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Resource Mover Modula-2
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:3
Column Tag:Modula-2 Mods

A Resource Mover in Modula-2

By Tom Taylor, Hewlett Packard, Santa Clara, MacTutor Contributing Editor

Moving Resources in Modula-2

The Macintosh's built-in ability to deal with resources can both complicate and simplify life for the Mac programmer. Resources allow many items that would normally be hardcoded into a program to be separated from the code and made independent of program compilation. Typical resources include windows, dialogs, controls, and icons. Many utility-type programs need to move resources from one file to another. This article will present the steps necessary to move resources and provide the sources to a library module and a demonstration program.

Clearing a resource file

The first routine I needed while designing a module to copy resources was a procedure to clear a resource file of all resources. In dealing with the Mac, it seems like there's always a ToolBox routine at hand to do exactly what you want. In this case, I could find no routine to clear a resource file. My first cut at writing a resource clearing routine worked by finding all the resources that belonged to the desired resource file and then individually removing the resources by calling RmveResource. For some unexplainable reason, this method did not work. Sometimes it would take more than one pass over the file to delete all the resources. Out of frustration, I resorted to a more brute-force, direct technique. This method involved opening the resource file using the File Manager and directly manipulating its contents to mimick that of an empty, newly created resource file. Figure one shows the contents of a resource file after it has been "cleared" by my ClearRsrcFile routine (see the commented routine in the MoveResources.MOD file).

                  (file : ARRAY OF CHAR) : INTEGER;

There are two ways to open a resource file. Normally, the Resource Manager's OpenResFile routine is called. This routine looks only on the default volume for the specified file (unless one passes the volume name as part of the filename; a no-no according to Apple and might not work with the HFS). Therefore, always do a SetVol to the volume containing the resource file before calling OpenResFile. It is interesting to note that the Resource Manager in the new ROMs includes a call called OpenRFPerm that allows you to specify the volume reference number along with the resource file (and permission too!). The other way to open a resource file is with the File Manager's FSOpenRF call. FSOpenRF treats the resource file as a traditional data file and OpenResFile treats the file as a collection of resources. Since the ClearRsrcFile routine needs to go in and fool with the resource file directly, I used the FSOpenRF call to open the file.

Figure 1. A cleared resource file.

Copying a resource file

The next step in designing a resource copying module was to design a resource copying routine. I wanted the routine to be very simple from a user's point of view. The routine takes two resource file reference numbers, one the source and the other the destination, and simply copies all resources from one file to the other. Other parameters of the routine specify whether information about each resource should be printed as the resource is copied and whether duplicate resources should be replaced or flagged as an error. Finally, a fairly involved error record is passed to the resource copying routine so that if an error occurs, the caller has a chance at doing some sort of sophisticated error recovery.

 (src, dest : INTEGER;
 noisy : BOOLEAN;
 allowDuplicate: BOOLEAN;
 VAR error : RsrcErr);

The resource copying routine (called MoveRsrcs in the the MoveResources.MOD file), basically follows these steps:

1- Turn off resource loading by calling SetResLoad(FALSE). This tells the Resource Manager not to load the resource data associated with each resource into memory (of course, those resources marked as "preloadable" will have already been loaded by the OpenResFile call). After every Resource Manager call, the procedure CheckError is called to check for a Resource Manager error. If an error did indeed occur, resource loading is turned back on by calling SetResLoad(TRUE). Leaving a program without setting resource loading back on causes serious problems!

2- Find all the resources associated with the source resource file. We loop through all the resource types and the various resources of each type (by calling CountTypes and CountResources) and get a handle to each resource. Unfortunately, we must look at every resource from every open resource file just to find the resources that belong to a specific file. When you ask the Resource Manager for a resource, it checks all of the open resource files and there is no way to limit its search to one file (although the order of the search can be changed). The new ROMs, however, now implement a number of new Resource Manager calls that only search a single resource file (routines such as: Count1Resources, Get1IndType, etc). Of course, by using any of the new ROM calls, the program wouldn't work on a Mac with the old ROMs. The HomeResFile routine tells us which resource file a resource belongs to. If the resource belongs to the source file we are interested in, then the handle to the resource is saved by our module in a linked list.

