TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Laser Print DA
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:2
Column Tag:C Workshop

Laser Print DA for Postscript

By Mike Schuster, Software Engineer, MacTutor Contributing Editor

Mike Schuster wins $50 for the outstanding program of the month with this feature article. Congratulations Mike!

Using a POSTSCRIPT Server on AppleTalk

Most Macintosh applications generate printed pages by issuing a sequence of QuickDraw calls which are intercepted and translated into printer dependent commands by Apple's Printing Manager. This technique has the advantage that an application never needs to know what kind of printer the user has connected to the Macintosh. It also allows the application to write to the screen and the printer with a single device independent routine. On the other hand, it does not provide the application access to the extensive page description capabilities nor the wide range of printer resolutions available in modern electronic printing systems, such as those embodied in Adobe Systems' POSTSCRIPT page description language, Apple's LaserWriter™ laser printer and Linotype's Linotronic™ 100 typesetter. This is because Quickdraw is much more limited in it's abilities than is POSTSCRIPT, and hence only a fraction of the capability of a POSTSCRIPT machine is needed to interpret a set of Quickdraw commands.

In this article, I show how your application may overcome QuickDraw and the Printing Manager limitations by communicating directly with a POSTSCRIPT server on an AppleTalk network. In addition, I describe the implementation of Laser Print, a desk accessory that concurrently spools POSTSCRIPT programs you create with MacWrite, Edit or Just Text, and sends them to the Apple LaserWriter or other POSTSCRIPT compatibile printer. You can use this printing desk accessory to explore programming your LaserWriter directly, using an example postscript file in this article. In future issues of MacTutor, we will expand on postscript programming techniques with a regular postscript column and this desk accessory will be invaluable as a way of sending your programs over Appletalk to the LaserWriter. The Laser Print DA is written in MegaMax C.

Deep Background by The Editor

[When a Macintosh Application prints, the text and graphics that it writes to a quickdraw port to display on the screen are sent to a special quickdraw port used by the printing manager. You print text and graphics by drawing into this port with Quickdraw, just as if you were drawing on the screen. The Printing Manager changes the pointers to the low-level drawing routines so that Quickdraw calls drive the printer rather than the screen. In this way, MacWrite can display a what- you- see- is- what- you- get screen version of your document with one set of routines and it can go to either the screen or the printer thanks to the clever Printing Manager. The whole point of the Print Manager and associated device drivers is to convert Macintosh Quickdraw text and graphic descriptions into page bit maps that can be printed. This design works very well with the Imagewriter.

Now comes the LaserWriter, after the Macintosh. This device is very different from anything Apple has ever produced and one can only wonder who was the mastermind behind it. It is so much more powerful than the Mac itself, one has to wonder if it was an outside design. In some respects the LaserWriter is a high powered Macintosh. Substitute POSTSCRIPT for Quickdraw. Substitute 0.5 Meg of ROM for 64K ROM. Substitute 1.5 Meg of RAM for 128K RAM. Substitute a 12 Mhz 68000 for an 8 Mhz 68000. Connect the two with the Appletalk serial port. The problem for Apple was how the lowly Macintosh could be made to talk to this very intelligent device with a minimum of changes to the Mac itself.

The answer was since all Macintosh software writes to the screen (and hence the printer via the Print Manager) via Quickdraw, those same routines could drive a LaserWriter by converting Quickdraw descriptions into POSTSCRIPT. The purpose of the Laser Prep file is to convert quickdraw commands to POSTSCRIPT. The Laser Prep file is downloaded into the LaserWriter as a POSTSCRIPT application running within the LaserWriter. Normal Macintosh applications present Quickdraw documents to the Printing Manager, which invokes the LaserWriter device driver, downloads the Prep File into the LaserWriter (Initializing Printer...) which in turn converts quickdraw to POSTSCRIPT, which is interpreted by the built-in POSTSCRIPT interpreter within the LaserWriter (the 0.5 Meg of ROM) and finally converted to a 300 dot per inch page bit map (stored in the 1.5 Meg of RAM not taken up by Laser Prep, the POSTSCRIPT page description, and fonts) and printed! This double conversion is one reason the LaserWriter takes so long to print initially. It also explains why the LaserWriter often runs out of memory with some applications like Pagemaker, which uses a larger Prep file. In fact, the LaserWriter may be even more memory bound than the 512K Macintosh, if you can believe that! So limited is memory space that the new Laser Fonts from Adobe will probably require the new LaserWriter II to be useful, which is supposed to have 2 meg of RAM. A conversion kit is rumored to be available for upgrading current LaserWriters.

