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DissBits Subroutine
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:13
Column Tag:Advanced Mac'ing

The DissBits Subroutine

By Mike Morton, InfoCom, Cambridge, MA

What this routine does

DissBits is like copyBits.It moves one rect to another, in their respective bitMaps. It doesn't implement the modes of copyBits, nor clipping to a region. what it DOES do is copy the bits in a pseudo-random order, giving the appearance of "dissolving" from one image to another. The dissolve is rapid; the entire screen will dissolve in under four seconds.

CopyBits pays attention to the current clipping. this routine doesn't. Other likely differences from copyBits:

o The rectangles must have the same extents (not necessarily the same lrbt). If they are not, the routine will return -- doing nothing! No stretching copy is done as copyBits would.

o The cursor is hidden during the dissolve, since drawing is done without quickdraw calls. The cursor reappears when the drawing is finished. For an odd effect, change it not to hide the cursor. Is this how Bill Atkinson thought of the spray can in MacPaint?

o CopyBits may be smart enough to deal with overlapping areas of memory. This routine certainly isn't.

o Because this routine is desperate for speed, it steals the A5 (globals) register, uses it in the central loop, then restores it before returning. If you have vertical retrace tasks which run during the dissolve, they'll wake up with the bogus A5. Since the ROM pulls this trick too, i feel this isn't a bug in MY code, but it IS more likely to expose bugs in VBL tasks. To correct the problem, have your task load A5 from the low RAM location "currentA5" immediately upon starting up, then restore its caller's A5 before returning.

You should know a few implementation details which may help:

o Copying from a dark area (lots of 1 bits) is slower than from a light area. But just barely (a few per cent).

o There is no way to use this to randomly invert a rectangle. Instead, copyBits it elsewhere, invert it, and dissBits it back into place.

o There is also no way to slow the dissolve of a small area. To do this, copy a large area in which the only difference is the area to change.

o If you fade in a solid area, you're likely to see patterns, since the random numbers are so cheesy. Don't do this fade in nifty patterns which will distract your viewers.

o Very small areas (less than 2 pixels in either dimension) are actually done with a call to the real copyBits routine, since the pseudo-random sequence generator falls apart under those conditions.

Calling from languages other than pascal

This routine uses the standard Lisa Pascal calling sequence. To convert it to most C compilers, you'll probably just have to delete this instruction from near the end of the main routine:

add.l #psize,SP  ;unstack parameters

I'd be very interested in hearing about successful uses of this routine from other languages.

Speed of the dissolve

You need to pay attention to this section only if:

(a) You want the dissolve to run as fast as it can OR

(b) You do dissolves of various sizes and want them to take proportionate lengths of time.

There are 3 levels of speed; the fastest possible one is chosen for you:

(1) An ordinary dissolve will work when moving from any bitmap to any bitmap, including on the Lisa under MacWorks. This will dissolve at about 49 microseconds per pixel. A rectangle one-quarter the size of the screen will dissolve in just over two seconds. The speed per pixel will vary slightly, and will be less if your rect extents are close to but less than powers of 2.

(2) The dissolve will speed up if both the source and destination bitmaps have rowBytes fields which are powers of two. If you're copying to the screen on a mac, the rowBytes field already satisfies this. so, make your source bitmap the right width for a cheap speedup -- about 20% faster.

(3) The fanciest level is intended for copying the whole screen. It'll paint it in about 3.4 seconds (19 microseconds per pixel). Actually, painting any rectangle which is the full width of the screen will run at this speed, for what that's worth.

Things to think about

o Use a dynamically-built table to avoid the multiply instruction in the general case. This may not be a great idea since not everyone can afford that much space.

o Adapt the routine to do transfer modes. especially pattern modes, with no source. It'd run significantly faster doing a fill of just black or white! And patXor would be pretty cool too (see also the XOR idea below).

o Consider a front-end which does clipping (just like copyBits) by allocating yet another offscreen bitmap, whose bounds are the intersection of the destination rect with the bounding box of the destination's clipping rgn. Then:

- copy from the destination's bitmap into the temporary bitmap.

- do a copyBits from the source to the temp, with the requested masking region.

- dissolve from the temp to the destination, thus actually dissolving that whole rect, but changing only the clipped stuff.