3- Loop through the selected resources. Each selected resource handle is removed from the linked list.

a- Load the resource into memory by specifically calling LoadResource. LoadResource will load the resource even though SetResLoad is FALSE.

b- Call GetResInfo to find out the resource's name, type, and id.

c- "Detach" the resource with DetachResource. In other words, tell the Resource manager to "forget" about it.

d- Check to see if the destination resource file already contains the same resource and handle a possible collision.

e- Add the resource to the destination resource file.

4- Turn resource loading back on (SetResLoad(TRUE)) and return.

Step 2 mentioned that the resource manager searches all the open resource files when performing various operations. In the case of MacModula-2, these files could include: the System file, the Modula-2 interpreter, the .LOD file that uses the resource copier module, the source resource file (the one we're copying), and the destination resource file (the one we're copying to). Actually, the Resource Manager keeps a linked list of all the open files and it sequentially searches the files in the list. By calling UseResFile, one can change the order of this linked list. In fact, UseResFile is called in a number of places where it is desireable that either the source or destination file be searched first.

Figure 2. MoveResource program.

An applications program

The sample application program provides a front-end to the MoveResource module (see figure 2). The program (called MoveResources.MOD) displays the SFGetFile dialog box and prompts the user to select a source resource file. If the file has a resource fork, the user is asked to select a destination resource file and decide whether the destination resources should be cleared. Finally, the resources are copied from the source to the destination file.

Since the Mac is so tied to resources, it's important that we understand how to manipulate these resources. I hope that you will be able to make use of the code or concepts discussed in this article in your own projects.

----------- MoveResources.DEF -----------
(* Tom Taylor
   3707 Poinciana Dr. #137
   Santa Clara, CA 95051

  (* This module is used for copying
     resources from one file to another. *)

  FROM ResourceManager IMPORT
    RsrcErrType, RsrcErr,
    MoveRsrcs, ClearRsrcFile;

    (* Possible errors during a resource copy *)
    RsrcErrType = (noRsrcError,

    RsrcErr = RECORD
                errType : RsrcErrType; 
                CASE RsrcErrType OF
                  duplicateRsrc: dupInfo :
                    (* The ID and type of
                       the offending duplicate
                       resource. *)
                      dupID : INTEGER;
                      dupType : ResType;
                |  otherRsrcError: errNum :
                    (* Mac error number *)

  PROCEDURE MoveRsrcs (src, dest : INTEGER;
                       noisy : BOOLEAN;
                       allowDuplicate : BOOLEAN;
                       VAR error : RsrcErr);
  (* Moves all resources from the src resource
     file number to the dest resource file number.
     If noisy is true, then information is printed
     about each resource as it is copied.  If
     allowDuplicate is true, then a destination
     resource of the same type and ID as a source
     resource is replaced by the source resource.
     If allowDuplicate is false, then an error is
     returned when a duplicate is found. *)

  PROCEDURE ClearRsrcFile
                  (file:ARRAY OF CHAR) : INTEGER;
  (* Clears all resources in the resource file
     specified by 'file'.  ClearRsrcFile returns
     0 if no error occured or the error number. *)

END MoveResources.

----------- MoveResources.MOD -----------

(* Tom Taylor
   3707 Poinciana Dr. #137
   Santa Clara, CA 95051

  (* This module contains the code for
     copying resources from one file
     to another. *)

  IMPORT Storage;
    Write, WriteString,
    WriteInt, WriteLn;

  FROM MacSystemTypes IMPORT
    Handle, Str255, LongCard;
  FROM ResourceManager IMPORT
    CloseResFile, ResError,
    CountTypes, ResType,
    OpenResFile, GetIndType, 
    CountResources, HomeResFile,
    GetIndResource, ReleaseResource,
    SetResLoad, CreateResFile,
    LoadResource, UseResFile,
    GetResInfo, AddResource,
    DetachResource, GetResource,