By sending a POSTSCRIPT file directly to the LaserWriter, you avoid having to down load Laser Prep, eliminate quickdraw to POSTSCRIPT conversion, free up RAM in the printer, and generally speed everything up. Plus, you avoid limitations of trying to represent in Quickdraw a much more extensive capability of POSTSCRIPT. Commands within the POSTSCRIPT file tell the printer that the file is to be interpreted and not printed. The fact that Aldus Corp. felt the need to write their own Prep File shows the limitations of trying to go from Quickdraw to POSTSCRIPT. Aldus needed some of the capabilities of POSTSCRIPT that the Apple Prep file would not supply. The very thin line in Pagemaker is one such feature that could not be represented without a new Prep file. This is not a happy situation since now you have two companies supporting two different prep file conventions. The smoothing algorithm of Apple is an example of how the user is stuck when two companies support a competing low level routine. The Aldus Prep file did not support smoothing until they had obtained a license from Apple.

Bill Bates of Knowledge Engineering saw all this conversion nonsense and recognized that the only way to really tap into the power of the LaserWriter was directly via POSTSCRIPT. His Just Text and LaserTool products create postscript files directly in the traditional typesetting method. The advantage of this is POWER. Direct control over every feature of POSTSCRIPT, with no Laser Prep quickdraw to POSTSCRIPT conversion hassles to slow things down. This brings up an interesting confrontation. Aldus follows the Macintosh guidelines using Quickdraw and converting to POSTSCRIPT. Would it be possible to go the other way and create a program that would interpret POSTSCRIPT into Quickdraw so that any POSTSCRIPT file could be displayed on the screen as a 'soft' LaserWriter Preview? We leave to the developer to ponder the implications of such a program.

POSTSCRIPT EXAMPLE

Figure 1 shows a drawing created on the LaserWriter by the POSTSCRIPT program listing in figure 2. As you can see, neither MacWrite, Word or Pagemaker could possibly create an image such as this, and yet for the LaserWriter, this is a snap! POSTSCRIPT is a programming language very similar to Forth. It uses reverse polish notation and a stack like Forth does. Arguments are pushed on the stack first, followed by the command that executes them. This requires the programmer to think backwards in some respects. Adobe Systems has just published two very good books on POSTSCRIPT programming. They are a tutorial and a reference manual, both available in Bookstores from Addison-Wesley. Look for a blue and red book under the title of POSTSCRIPT. This example is taken from the tutorial book on page 98. The lines beginning with %% are comments. The first line follows the Adobe specifications of %! to tell the interpreter within the LaserWriter that what follows are POSTSCRIPT commands to be executed rather than a bunch of text to be printed. This file can be executed by typing it in as a text file with Edit or MacWrite and using the Laser Print DA to down load it to the LaserWriter. After using postscript directly, I can see that what is now needed is some way that artistic POSTSCRIPT programs can be "placed" in page makeup programs like Pagemaker so that they can be edited and arranged with other text and illustrations. Of course Just Text does this, but without the advantage of a screen display representation of the final output. Well, enough of the introductions to the world of POSTSCRIPT programming. Let's get on with solving the hole Apple left us-- a utility to send POSTSCRIPT files directly to the LaserWriter. Our thanks to Mike for this very important and timely article. -Ed.]

A POSTSCRIPT Server at Work

When connected to an AppleTalk network, the LaserWriter functions as a server for the execution of POSTSCRIPT programs sent to it by applications running on client Macintosh workstations. The LaserWriter begins service by listening for an AppleTalk connection request from a client. It then executes the POSTSCRIPT program sent to it over that connection. Any error messages or other output produced by the program, other than the printed pages themselves, are transmitted back to the client over the same connection. When the LaserWriter receives an end-of-file indication from the client, it sends a matching end-of-file back to the client and terminates the execution of the program. After receiving the matching end-of-file indication, the client closes the connection and frees the server.

While the LaserWriter is busy servicing one connection, it refuses any additional connection requests. This refusal causes the requesting clients to queue up and wait for the server to become free. As soon as the current connection closes, the server accepts the request from the client that has waited the longest period of time. [This problem shows that a LaserWriter is really of no use to more than one person without a File Server to manage this queue of documents. Otherwise, everyone on the network sits around waiting for the printer to free up before he can get on with his work. Which brings us to the next great hole in the Apple Office-- a file server that spools files to the LaserWriter, allowing networked Macintosh computers to do something else after clicking print in the File menu! -Ed]

The communication between the LaserWriter and its client workstations is accomplished by means of the AppleTalk Printer Access Protocol (PAP). Apple specified this protocol in its publications Inside LaserWriter, Inside AppleTalk and the AppleTalk Manager chapter of Inside Macintosh. [See MacTutor, September 1985 for more on AppleTalk programming. -Ed.]