A nifty way to speed up things would be to XOR the destination into the source [sic!]. Then the main loop doesn't have to copy a bit; it just tests if the bit is ON in the altered source bitmap and, if so, TOGGLES it in the destination. (i.e., it does a srcXor operation). To repair the source bitmap, a third XOR from the destination to the source should do it [any old-timer will recognize this triple XOR as the best way to swap two registers.] The trick is making the invisible XOR run so fast that the time to do it is less than the savings in the visible part. Or perhaps the batch XORs could be done in spare-time...

o Implement a partial dissolve; this would facilitate animation of star trek-style teleporting. There are a lot of ways to do this. The easiest might be to include a counter in the loop ("a register! my kingdom for a register!"). Alternately, we could assume that the list of starting and ending points could be limited, allowing a table-based system. This is something worth looking into, but could be real difficult.

o Look at rearranging instructions so CPU-intensive ones aren't grouped, allowing us to sneak in between video cycles more often.

o Add some real error-handling. How should we do this? Return a status? Fault? We could also return info to our caller on which of the three loops got used, so they know they're getting the speed they want.

o Don't use the BITWIDTH routine to test for exact powers of two in MULCHK. A number X is an exact power of two if (x & -x) equals x.

I wish to retain the rights to this routine, so please respect the "FreeWare" concept and do not use it within a commercial software product without a registration card. To register, please send your name, address and intended use along with a donation to the address shown in the front of the dissbits source code.

;
;  procedure dissBits (srcB, destB: bitMap; srcR, dstR: rect); external;
; version 5.2
;    © by Mike Morton, September 15, 1985
;     Permission to publish and distribute granted
;     to MacTutor by the author. Distributed as 
;     "FreeWare". Contributions for using this
;      routine gratefully appreciated:
;mike morton
;       INFOCOM
;       125 CambridgePark Dr.
;       Cambridge, MA  02140
;   
; DISSBITS SUBROUTINE
; MDS ASSEMBLER VERSION
; Converted by David E. Smith for MacTutor.
;
;
 xdef dissBits
 
 Include QuickEqu.D; MDS toolbox equates and traps
 Include SysEqu.D
 Include ToolEqu.D
 Include MacTraps.D

 MACRO .equ = equ| ; convert Lisa  stuff to MDS 
 MACRO _hidecurs = _HideCursor|
 MACRO _showcurs  = _ShowCursor|
;
; definitions of the "ours" record: this structure, of which there are 
two copies in
; our stack frame, is a sort of bitmap:
;
oRows   .equ 0           ; (word) number of last row (first is 0)
oCols   .equ oRows+2         ; (word) number of last column (first is 
0)
oLbits  .equ oCols+2         ; (word) size of left margin within 1st 
byte
oStride .equ oLbits+2        ; (word) stride in memory from row to row
oBase   .equ oStride+2            ; (long) base address of bitmap
osize   .equ oBase+4         ; size, in bytes, of "ours" record
;
; stack frame elements:
;
srcOurs .equ -osize        ; (osize) our view of source bits
dstOurs .equ srcOurs-osize        ; (osize) our view of target bits
sflast  .equ dstOurs         ; relative address of last s.f. member
sfsize  .equ -sflast         ; size of s.f. for LINK (must be EVEN!)
;
;       parameter offsets from the stack frame pointer, A6:
;       last parameter is above return address and old s.f.
;
dRptr   .equ 4+4          ; ^destination rectangle
sRptr   .equ dRptr+4 ; ^source rectangle
dBptr   .equ sRptr+4 ; ^destination bitMap
sBptr   .equ dBptr+4 ; ^source bitMap
plast   .equ sBptr+4 ; address just past last parameter
psize   .equ plast-dRptr           ; size of parameters, in bytes
;
; entrance: set up a stack frame, save some registers, hide the cursor.
;
dissBits:         ; main entry point

