a handle to the definition routine, which may be part of your code, and shove it into the MenuProc field of your objects record. An Example of this method follows:

var
 myMenuHdl : MenuHandle;

procedure TheMenuProc(...);
begin
.
.
.
end;
.
.
.
myMenuHdl := GetNewMenu(...);
myMenuHdl^^.menuProc := NewHandle(0);
myMenuHdl^^.menuProc^ := Ptr(@TheMenuProc);

Fig. 2 A non-standard window definition

Things to Come

All of the definition routines are passed a message which tell them what kind of action the are to do. Typical actions are Initialize, Draw, Select, Drag, Size, ect. A brief introduction to the individual definition routines we will cover in the in the next couple of months follow:

Menu Defintion Procedure

The menu definition procedure has the following Pascal definition:

procedure MyMenu(message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 var menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 var whichItem : Integer);

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

mDrawMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should draw theMenu inside menuRect.

mChooseMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should hilite the item which hitPt is in, unhilite the old item, and return the new item in whichItem.

mSizeMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should calculate the width and height of the menu and put the results in theMenu^^.width and theMenu^^.height respectively.

Window Defintion function

The window definition function has the following Pascal definition:

function MyWindow(varCode : integer;
 theWindow : WindowPtr;
 message : integer;
 param : LongInt)
 : LongInt;

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

wDraw

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw the window frame. Before doing this, however, the routine should check to see if the window frame should show hiliting, if the window is visible, if the window has a go-away box, ect.

wHit

If the window definition function is passed this value it should inspect param, which is the point where the mouse was pressed. Then it should check to see if the point is in one of the windows regions, such as the GoAway region, and return the appropriate result.

wCalcRgns

If the window definition function is passed this value it should calculate the windows current structure and content regions and store the results in the window record.

wNew

If the window definition function is passed this value it should perform any extra initialization and allocation it may require.

wDispose

If the window definition function is passed this value it should perform any additional disposal actions which it may require. This message "Undo's" whatever was done in the wNew routine.

wGrow

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw a grow image of the window to fit the given rectangle. This operation is called repeatedly when the user drags inside the grow region.

wDrawGIcon

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw the size box icon in the window.

Control Defintion Function

The control definition function has the following Pascal definition:

function MyControl(varCode : integer;
 theControl : ControlHandle;
 message : integer;
 param : LongInt)
 : LongInt;

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

drawCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should draw all or part of theControl.

testCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should test where the mouse button was pressed.

calcCRgns

If the control definition function is passed this value it should calculate the control or its indicators regions.

initCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should do any extra initialization actions it needs to perform.

dispCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should take any additional disposal actions.

posCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should reposition the controls indicator, and update it.

thumbCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should calculate parameters for dragging indicator.

dragCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should drag the control or its indicator.

autoTrack

If the control definition function is passed this value it should execute the control's action procedure.

List Defintion Procedure

The list definition procedure has the following Pascal definition:

procedure MyList(lmessage : integer;
 lSelect : Boolean;
 lRect : Rect;
 lCell : Cell;
 lDataOffset : integer;
 lDataLen : integer;
 lHandle : ListHandle);

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

lInitMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should do any additional list initialization.

lDrawMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should draw the cell.

lHiliteMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should invert the cell's highlite state.

lCloseMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should take any additional disposal actions.

A Warning From Apple

Apple has stated, "For the convienience of the application's user, remember to conform to the Macintosh User Interface Guidlines as much as possable". I agree totally. So don't make a round menu or a window in the shape of a Apple. (I've already done them both anyway!) [Wow! How about publishing the Apple window? -Ed.]