%!PS-Adobe-1.0
%%Title: Postscript Example
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%Creator: Edit
%%CreationDate: 12/27/85 6:21 PM
%%Pages: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 612 792
%%EndComments

%% Document prolog now follows
grestoreall
initgraphics
/pageproc {} def
%%EndProlog

%% Postscript Example Program
%% See page 98 of Postscript Tutorial Manual

%% Procedures now follow

/Times-BoldItalic findfont
36 scalefont setfont

/oshow %stack:(string)
{true charpath stroke} def

/circleofMacTutor
{15 15 345
 {gsave
 rotate 0 0 moveto
 (MacTutor) oshow
 grestore
 } for
} def

%% Main Program Segment

250 400 translate
.5 setlinewidth
circleofMacTutor
0 0 moveto
(MacTutor Journal) true charpath
gsave 1 setgray fill grestore
stroke showpage

%% End of example program

%%Trailer
%%Pages: 1
%%DocumentFonts: Times-BoldItalic

Figure 2: A Postscript Example for Fig. 1

Calling the PAP Manager

The Printer Access Protocol Manager provides a set of routines which a client uses to communcate with a print server. Apple apparently intended that this manager was to be used only by the LaserWriter specific portions of the Printing Manager, since its documentation is not widely distributed. However, the manager does provide an easy way for applications to communicate directly with a POSTSCRIPT printer. [Apple has not been very forthcoming with any printing information on the Mac. -Ed]

The manager is implemented as a Macintosh device driver-like resource PDEF 10 in the LaserWriter resource file in your System Folder. The resource contains the implementation of the client PAP routines papopen, papwrite, papread, papclose, papstatus, and papunload. Before looking at the resource in detail, let us consider the functions of each of these routines.

The client application begins by issuing a papopen call to open a connection with the desired server. The C language form of the papopen call is as follows (int16 is a 16-bit signed integer and int32 is a 32-bit signed integer):

int16 papopen(refnum, printername, flowquantum, statusbuff, compstate)
 int16 *refnum;
 ptr printername;
 int16 flowquantum;
 papstatusptr statusbuff;
 int16 *compstate;

Refnum is a pointer to a unique connection reference number returned after the connection has been opened. Printername is a pointer to the entity name of the server to which the connection is to be opened. Flowquantum is an integer specifying the size of the receiving buffer provided by subsequenct papread calls. Statusbuff is a pointer to a status record in which status information is returned to the client during the opening process. Finally, compstate is a pointer to the integer that the client monitors for call completion and error reporting. Its value is positive while the call is executing, zero if the connection was opened without error, and negative if the connection could not be opened.

Once a connection has been opened, the application sends data to the server by issuing papwrite calls and receives data from the server by issuing papread calls. Since the sending and receiving data streams are asynchronous with respect to each other, the application must be prepared to continuously consume data by reissuing papread calls while waiting for each papwrite call to complete. If this is not done, deadlock may result with the server and client each waiting for the other to consume data.

When all of the data has been sent, the application sends an end-of-file indication to the server by issuing a final papwrite call. The application must continue to issue papread calls until a matching end-of-file indication has been received. The application then closes the connection by issuing a papclose call.

The C language form of the papwrite call is as follows:

int16 papwrite(refnum, writebuff, datasize, eof, compstate)
 int16 refnum;
 ptr writebuff;
 int16 datasize;
 int16 eof;
 int16 *compstate;

Refnum is the connection reference number returned by papopen.

Readbuff is a pointer to the buffer containing the data to be sent. Datasize is an integer containing the number of bytes in the buffer.

Eof is an integer containing a non-zero value if an end-of-file indication should be sent to the server. Compstate is a pointer to the integer that the client monitors for call completion and error reporting. Its value is positive while the call is executing, zero if the data was sent without error, and negative if the data could not be sent.

The C language form of the papread call is as follows:

int16 papread(refnum, readbuff, datasize, eof, compstate)
 int16 refnum;
 ptr readbuff;
 int16 *datasize;
 int16 *eof;
 int16 *compstate;

Refnum is the connection reference number returned by papopen.

Readbuff is a pointer to the buffer into which the received data is to be placed. Datasize is a pointer to an integer in which the number of bytes of data received is returned when the call completes without error. Eof is a pointer to an integer in which then end-of-file indication received is returned when the call completes without error.

Compstate is a pointer to the integer that the client monitors for call completion and error reporting. Its value is positive while the call is executing, zero if the data was received without error, and negative if the data could not be received.

The C language form of the papclose call is as follows:

int16 papclose(refnum)
 int16 refnum;

Refnum is the connection reference number returned by papopen.

At any time, whether or not a connection has been opened, the application may issue a papstatus call to find out the status of a server. The C language form of the papstatus call is as follows:

int16 papstatus(printername, statusbuff)
 ptr printername;
 papstatusptr statusbuff;

As in the papopen call, printername is a pointer to a three-part entity name of the server whose status is to be determined and statusbuff is a pointer to a status record in which the server's status is returned to the client. The structure of the status record is as follows:

typedef struct
 {
 int32 systemstuff;
 Str255 statusstr;
 } papstatusrec, *papstatusptr;

Statusstr contains a pascal string and systemstuff contains the AppleTalk network address of the server.

The final manager call, papunload closes all currently open connections, terminates all pending papread and papwrite calls, and disposes all of the manager's internal data structures. The C language form of the papunload call is as follows:

int16 papunload()

The PAP Manager Interface

As I mentioned previously, the client routines of the Printer Access Protocol are contained in the PDEF 10 resource of your LaserWriter resource file. As illustrated in figure 3, the resource begins with entries containing jump instructions to each of the client routines, followed by the routines themselves.