        link A6,#-sfsize           ; set up a stack frame
        movem.l D3-D7/A2-A5,-(SP)            ; save registers compiler 
may need
        _hidecurs         ; don't let the cursor show for now
;
; convert the source and destination bitmaps and rectangles to a format 
we prefer.
; we won't look at these parameters after this.
;
        move.l sBptr(A6),A0         ; point to source bitMap
        move.l sRptr(A6),A1         ; and source rectangle
        lea srcOurs(A6),A2        ; and our source structure
        bsr CONVERT        ; convert to our format
        move.l dBptr(A6),A0         ; point to destination bitMap
        move.l dRptr(A6),A1         ; and rectangle
        lea dstOurs(A6),A2        ; and our structure
        bsr CONVERT        ; convert to our format
;
; check that the rectangles match in size.
;
        move.w srcOurs+oRows(A6),D0   ; pick up the number of rows
        cmp.w dstOurs+oRows(A6),D0     ; same number of rows?
        bne ERROR         ; nope -- bag it
        move.w srcOurs+oCols(A6),D0    ; check the number of columns
        cmp.w dstOurs+oCols(A6),D0           ; same number of columns, 
too?
        bne ERROR         ; that's a bozo no-no
;
; figure the bit-width needed to span the columns, and the rows.
;
        move.w srcOurs+oCols(A6),D0     ; get count of columns
        ext.l D0          ; make it a longword
        bsr LOG2          ; figure bit-width
        move.w D0,D1 ; set aside that result
        beq SMALL         ; too small?  wimp out and do it with copyBits
        move.w srcOurs+oRows(A6),D0   ; get count of rows
        ext.l D0          ; make it a longword
        bsr LOG2          ; again, find the bit-width
        tst.w D0          ; is the result zero?
        beq SMALL         ; if so, our algorithm will screw up
;
; set up various constants we'll need in the in the innermost loop
;
        move.l #1,D5         ; set up...
        lsl.l D1,D5        ; ...the bit mask which is...
        sub.l #1,D5        ; ...bit-width (cols) 1's
        add.w D1,D0 ; find total bit-width (rows plus columns)
        lea TABLE,A0 ; point to the table of XOR masks
        moveq #0,D3; clear out D3 before we fill the low byte
        move.b 0(A0,D0),D3; grab the correct XOR mask in D3
;
; the table is saved compactly, since none of the masks are wider than 
a byte. 
; we have to unpack it so the high-order bit of the D0-bit-wide field 
is on:
;
UNPACK: add.l D3,D3; shift left by one
        bpl.s UNPACK ; keep moving until the top bit that's on is aligned 
at
        rol.l D0,D3; the top end. now swing the top D0 bits around to 
be
        move.l D3,D0 ; the bottom D0 bits, the mask. 1st sequence element
 ; is the mask itself.
; do all kinds of preparation:
;
        move.l srcOurs+oBase(A6),D2     ; set up base pointer for our 
source bits
        lsl.l #3,D2         ; make it into a bit address
        move.l D2,A0 ; put it where the fast loop will use it
        move.w srcOurs+oLbits(A6),D2    ; now pick up source left margin
        ext.l D2          ; make it a longword
        add.l D2,A0        ; and make A0 useful for odd routine below
        move.l dstOurs+oBase(A6),D2     ; set up base pointer for target
        lsl.l #3,D2        ; again, bit addressing works out faster
        move.l D2,A1  ; stuff it where we want it for the loop
        move.w dstOurs+oLbits(A6),D2    ; now pick up destination left 
margin
        ext.l D2          ; make it a longword
        add.l D2,A1         ; and make A1 useful, too
        move.w srcOurs+oCols(A6),A2     ; pick up the often-used count 
of columns
        move.w srcOurs+oRows(A6),D2     ; and of rows
        add.w #1,D2         ; make row count one-too-high for compares
        ext.l D2           ; and make it a longword
        lsl.l D1,D2         ; slide it to line up w/rows part of D0
        move.l D2,A4  ; and save that somewhere useful
        move.w D1,D2  ; put log2(columns) in a safe place (sigh)
;
;    try to reduce the amount we shift down D2.  this involves:
;    halving the strides as long as each is even, decrementing D2 as 
we go
;    masking the bottom bits off D4 when we extract the row count in 
the loop
;
; alas, we can't always shift as little as we want.  for instance, if 
we don't
; shift down far enough, the row count will be so high as to exceed a 
halfword,
; and the dread mulu instruction won't work (it eats only word operands). 
 so,
; we have to have an extra check to take us out of the loop early.
;
        move.w srcOurs+oStride(A6),D4   ; pick up source stride
        move.w dstOurs+oStride(A6),D7   ; and target stride
        move.w srcOurs+oRows(A6),D1     ; pick up row count for kludgey 
check
        tst.w D2          ; how's the bitcount?
        beq.s HALFDONE    ; skip out if already down to zero

HALFLOOP:
        btst #0,D4 ; is this stride even?
        bne.s HALFDONE  ; nope -- our work here is done
        btst #0,D7 ; how about this one?
        bne.s HALFDONE  ; have to have both even
        lsl.w #1,D1; can we keep max row number in a halfword?
        bcs.s HALFDONE  ; nope -- D2 mustn't get any smaller!
        lsr.w #1,D4        ; halve each stride...
        lsr.w #1,D7        ; ...like this
        sub.w #1,D2        ; and remember not to shift down as far
        bne.s HALFLOOP            ; loop unless we're down to no shift 
at all