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Google Chrome 63.0.3239.108 - Modern and...
Google Chrome is a Web browser by Google, created to be a modern platform for Web pages and applications. It utilizes very fast loading of Web pages and has a V8 engine, which is a custom built... Read more
Paparazzi! 1.0b7 - Make user-defined siz...
Paparazzi! is a small utility for OS X that makes screenshots of webpages. This very simple tool takes screenshots of websites which do not fit on one screen. You specify the desired width, minimal... Read more
Remotix 5.0.4 - Access all your computer...
Remotix is a fast and powerful application to easily access multiple Macs (and PCs) from your own Mac. Features Complete Apple Screen Sharing support - including Mac OS X login, clipboard... Read more
Apple Configurator 2.6 - Configure and d...
Apple Configurator makes it easy to deploy iPad, iPhone, iPod touch, and Apple TV devices in your school or business. Use Apple Configurator to quickly configure large numbers of devices connected to... Read more
Amadeus Pro 2.4.4 - Multitrack sound rec...
Amadeus Pro lets you use your Mac for any audio-related task, such as live audio recording, digitizing tapes and records, converting between a variety of sound formats, etc. Thanks to its outstanding... Read more
Mellel 4.0.3 - The word processor for sc...
Mellel is the leading word processor for OS X and has been widely considered the industry standard for long form documents since its inception. Mellel focuses on writers and scholars for technical... Read more
Suitcase Fusion 8 19.0.3 - Font manageme...
Suitcase Fusion 8 is the creative professional's font manager. Every professional font manager should deliver the basics: spectacular previews, powerful search tools, and efficient font organization... Read more
Final Cut Pro X 10.4 - Professional vide...
Final Cut Pro X is a professional video editing solution. Completely redesigned from the ground up, Final Cut Pro adds extraordinary speed, quality, and flexibility to every part of the post-... Read more
Compressor 4.4 - Adds power and flexibil...
Compressor adds power and flexibility to Final Cut Pro X export. Customize output settings, work faster with distributed encoding, and tap into a comprehensive set of delivery features. Features... Read more
Cocktail 11.2 - General maintenance and...
Cocktail is a general purpose utility for macOS that lets you clean, repair and optimize your Mac. It is a powerful digital toolset that helps hundreds of thousands of Mac users around the world get... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Match blocks to pull off dance moves in...
Ferdinand: Unstoppabull is a brand new match three puzzler based on the animated movie of (almost) the same name. As you can expect, you have to match blocks together to complete a bunch of puzzling levels and earn a high score. [Read more] | Read more »
Lineage 2: Revolution’s end of year upda...
Now available in 54 countries worldwide, Lineage 2: Revolution is continuing its global quest to be the most popular mobile MMORPG by launching a jam-packed end of year update. Complete with many subtle tweaks to help improve users’ online... | Read more »
The 5 best Star Wars games on iOS
The time has almost come.Star Wars: The Last Jedifinally hits theaters in the cinematic event that might be bigger than Christmas. To celebrate, we're taking a look at the best--and only the best--Star Warsmobile games to date. [Read more] | Read more »
Life Is Strange (Games)
Life Is Strange 1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: Life Is Strange is a five part episodic game that sets out to revolutionize story-based choice and consequence games by... | Read more »
Oddworld: New 'n' Tasty (Game...
Oddworld: New 'n' Tasty 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $7.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ** PLEASE NOTE: Requires 3.6GB free space to install. Runs at variable resolutions based on device capabilities.... | Read more »
Gorogoa (Games)
Gorogoa 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Gorogoa is an elegant evolution of the puzzle genre, told through a beautifully hand-drawn story designed and illustrated by Jason... | Read more »
Why Guns of Boom will be big for mobile...
Earlier this week, Game Insight, the minds that brought you Guns of Boom, revealed plans for an esports mode in the popular FPS title, with big implications for the game's future. Guns of Boom has been quite popular for some time now, so it's... | Read more »
The best mobile games to play on lazy ho...
With the holidays in full swing, there's hopefully going to be a lot of time off work lazing around the house. With all of that free time, it's a perfect opportunity to catch up on some mobile games that you might have missed out on earlier this... | Read more »
Rules of Survival guide - how to boost y...
It's not easy surviving in the "every-man-for-himself" world of Rules of Survival. You'll be facing off against many other players who might be more skilled than you, or are luckier than you. There are a lot of factors weighing against you. With... | Read more »
FEZ Pocket Edition (Games)
FEZ Pocket Edition 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Updated Price Trackers: Macs, iPads, iPhones,...
Scan our Apple Price Trackers for the latest information on sales, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers. We update the trackers continuously: – 15″... Read more
How to preorder a new iMac Pro and pay zero s...
B&H Photo and Adorama are accepting preorders on multiple configurations of the new Apple iMac Pro. Both resellers charge sales tax for residents of NY & NJ only, and shipping is free.... Read more
Apple Macs back in stock at Amazon with model...
Amazon has MacBook Pros, MacBook Airs, MacBooks, and iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP as part of their Holiday/Christmas sale. Shipping is free. Note that stock of some Macs may come and go (and... Read more
Apple offering free overnight delivery on all...
Apple is now offering free overnight delivery on all in stock products until 3pm local time on December 22nd. This includes new as well as refurbished computers. Click here for more information. Read more
Beats Holiday sale at B&H, headphones and...
B&H Photo has Beats by Dr. Dre headphones, earphones, and speakers on sale for up to $80 off MSRP as part of their Holiday sale. Expedited shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax to NY... Read more
Holiday sale: Apple resellers offer 2017 15″...
MacMall has 15″ MacBook Pros on sale for $220-$300 off MSRP, each including free shipping: – 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (MPTR2LL/A): $2179, $220 off MSRP – 15″ 2.8GHz MacBook Pro Silver (... Read more
Holiday sale: Apple resellers offer 13″ MacBo...
B&H Photo has 13″ MacBook Pros on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents only: – 13-inch 2.3GHz/128GB Space Gray MacBook Pro (... Read more
Apple Watch Series 2, Certified Refurbished,...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Apple Watch Nike+ Series 2s, 42mm Space Gray Aluminum Case with Anthracite/Black Nike Sport Bands, available for $249 (38mm) or $279 (42mm). The 38mm model was out of... Read more
Apple offers Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ R...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ Retina MacBooks available starting at $949. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping is free. The following... Read more
B&H drops price on 13″ 256GB MacBook Air...
B&H has the 13″ 1.8GHz/256GB Apple MacBook Air (MQD42LL/A) now on sale for $1079 including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Payments Counsel, *Apple* Pay (payments, cr...
# Payments Counsel, Apple Pay (payments, credit/debit) Job Number: 112941729 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: 13-Dec-2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Apple (United...
# Apple Solutions Consultant Job Number: 113124408 Waterford, CT, Connecticut, United States Posted: 17-Oct-2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** Are you Read more
QA Automation Engineer, *Apple* Pay - Apple...
# QA Automation Engineer, Apple Pay Job Number: 113202642 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: 11-Dec-2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** At Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.