A client application calls a routine simply by loading the resource, pushing the appropriate parameters on the stack in the standard Pascal convention, and calling the appropriate entry point using a constant offset from the start of the resource. The implementation of this scheme for papopen is as follows (in this code, the global variable pap contains a handle to the resource):

int16 papopen(refnum, printername, flowquantum, statusbuff, compstate)
 int16 *refnum;
 ptr printername;
 int16 flowquantum;
 papstatusptr statusbuff;
 int16 *compstate;
 {
 asm
 {
 subq.l #2,A7  % space for result
 move.l refnum(A6),-(A7)  % push parameters
 move.l printername(A6),-(A7)
 move.w flowquantum(A6),-(A7)
 move.l statusbuff(A6),-(A7)
 move.l compstate(A6),-(A7)
 move.l pap(A4),A0 % get handle to resource
 move.l (A0),A0  % get pointer to resource
 jsr    0(A0)  % papopen entry at offset 0
 move.w (A7)+,D0 % return result
 }
 }

The Laser Print Desk Accessory

The Laser Print desk accessory spools POSTSCRIPT programs to a selected printer concurrently with the execution of many Macintosh applications. When Laser Print is selected from the Apple Menu, it presents a standard file dialog listing all of the text files on the current volume. You select the file containing the program you wish to send to a POSTSCRIPT printer. Laser Print will then send the contents of the file incrementally whenever your application calls the Macintosh routine SystemTask. Generally, Laser Print should continue to operate even if you quit your application and open another.

Before using Laser Print, you should connect your Macintosh to the AppleTalk network and choose a POSTSCRIPT printer with Apple's Choose Printer desk accessory. The POSTSCRIPT programs themselves may be either keyed manually (see the example in figure 2), or be generated by the Printing Manager itself if you hold down the command and F keys just after clicking on the OK button in your application's Print dialog. The Printing Manager will display the dialog 'Creating PostScript File' instead of the usual message 'Looking for LaserWriter.' When your application finishes the printing process, you can open Laser Print and select the file 'PostScript.'

When Laser Print is opened, its accopen routine is called. Accopen presents a standard file dialog and, if a file was selected, proceeds to open the file, obtain the resource containing the PAP Manager's routines, and then issues a papopen call to open the connection to the printer. The entity name of the printer selected with Choose Printer is contained in the system resource PAPA -8192 (0xE000).

When Laser Print's routine accctl is called by SystemTask, it first checks to see if the connection has been opened. If not, accctl simply exits. As soon as the connection opens, accctl issues a papread call, reads the first 512 bytes of the file and sends them to the printer by issuing a papwrite call. Subsequently, accctl issues papread calls while waiting for each papwrite to complete. When a papwrite completes, accctl reads the next 512 bytes from the file and issues another papwrite.

When accctl has sent the last byte of data, it sends an end-of-file indication to the printer. As soon as the matching end-of-file has been received, accctl closes itself by calling CloseDeskAcc. Accclose closes the file, the connection, and unloads the PAP Manager resource.

Laser Print itself is complied as a DRVR 25 resource and placed in a file of type DFIL and creator DMOV. Hence, you can use Apple's Font/DA Mover application to paste the desk accessory into your System file. (It will have the familar DA icon.) Before you install it, however, use Apple's ResEdit application to copy the resource PDEF 10 from the LaserWriter resource file into the file containing Laser Print. Then change the resource's identifier from 10 to -15574 and name it 'Laser Print PDEF'. Now you must use John Mitchell's FEdit application to change two occurances of the hex bytes 'A31E' to 'A71E' in the resulting PDEF -15574 resource. These changes causes the PAP Manager's routines to allocate space for their internal data structures in the system heap.

After you have installed Laser Print, you must use Apple's ResEdit application to set the 'System Heap' bit of both Laser Print's DRVR and the PDEF resources. Even though the resource identifiers may have been changed by the Font/DA Mover, you should be able to easily find them by name. This step is necessary to avoid a system crash if you exit your application before Laser Print DA completes it's task. [Since both ResEdit and FEdit are necessary utilities to complete this application, they are being provided on the source code disk #6 along with the Laser Print DA and the C source code listed below. -Ed.]

The remainder of the article contains the C source of Laser Print. This version uses header files supplied by MegaMax, Inc, version 2.1. You must link Laser Print with a slightly modified version of the file 'acc.c'. This version allocates and maintains a locked area in the system heap for Laser Print's global variables. The modifications are as follows (lines marked with a + should be added, lines marked with a - should be removed; unmark lines are included for context only). A complete listing of the acc.c file of desk acc. header information is given at the end of this article for those converting to another language.