  FROM FileManager IMPORT
    FSOpenRF, GetVol,
    FSClose, FSWrite,


    ResNotFound     = -192;
    NoErr           =    0;
    FileNotFoundErr =  -43;
  MODULE LinkedList;
    (* This internal module is used
       for maintaining a linked list
       of resource handles. *)
    IMPORT Handle;
    FROM Storage IMPORT
      RsrcPtr = POINTER TO RsrcNode;
      RsrcNode = RECORD
                   rsrcHandle : Handle;
                   next : RsrcPtr;
      rsrcHead : RsrcPtr; (* Pointer to the
                             first node. *)
    PROCEDURE AddRsrcNode(data : Handle);
    (* This procedure adds a new node
       to the front of the linked list. *)
        newNode : RsrcPtr;
      WITH newNode^ DO
        rsrcHandle := data;
        next := rsrcHead;
      rsrcHead := newNode;
    END AddRsrcNode;
    PROCEDURE RmveRsrcNode() : Handle;
    (* This procedure removes a node from
       the front of the linked list.  It
       returns the resource handle found in
       the node or NIL if there are no more
       nodes. *)
        data : Handle;
        oldNode : RsrcPtr;
      IF rsrcHead # NIL THEN
        data := rsrcHead^.rsrcHandle;
        oldNode := rsrcHead;
        rsrcHead := oldNode^.next;
        data := NIL;
      RETURN data;
    END RmveRsrcNode;
    rsrcHead := NIL; (* Init the list header *)
  END LinkedList;
  PROCEDURE MoveRsrcs (src, dest : INTEGER;
                       noisy : BOOLEAN;
                       allowDuplicate : BOOLEAN;
                       VAR error : RsrcErr);
  (* Moves all resources from the src resource
     file number to the dest resource file number.
     If noisy is true, then information is printed
     about each resource as it is copied.  If
     allowDuplicate is true, then a destination
     resource of the same type and ID as a source
     resource is replaced by the source resource.
     If allowDuplicate is false, then an error is
     returned when a duplicate is found. *)

      theType : ResType;
      rsrcHdl, destHdl : Handle;
      types, rsrcs, theID : INTEGER;
      rsrcName : Str255;
    PROCEDURE CheckError
                (VAR errRec : RsrcErr) : BOOLEAN;
    (* This procedure checks to see if the last
       resource procedure generated an error.  If
       so, then the procedure fills in the error
       record. *)
        resError : INTEGER;
      resError := ResError(); (* An error? *)
      IF resError # 0 THEN    (* Yep...    *)
        WITH errRec DO
          errType := otherRsrcError;
          errNum := resError;
        (* Since we got an error,
           be sure to turn resource
           loading back on so the Mac
           will work as expected. *)
      RETURN resError # 0;
    END CheckError;
    error.errType := noRsrcError; (* Init no error *)
    (* Since we are only interested in figuring
       out which resources exist in the source file,
       we turn off resource loading.  This prevents
       the heap from becoming polluted with billions
       of resources. *)
    IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;

    (* Check out all the resource types found in
       all the open resource files (which are
           1- System
          2- Modula-2 interpreter
          3- The .LOD file that imports this
          4- The source resource file
          5- The destination resource file)
    FOR types := 1 TO CountTypes() DO
      GetIndType(theType,types); (* get the type *)
      (* Go through all the resources of a given
         type. *)
      FOR rsrcs := 1 TO CountResources(theType) DO
        (* Get a handle to the resource.  Note
           that the resource isn't loaded because
           we turned resource loading off. *)
        rsrcHdl := GetIndResource(theType,rsrcs);
        IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;
        (* If the resource belongs to the
           source file, then we are interested
           in it. *)
        IF HomeResFile(rsrcHdl) = src THEN
          (* Save the resource in the linked list *)