HALFDONE:         ; no tacky platitudes, please
        move.w D4,srcOurs+oStride(A6)   ; put back source stride
        move.w D7,dstOurs+oStride(A6)   ; and target stride
;
; make some stuff faster to access -- use the fact that (An) is faster 
to access
; than d(An).  this means we'll misuse our frame pointer, but don't worry 
-- we'll
; restore it before we use it again.
;
        move.w srcOurs+oStride(A6),A5   ; make source stride faster to 
access, too
        move.l A6,-(SP)    ; save framitz pointer
        move.w dstOurs+oStride(A6),A6   ; pick up destination stride
        move.l #0,D6         ; we do only AND.W x,D6 -- but ADD.L D6,x
        clr.w -(SP)        ; reserve room for function result
        bsr MULCHK         ; go see if strides are powers of two
        tst.w (SP)+        ; can we eliminate the horrible MULUs?
        bne  NOMUL         ; yes!  hurray!
;
; main loop: map the sequence element into rows and columns, check if
;  it's in bounds and skip on if it's not, flip the appropriate bit, 
generate the
; next element in the sequence, and loop if the sequence isn't done.
;
; check the row bounds. note that we can check the row before extracting 
it from
; D0, ignoring the bits at the bottom of D0 for the columns.  to get 
these bits
; to be ignored, we had to make A4 one-too-high before shifting it up 
to align it.
;
LOOP:   ; here for another time around
        cmp.l A4,D0; is row in bounds?
        bge.s NEXT ; no: clip this
;
; map it into the column; check bounds. note that we save this check 
for second;
; it's a little slower because of the move and mask.
;
; chuck sagely points out that when the "bhi" at the end of the loop 
takes, we
; know we can ignore the above comparison.  thanks, chuck.  you're a 
great guy.
;
LOOPROW:; here when we know the row number is OK
        move.w D0,D6 ; copy the sequence element
        and.w D5,D6; find just the column number
        cmp.w A2,D6; too far to the right? (past oCols?)
        bgt.s NEXT ; yes: skip out
        move.l D0,D4 ; we know element will be used; copy it
        sub.w D6,D4 ; remove column's bits
        lsr.l D2,D4 ; shift down to row, NOT right-justified
;
; get the source byte, and bit offset.  D4 has the bit offset in rows, 
and
; D6 is columns.
;
        move.w A5,D1 ; get the stride per row (in bits)
        mulu D4,D1 ; stride * row; find source row's offset in bits
        add.l D6,D1; add in column offset (bits)
        add.l A0,D1; plus base of bitmap (bits [sic])
        move.b D1,D7 ; save the bottom three bits for the BTST
        lsr.l #3,D1 ; while we shift down to a word address
        move.l D1,A3 ; and save that for the test, too
        not.b D7 ; get right bit number (compute #7-D7)
;
; find the destination bit address and bit offset
;
        move.w A6,D1 ; extract cunningly hidden destination stride
        mulu D1,D4 ; stride*row number = dest row's offset in bits
        add.l D6,D4 ; add in column bit offset
        add.l A1,D4 ; and base address, also in bits
        move.b D4,D6 ; set aside the bit displacement
        lsr.l #3,D4; make a byte displacement
        not.b D6 ; get right bit number (compute #7-D6)
        btst D7,(A3) ; test the D7th bit of source byte
        move.l D4,A3 ; point to target byte (don't lose CC from btst)
        bne.s SETON; if on, go set destination on
        bclr D6,(A3) ; else clear destination bit
;
; find the next sequence element.  see knuth, vol ii., page 29 for sketchy 
details.
;
NEXT:   ; jump here if D0 not in bounds
        lsr.l #1,D0; slide one bit to the right
        bhi.s LOOPROW; if no carry out, but not zero, loop
        eor.l D3,D0; flip magic bits appropriate to the bitwidth we want...
        cmp.l D3,D0; ...but has this brought us to square 1?
        bne.s LOOP ; if not, loop back; else...
        bra DONE  ; ...we're finished