 add.l  D4,D0    ;add size of string space
+  dc.w 0xa722   ;newhandle() & clear to zeros
-  dc.w 0xa322   ;newhandle() & clear to zeros
 move.l (A7),A1  ;save in dctlstorage

 move.l D0,-(A7) ;save result code
+  btst #6,4(A1) ; locked?
+  bne  nounlock
+  tst.l20(A1)
+  beq  nounlock
   move.l 20(A1), A0
   dc.w 0xa02a   ;hunlock() the storage
+  nounlock:
   move.l (A7)+,D0 ;result code
+  move.l (A7)+,A0 ;remove second parameter
+  move.w D0,16(A0);force result code
-  addq.l #4,A7  ;remove second parameter

   move.l D0,-(A7) ;save result code
+  btst #6,4(A1) ; locked?
+  bne  nounlock
+  tst.l20(A1)
+  beq  nounlock
   move.l 20(A1), A0
   dc.w 0xa02a   ;hunlock() the storage
+  nounlock:
   move.l (A7)+,D0 ;result code
+  move.l (A7)+,A0 ;remove second parameter
+  move.w D0,16(A0);force result code
-  addq.l #4, A7 ;remove second parameter
   move.l  (A7)+,SAVEA4

/*
 * laser print, version 1.0, Megamax C v2.1
 * a spooler of postscript programs
 *
 * copyright 1985 by mike schuster for MacTutor
 * all rights reserved
 */

/* macintosh headers */
#include <acc.h> /* desk acc.  */
#include <device.h>/* device managers */
#include <pack.h>/* package managers */
#include <res.h> /* resource manager */
#include <toolbox.h> /* toolbox routines */

/* n-bit signed integers */
#define int16 int
#define int32 long

/* desk accessory header */
ACC
 (
 0x2400,/* needtime, accctl */
 6,/* 0.1 seconds */
 0,/* no events */
 0,/* no menu */
 11,    /* length */
 "Laser Print"   /* title */
 )

#define PAPTYPE "PDEF"  /* pap protocal resource type */
#define PAPID rsrcid(10)  /* pap protocal resource id */

#define ENTITYTYPE "PAPA" /* server entity name res type */
#define ENTITYID 0xe000 /* server entity name res id */

typedef struct   /* pap status record */
 {
 int32 systemstuff;
 char statusstr[256];
 } papstatusrec, *papstatusptr;

int16 dctlrefnum;/* driver reference number */

int16 fstate;    /* file waiting */
int16 ostate;    /* open waiting */
int16 wstate;    /* write waiting */
int16 rstate;    /* read waiting */

int16 frefnum;   /* file reference number */
int16 prefnum;   /* pap reference number */

int16 fres; /* last file result */
int16 pres; /* last pap result */

int16 weof; /* write eof */
int16 reof; /* read eof */

char wbuff[512]; /* write buffer */
char rbuff[512]; /* read buffer */

int32 fsize;/* file size */
int16 wsize;/* write size */
int16 rsize;/* read size */

sfreply reply;   /* sfgetfile reply */

handle pap; /* handle to pap manager code */
handle entity;   /* handle to server entity name */

papstatusrec status; /* pap status */

/* desk accessory open routine */
int16 accopen(dctl, pb)
 dctlentry *dctl;
 ptr pb;
 {
 /* save driver reference number */
 dctlrefnum = dctl->dctlrefnum;
 
 /* obtain a postscript program */
 while (!fstate)
 {
 /* present standard file dialog */
 if (!getfile(&reply))
 break;
 setcursor(*getcursor(watchcursor));
 
 /* open file file */
 if (fres = fsopen(reply.fname, reply.vrefnum, &frefnum))
 {
 frefnum = 0;
 break;
 }
 
 /* get server entity name */
 if (!(entity = getresource(ENTITYTYPE, ENTITYID)))
 break;
 hlock(entity);
 
 /* get pap manager code */
 if (!(pap = getresource(PAPTYPE, PAPID)))
 break;
 hlock(pap);
 detachresource(pap);
 
 /* open connection to the server */
if (pres = papopen(&prefnum, *entity, 1, &status, &ostate))
 {
 ostate = 0;
 break;
 }
 
 /* file opened and connection opening */
 fstate = 1;
 wstate = rstate = 0;
 weof = reof = 0;
 }
 initcursor();
 
/* close down if no file opened or no connection opening */
 if (!fstate)
 closedeskacc(dctl->dctlrefnum);
 
 return 0;
 }

/* desk accessory close routine */
int16 accclose(dctl, pb)
 dctlentry *dctl;
 ptr pb;
 {
 /* close file if opened */
 if (frefnum)
 fsclose(frefnum);
 
 if (pap)
 {
 /* close connection if opened */
 if (!ostate)
 pres = papclose(prefnum);
 
 /* unload pap manager */
 pres = papunload();
 disposhandle(pap);
 }
 
 return 0;
 }

/* desk accessory control routine */
int16 accctl(dctl, pb)
 dctlentry *dctl;
 ptr pb;
 {
 /* file opened and connection opening? */
 while (fstate)
 {
 /* if connection still opening, wait */
 if (ostate > 0)
 break;
 
/* if last papwrite has not finished, or if waiting for a match- */
/* ing eof indication, continue issuing papreads */
 if (!pres && (wstate > 0 || (weof && !reof)))
 {
 if (rstate <= 0)
 if (pres = papread(prefnum, rbuff, &rsize, &reof, &rstate))
 rstate = 0;
 break;
 }
 