    (* Get a handle to a source resource
       from the linked list. *)
    rsrcHdl := RmveRsrcNode();
    (* Process until there are no more
       handles in the list... *)
    WHILE rsrcHdl # NIL DO
      IF noisy THEN
        WriteString('   ');
        Write(theType[0]); Write(theType[1]);
        Write(theType[2]); Write(theType[3]);
        WriteString('  ');
        WriteInt(theID,0); WriteLn;

      (* Force the source resource to be loaded *)
      IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;

      (* Get the resource's vital stats *)
      IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;

      (* Make the resource manager forget about
         this resource.  *)
      IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;

      (* Tell the resource manager to search
         the dest resource file before all others *)
      IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;

      (* We've already pulled a resource from the
         source resource file.  Try to grab the same
         one from the destination file.  If the grab
         is successful, then we have a duplicate. *)
      destHdl := GetResource(theType,theID);
      IF (ResError() = NoErr) AND (HomeResFile(destHdl) = dest) THEN
        IF NOT allowDuplicate THEN
          (* The user requested no duplicates
             so set the error and exit. *)
          WITH error DO
            errType := duplicateRsrc;
            WITH dupInfo DO
              dupID := theID;
              dupType := theType;
          (* Before getting out of here, turn
             resource loading back on so the
             Mac will work properly. *)
          (* If we got a duplicate and its ok
             with the user, zap the resource
             from the destination resource file
             so it can be replaced with the resource
             from the source file. *)
          IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;

      (* Finally, add the resource from the source
         file to the destination file.  The files
         will be updated when they are closed. *)
      IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;

      (* Set things back so the resource manager
         will look at the source resource file
         first. *)
      IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;
      (* Get another resource handle from the
         linked list and process it. *)
      rsrcHdl := RmveRsrcNode();

    IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;

    (* Turn resource loading back on so
       the Mac won't get mad. *)
    IF CheckError(error) THEN RETURN END;
  END MoveRsrcs;

  PROCEDURE ClearRsrcFile
                 (file:ARRAY OF CHAR) : INTEGER;
  (* Clears all resources in the resource file
     specified by 'file'.  ClearRsrcFile returns
     0 if no error occured or the error number. *)
      BufSize = 143; (* Number of words that are
                        to be written to the resource
                        file. *)
      err, vRefNum, refNum : INTEGER;
      filename : Str255;
      rsrcBuffer : ARRAY [1..143] OF INTEGER;
      i : CARDINAL;
      count : LongCard;
    (* We expect that the file that
       we are attempting to clear is
       found on the default volume. *)
    err := GetVol(NIL,vRefNum);
    IF err # NoErr THEN RETURN err END;
    (* Open the resource fork. *)
    err := FSOpenRF(filename,vRefNum,refNum);
    IF err = FileNotFoundErr THEN
      (* If there was no resource file,
         then create one. *)
      err := ResError();
      IF err # NoErr THEN RETURN err END;
      (* The resource file already exists.
         Write over the info that's there
         with a resource map that makes the
         resource file look empty. *)
      FOR i := 1 TO BufSize DO
        rsrcBuffer[i] := 0;
      rsrcBuffer[2]   := 00100h;
      rsrcBuffer[4]   := 00100h;
      rsrcBuffer[8]   := 0001eh;
      rsrcBuffer[130] := 00100h;
      rsrcBuffer[133] := 00100h;
      rsrcBuffer[136] := 0001eh;
      rsrcBuffer[141] := 0001ch;
      rsrcBuffer[142] := 0001eh;
      rsrcBuffer[143] := -1;
      count.h := 0;
      count.l := BufSize*2;
      err := FSWrite(refNum,count,ADR(rsrcBuffer));
      (* Truncate the resource file to the size
         of an empty resource file. *)
      vRefNum := SetEOF(refNum,count);
      vRefNum := FSClose(refNum);
    RETURN err;
  END ClearRsrcFile;
END MoveResources.