 /* if any pap call failed or if done, close ourselves */
 if (pres || ostate < 0 || wstate < 0 || (weof && reof))
 {
 fstate = 0;
 closedeskacc(dctl->dctlrefnum);
 break;
 }
 
 /* if last papread finished, start another */
 if (rstate <= 0)
 if (pres = papread(prefnum, rbuff, &rsize, &reof, &rstate))
 rstate = 0;
 
 /* read more from file, optionally, set eof indication */
 fsize = sizeof wbuff;
 if (fres = fsread(frefnum, &fsize, wbuff))
 weof = 1;
 wsize = fsize;
 
 /* send data to server */
 if (pres = papwrite(prefnum, wbuff, wsize, weof, &wstate))
 wstate = 0;
 break;
 }
 
 return 0;
 }

/* desk accessory prime routine */
int16 accprime(dctl, pb)
 dctlentry *dctl;
 ptr pb;
 {
 return 0;
 }

/* desk accessory status routine */
int16 accstatus(dctl, pb)
 dctlentry *dctl;
 ptr pb;
 {
 return 0;
 }

/* return an device driver flavored owned resource id */
int16 rsrcid(id)
 int16 id;
 {
 return (((- dctlrefnum - 1) << 5) | 0xc000) + id;
 }

/* present the standard get file dialog */
int16 getfile(reply)
 sfreply *reply;
 {
 point where;
 ostype type;
 
 where.a.h = 75; where.a.v = 50;
 sfgetfile(&where, "", 0l, 1, "TEXT", 0l, reply);
 return reply->good;
 }

/* open a connection */
int16 papopen(refnum, printername, flowquantum, statusbuff, compstate)
 int16 *refnum;
 ptr printername;
 int16 flowquantum;
 papstatusptr statusbuff;
 int16 *compstate;
 {
 asm
 {
 subq.l #2,A7
 move.l refnum(A6),-(A7)
 move.l printername(A6),-(A7)
 move.w flowquantum(A6),-(A7)
 move.l statusbuff(A6),-(A7)
 move.l compstate(A6),-(A7)
 move.l pap(A4),A0
 move.l (A0),A0
 ;moveq #'o',D0
 ;dc.w  0xff01
 jsr    0(A0)
 move.w (A7)+,D0
 }
 }

/* receive data from server */
int16 papread(refnum, readbuff, datasize, eof, compstate)
 int16 refnum;
 ptr readbuff;
 int16 *datasize;
 int16 *eof;
 int16 *compstate;
 {
 asm
 {
 subq.l #2,A7
 move.w refnum(A6),-(A7)
 move.l readbuff(A6),-(A7)
 move.l datasize(A6),-(A7)
 move.l eof(A6),-(A7)
 move.l compstate(A6),-(A7)
 move.l pap(A4),A0
 move.l (A0),A0
 ;moveq #'r',D0
 ;dc.w  0xff01
 jsr    4(A0)
 move.w (A7)+,D0
 }
 }

/* send data to server */
int16 papwrite(refnum, writebuff, datasize, eof, compstate)
 int16 refnum;
 ptr writebuff;
 int16 datasize;
 int16 eof;
 int16 *compstate;
 {
 asm
 {
 subq.l #2,A7
 move.w refnum(A6),-(A7)
 move.l writebuff(A6),-(A7)
 move.w datasize(A6),-(A7)
 move.w eof(A6),-(A7)
 move.l compstate(A6),-(A7)
 move.l pap(A4),A0
 move.l (A0),A0
 ;moveq #'w',D0
 ;dc.w  0xff01
 jsr    8(A0)
 move.w (A7)+,D0
 }
 }

/* obtain server's status */
int16 papstatus(printername, statusbuff)
 ptr printername;
 papstatusptr statusbuff;
 {
 asm
 {
 subq.l #2,A7
 move.l printername(A6),-(A7)
 move.l statusbuff(A6),-(A7)
 move.l pap(A4),A0
 move.l (A0),A0
 ;moveq #'s',D0
 ;dc.w  0xff01
 jsr    12(A0)
 move.w (A7)+,D0
 }
 }

/* close a connection */
int16 papclose(refnum)
 int16 refnum;
 {
 asm
 {
 subq.l #2,A7
 move.w refnum(A6),-(A7)
 move.l pap(A4),A0
 move.l (A0),A0
 ;moveq #'c',D0
 ;dc.w  0xff01
 jsr    16(A0)
 move.w (A7)+,D0
 }
 }

/* unload pap manager */
int16 papunload()
 {
 asm
 {
 subq.l #2,A7
 move.l pap(A4),A0
 move.l (A0),A0
 ;moveq #'u',D0
 ;dc.w  0xff01
 jsr    20(A0)
 move.w (A7)+,D0
 }
 }



/*  acc.c   routines modified */

#define SAVEA4 694

extern int _GLBLSIZE;

extern accopen();
extern accprime();
extern accctl();
extern accstatus();
extern accclose();

_accopen()
{
    static _callacc();
    int oid;/* owned resource id number */
    asm {
 tst.l  20(A1)     ;see if open() already called
 beq  cont    ;do init stuff if not
 pea  accopen(PC)
 jsr  _callacc(PC)
 addq.l #4,A7
 unlk A6
 rts

    cont:
 movem.l  D1-D5/A2-A4,-(A7) ;save registers 
 move.l   SAVEA4,-(A7)  ;save old A4 value
 move.l A0, -(A7)    ;push parameters for user 
 move.l A1, -(A7)

 move.w   24(A1), D0    ;compute owned resource ID #
 neg  D0;driver refnum = -ID - 1
      subq     #1,D0
 asl.w  #5, D0
 ori.w    #0xc000, D0
 move.w   D0, oid(A6)
 
 subq.l #4,A7  ;load in the strings
 move.l #'DATA',-(A7)
 move D0,-(A7)     ;string ID depends on DRVR ID
 dc.w 0xa9a0;getresource()
 clr.l  D4;set size to 0 if str res not present
 tst.l  (A7);movea doesn't set cond. codes
 movea.l  (A7)+,A3      ;handle to string resource in A3
 beq  nodata

 subq.l #4,A7
 move.l A3,-(A7)
 dc.w 0xa9a5;sizeresource()
 move.l (A7)+,D4     ;size of string resource in D4

    nodata:
 dc.w 0x3a3c    ;move.w #_GLBLSIZE,D5
 dc.w _GLBLSIZE
 ext.l  D5
 neg.l  D5    ;_GLBLSIZE is negative
 move.l D5,D0
 add.l  D4,D0      ;add size of string space
 dc.w 0xa722    ;newhandle() & clear to zeros
 dc.w 0xa029    ;hlock()

 move.l (A7),A1  ;save in dctlstorage
 move.l A0,20(A1)

 move.l (A0),A4
 adda.l D5,A4  ;A4 between strings and globals
 move.l   A4,SAVEA4
 tst.l  D4;if no strings, don't block move
 beq  nodata2
 move.l (A3),A0      ;start of string resource
 move.l A4,A1      ;strings go above A4
 move.l D4,D0      ;length of strings
 dc.w 0xa02e    ;blockmove()

 move.l A3,-(A7)    ;get rid of the string resource now
 dc.w 0xa9a3    ;releaseresource()

    nodata2:
 subq.l #4,A7      ;Get the init code
 move.l #'INIT',-(A7)
 move oid(A6),-(A7)     ;init ID depends on DRVR ID
 dc.w 0xa9a0    ;getresource()
 tst.l  (A7)    ;movea doesn't set cond bits
 movea.l (A7)+,A3    ;handle to init resource in A3
 beq  noinit(PC)  ;check to see if init resource existed

 move.l (A3),A0
 jsr  (A0)    ;execute the init code
 move.l A3,-(A7)
 dc.w 0xa9a3    ;releaseresource()

    noinit:
 jsr  accopen(PC)

 move.l (A7)+, A1
 move.l D0,-(A7)     ;save result code
 btst #6,4(A1) ; locked?
 bne  nounlock
 tst.l  20(A1)
 beq  nounlock
 move.l 20(A1), A0
 dc.w 0xa02a    ;hunlock() the storage

 nounlock:
 move.l (A7)+,D0     ;result code
 move.l (A7)+,A0 ;remove second parameter
 move.w D0,16(A0);force result code
 move.l  (A7)+,SAVEA4
 movem.l (A7)+,D1-D5/A2-A4  ;restore registers
    }
}

static _callacc(func)
int (*func)();
{
    asm {
 movem.l D1-D5/A2-A4,-(A7)  ;save registers 
 move.l  SAVEA4,-(A7)
 move.l A0,-(A7)    ;last parameter pushed first
 move.l A1,-(A7)
 move.l 20(A1), A0
 dc.w 0xa029    ;hlock()
 move.l (A0),A4     ;set up A4  globals and strings
 dc.w 0x3a3c    ;move.w #_GLBLSIZE,D5
 dc.w _GLBLSIZE
 neg  D5    ;_GLBLSIZE is negative
 adda D5,A4
 move.l  A4,SAVEA4
 move.l func(A6),A0
 jsr  (A0)    ;call user function

 move.l (A7)+, A1   ;first parameter  device cntrl entry
 move.l D0,-(A7)    ;save result code
 btst #6,4(A1) ; locked?
 bne  nounlock
 tst.l  20(A1)
 beq  nounlock
 move.l 20(A1), A0
 dc.w 0xa02a    ;hunlock() the storage