----------- RsrcMover.MOD -----------

(* Tom Taylor
   3707 Poinciana Dr. #137
   Santa Clara, CA 95051
MODULE RsrcMover;
  (* This example program demonstrates
     a possible use of the MoveResources
     module. It allows the user to move 
     resources from one file to another. *)

  IMPORT DialogManager;

  FROM MacInterface IMPORT
  FROM MoveResources IMPORT
    RsrcErrType, RsrcErr,
    MoveRsrcs, ClearRsrcFile;

  FROM DialogManager IMPORT
    GetNewDialog, DialogPtr,
    ModalDialog, DisposDialog;
  FROM MacSystemTypes IMPORT
    LongCard, Str255;

  FROM WindowManager IMPORT
    WindowPtr, ShowWindow,
    StrModToMac, StrCat,
    StrMacToMod, StrCpy;

  FROM PackageManager IMPORT
    SFReply, SFTypeList, SFGetFile;
  FROM QuickDraw1 IMPORT
    Point, SetPort,
  FROM FileManager IMPORT
  FROM ResourceManager IMPORT
    OpenResFile, ResError,


  FROM NumConversions IMPORT

    behind : LongCard;

  MODULE DialogHandler;
  (* This internal module exports
     procedures that display
     messages in dialog boxes on
     the screen. *)
      WindowPtr, behind,
      Str255, StrModToMac,
      ShowWindow, IntToStr,
      StrCat, StrCpy;
    FROM DialogManager IMPORT
      GetNewDialog, DialogPtr,
      ParamText, DrawDialog;
      dialogID = 978; (* Resource ID of dialog *)

      dPtr : DialogPtr; (* Pointer to the dialog
                           box *)
    PROCEDURE ShowMessage(msg : ARRAY OF CHAR);
    (* ShowMessage displays a message in a static
       dialog box *)
        s : Str255;
      StrModToMac(s,msg);    (* Convert to Str255 *)
      ParamText(s,'','',''); (* Stick the msg in the
                                dialog box *)
      ShowWindow(dPtr);       (* Display the window
                                if it's not up *)
      DrawDialog(dPtr);       (* Force the dialog
                                info to be drawn *)
    END ShowMessage;

    PROCEDURE ShowErrorMessage(msg : ARRAY OF CHAR;
                               error : INTEGER);
    (* ShowErrorMessage is the same as ShowMessage
       except that an integer error message number
       is also displayed *)
        errMsg : ARRAY [0..100] OF CHAR;
        errNum : ARRAY [0..7]   OF CHAR;

      StrCpy(errMsg,msg);        (* Make a local copy
                                    of the string *)
      StrCat(errMsg,' Error = ');(* Append a msg *)
      IntToStr(error,errNum,8);   (* Convert the num *)
      StrCat(errMsg,errNum);     (* Concat to end of
                                    the main msg *)
      ShowMessage(errMsg);       (* Display the msg *)
    END ShowErrorMessage;
    (* Get the basic dialog box from the rsrc file *)
    dPtr := 
  END DialogHandler;
  PROCEDURE SelectRsrcFile(msg : ARRAY OF CHAR;
                VAR filename : ARRAY OF CHAR;
                ClearTheFile : BOOLEAN):INTEGER;
    (* Put up the mini-finder and let the user
       select a file.  Returns the resource file
       ID or zero if the user wants to cancel. *)
      where : Point;
      reply : SFReply;
      typeList : SFTypeList;
      err : INTEGER;
      sPtr : POINTER TO Str255;
      newMsg : ARRAY [0..200] OF CHAR;
    where.h := 90;
    where.v := 120;
    newMsg := "That file doesn't have a resource fork!   ";
      (* Put up mini-finder *)
      WITH reply DO
        IF NOT good THEN RETURN 0 END; (* Hit cancel? *)
        (* OpenResFile doesn't know how to
           deal with volumes very well... *)
        err := SetVol(NIL,vRefNum);
        sPtr := ADR(fName);
        err := OpenResFile(sPtr^);
        (* Save the filename *)