 nounlock:
 move.l (A7)+,D0     ;result code
 move.l (A7)+,A0 ;remove second parameter
 move.w D0,16(A0);force result code
 move.l  (A7)+,SAVEA4
 movem.l (A7)+, D1-D5/A2-A4 ;restore all saved registers
    }
}
_accprime()
{
    _callacc(accprime);
}
_accctl()
{
    _callacc(accctl);
}
_accstatus()
{
    _callacc(accstatus);
}
_accclose()
{
    asm {
 move.l  A1, -(A7)
    }
    _callacc(accclose);
    asm {
 move.l  (A7)+, A1
 move.l D0,-(A7)     ;save result code
 move.l 20(A1),A0    ;deallocate global and string space
 dc.w 0xa023
 clr.l  20(A1)      ;remove from device control 
 move.l (A7)+,D0     ;restore result code
    }
}
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Model 15 (Music)
Model 15 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Music Price: $29.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The Moog Model 15 App is the first Moog modular synthesizer and synthesis educational tool created exclusively for iPad, iPhone and... | Read more »
How to deal with wind in Angry Birds Act...
Angry Birds Action! is a physics-based puzzler in which you're tasked with dragging and launching birds around an obstacle-littered field to achieve a set objective. It's simple enough at first, but when wind gets introduced things can get pretty... | Read more »
How to get three stars in every level of...
Angry Birds Action! is, essentially, a pinball-style take on the pull-and-fling action of the original games. When you first boot it up, you'll likely be wondering exactly what it is you have to do to get a good score. Well, never fear as 148Apps... | Read more »
The beginner's guide to Warbits
Warbits is a turn-based strategy that's clearly inspired by Nintendo's Advance Wars series. Since turn-based strategy games can be kind of tricky to dive into, see below for a few tips to help you in the beginning. Positioning is crucial [Read... | Read more »
How to upgrade your character in Spellsp...
So you’ve mastered the basics of Spellspire. By which I mean you’ve realised it’s all about spelling things in a spire. What next? Well you’re going to need to figure out how to toughen up your character. It’s all well and good being able to spell... | Read more »
5 slither.io mash-ups we'd love to...
If there's one thing that slither.io has proved, it's that the addictive gameplay of Agar.io can be transplanted onto basically anything and it will still be good fun. It wouldn't be surprising if we saw other developers jumping on the bandwagon,... | Read more »
How to navigate the terrain in Sky Charm...
Sky Charms is a whimsical match-'em up adventure that uses creative level design to really ramp up the difficulty. [Read more] | Read more »
Victorious Knight (Games)
Victorious Knight 1.3 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.3 (iTunes) Description: New challenges awaits you! Experience fresh RPG experience with a unique combat mechanic, packed with high quality 3D... | Read more »
Agent Gumball - Roguelike Spy Game (Gam...
Agent Gumball - Roguelike Spy Game 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Someone’s been spying on Gumball. What the what?! Two can play at that game! GO UNDERCOVERSneak past enemy... | Read more »
Runaway Toad (Games)
Runaway Toad 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: It ain’t easy bein’ green! Tap, hold, and swipe to help Toad hop to safety in this gorgeous new action game from the creators of... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Price drops on clearance 2015 13-inch MacBook...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on clearance 2015 13″ MacBook Airs by up to $250. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 1.6GHz/4GB/128GB MacBook Air (MJVE2LL/A): $799, $200... Read more
Mac minis on sale for up to $100 off MSRP
B&H Photo has Mac minis on sale for up to $100 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $449 $50 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac mini: $649 $50 off MSRP - 2.8GHz Mac mini... Read more
13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to...
B&H Photo has 13″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for $130-$200 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $1169 $130 off MSRP - 13″ 2.7GHz/... Read more
Apple price trackers, updated continuously
Scan our Apple Price Trackers for the latest information on sales, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers. We update the trackers continuously: - 15″... Read more
SanDisk Half-Terabyte SSD Optimized for Every...
SanDisk Corporation has announced the SanDisk Z410 SSD, a cost-competitive, half-terabyte solid state drive (SSD) that enables manufacturers to design for a broad range of desktop PCs and laptops.... Read more
Churchill Downs Racetrack Selects VenueNext t...
Churchill Downs Racetrack has announced an agreement with VenueNext to implement its technology platform for the start of Churchill Downs 2016 Spring Meet, which includes the 142nd running of the... Read more
Record 700 Million Pounds of CE Recycled in 2...
The Consumer Technology Association (CTA) reports that a record-setting 700 million pounds of consumer electronics (CE) have been recycled under the eCycling Leadership Initiative (ELI). According to... Read more
Price drops on clearance 12-inch Retina MacBo...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on leftover 2015 12″ Retina MacBooks with models now available starting at $999. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Gray Retina MacBook... Read more
15-inch Retina MacBook Pros available for $20...
B&H Photo has 15″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to $210 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1799 $200 off MSRP - 15″ 2.5GHz Retina... Read more
Target offers Apple Watch Sport for $50 off M...
Target has Apple Watch Sports on sale for $50 off MSRP for a limited time. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale prices for online orders only, in-store prices may vary... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
Simply Mac *Apple* Specialist- Service Repa...
Simply Mac is the largest premier retailer of Apple products in the nation. In order to support our growing customer base, we are currently looking for a driven Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.