        (* Ask clear question? *)
        IF (err # -1) AND ClearTheFile AND
            EraseQuestion() THEN
          (* The resource file must be closed
             before we can open and clear it. *)
          err := ClearRsrcFile(filename);
          IF err # 0 THEN
  'An error occured while clearing the resource file.',err);
          err := OpenResFile(sPtr^); (* Re-open the file *)
        IF err # -1 THEN RETURN err END;
      (* If we make it to here, some error occured.
         Put up a message and bring up the mini-
         finder again *)
  END SelectRsrcFile;
  PROCEDURE EraseQuestion():BOOLEAN;
      eraseID = 979;
    RETURN ShowModal(eraseID) = 1;
  END EraseQuestion;
  (* ShowModal brings up the dialog with id
     = 'id' and returns the number of the 
     button pressed. *)
      dPtr : DialogPtr;
      item : INTEGER;
    dPtr := GetNewDialog(id,NIL,WindowPtr(behind));
    RETURN item;
  END ShowModal;
    windID  = 913;
    Chicago = 0;
    GoodID  = 1023;
    BadID   = 1024;

    src, dest, err : INTEGER;
    errRec : RsrcErr;
    wind : WindowPtr;
    destFile : ARRAY [0..100] OF CHAR;

  behind.h := 65535; (* Setup a -1 LongInt *)
  behind.l := 65535;

  err := 0; (* Clear the error rememberer *)
  src := SelectRsrcFile('Select a source file...',
  IF src # 0 THEN
    dest := 
          SelectRsrcFile('Select a destination file...',
    IF dest # 0 THEN
      TextFont(Chicago); (* make the window title
                            come up with the right font *)
      (* Bring up a window to show the resource copy
         information *)
      wind := GetNewWindow(windID,NIL,
      InitViewPort;  (* Make Modula-2 aware of the window *)
      (* Now do the work... *)
      err := INTEGER(errRec.errType); (* error occur? *)
      CASE errRec.errType OF
      | duplicateRsrc:
          ShowMessage('Duplicate resources error!');
      | otherRsrcError:
          ShowErrorMessage('An error occured while copying resources',errRec.errNum);
      CloseResFile(src);  (* Close up *)
      IF err = 0 THEN
        err := ShowModal(GoodID);
        err := ShowModal(BadID);
END RsrcMover.

* Tom Taylor
* 3707 Poinciana Dr. #137
* Santa Clara, CA 95051
* Resource file for RsrcMover
* demo program.

type DLOG
31 104 96 409 
Invisible NoGoAway

134 102 225 401 
Visible NoGoAway

100 148 168 364 
Visible NoGoAway

171 92 229 421 
Visible NoGoAway

type DITL

5 5 55 295

BtnItem Enabled
49 33 81 113 

BtnItem Enabled
49 120 81 200 

StatText Disabled
6 20 42 277 
Clear destination resource file before copying resources?

BtnItem Enabled
33 54 59 162 
Hoaky Doaky

StatText Disabled
10 17 30 200 
Resource copy successful!

BtnItem Enabled
24 123 48 206 

StatText Disabled
3 5 25 333 
Sorry, errors occured during the resource copy!

type WIND
Copied Resources
166 106 316 406 
Visible NoGoAway

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UPPERCASE Designs today announced its new Premium Ultra Thin Keyboard Protector and its Palm Rest Protector Set for the 12-inch MacBook. The accessories provide durable protection for the 12-inch... Read more

Jobs Board

Hardware Systems Integration Engineer - *App...
# Hardware Systems Integration Engineer - Apple Watch Job Number: 39380139 Santa Clara Valley, Califo ia, United States Posted: Apr. 23, 2015 Weekly Hours: **Job Read more
Sr. Technical/Project Manager, *Apple* Educ...
# Sr. Technical/Project Manager, Apple Education Job Number: 36588557 New York City, New York, United States Posted: Jul. 30, 2015 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Merchant Operations Manager: *Apple* Pay -...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more than Read more
*Apple* Pay QA Manager - Apple Inc. (United...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more than Read more
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