SETON:
        bset D6,(A3)  ; source bit was on: set destination on
        lsr.l #1,D0; slide one bit to the right
        bhi.s LOOPROW; if no carry out, but not zero, loop
        eor.l D3,D0; flip magic bits...
        cmp.l D3,D0; ...but has this brought us to square 1?
        bne.s LOOP ; if not, loop back; else fall through
;
; here when we're done; the (0,0) point has not been done yet.  this 
is
; really the (0,left margin) point.  we also jump here from another copy 
loop.
;
DONE:
        move.l (SP)+,A6    ; restore stack frame pointer
        move.w srcOurs+oLbits(A6),D0    ; pick up bit offset of left 
margin
        move.w dstOurs+oLbits(A6),D1    ; and ditto for target
        not.b D0         ; flip to number the bits for 68000
        not.b D1         ; ditto
;
; alternate, late entrance, when SCREEN routine has already set up D0
; and D1 (it doesn't want the bit offset negated).
;
DONEA:  ; land here with D0, D1 set
        move.l srcOurs+oBase(A6),A0     ; set up base pointer for our 
source bits
        move.l dstOurs+oBase(A6),A1     ; and pointer for target
        bset D1,(A1)   ; assume source bit was on; set target
        btst D0,(A0)   ; was first bit of source on?
        bne.s DONE2 ; yes: skip out
        bclr D1,(A1)  ; no: oops!  set it right, and fall through
;
; return
;
DONE2:  ; here when we're really done
ERROR:  ; we return silently on errors
        _showcurs        ; let's see this again
        movem.l (SP)+,D3-D7/A2-A5            ; restore lots of registers
        unlk A6  ; restore caller's stack frame pointer
        move.l (SP)+,A0   ; pop return address
        add.l #psize,SP   ; unstack parameters
        jmp (A0)         ; home to mother
;
; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
;
; sleazo code for when we're asked to dissolve very small regions. 
; if either dimension of the rectangle is too small, we bag it and just
; delegate the problem to copyBits.  a possible problem with this is 
if
; someone decides to substitute us for the standard copyBits routine
; -- this case will become recursive...
;
SMALL:         ; here when it's too small to copy ourselves
        move.l sBptr(A6),-(SP)        ; push args: source bitmap
        move.l dBptr(A6),-(SP)        ;destination bitmap
        move.l sRptr(A6),-(SP)        ;source rectangle
        move.l dRptr(A6),-(SP)        ;destination rectangle
        move.w #srcCopy,-(SP)       ;  transfer mode -- source copy
        clr.l -(SP)        ;  mask region -- NIL
        _copyBits        ; do the copy in quickdraw-land
        bra DONE2        ; head for home
;
; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
;
; code identical to the usual loop, but A5 and A6 have been changed to
; shift counts. other than that, it's the same.  really it is!  well, 
no, wait a minute...
; because we don't have to worry about the word-size mulu operands, we 
can
; collapse the shifts and countershifts further as shown below:

NOMUL:  ; here for alternate version of loop
        tst.w D2 ; is right shift zero?
        beq.s NOMUL2 ; yes: can't do much more...
        cmp.w #0,A5; how about one left shift (for source stride)?
        beq.s NOMUL2 ; yes: ditto
        cmp.w #0,A6; and the other left shift (destination stride)?
        beq.s NOMUL2 ; yes: can't do much more...

        sub.w #1,D2        ; all three...
        sub.w #1,A5        ; ...are...
        sub.w #1,A6        ; ...collapsible
        bra.s NOMUL; go see if we can go further
;
; see if we can do the super-special-case loop, which basically is equivalent 
to any 
; rectangle where the source and destination are both exactly the width 
of the Mac screen.
;
NOMUL2: ; here when D2, A5, and A6 are all collapsed
        tst.w D2 ; did this shift get down to zero?
        bne.s NLOOP; no: skip to first kludged loop
        cmp.w #0,A5; is this zero?
        bne.s NLOOP; no: again, can't make further optimization
        cmp.w #0,A6; how about this?
        bne.s NLOOP; no: the best-laid plans of mice and men...
        cmp.w A2,D5; is there no check on the column?
        bne.s NLOOP; not a power-of-two columns; rats!
        move.w A0,D6 ; grab the base address of the source
        and.b #7,D6 ; select the low three bits
        bne.s NLOOP; doesn't sit on a byte boundary; phooey
        move.w A1,D6 ; now try the base of the destination
        and.b #7,D6; and select its bit offset
        beq.s SCREEN ; yes!  do extra-special loop!
;
; fast, but not super-fast loop, used when both source and destination 
bitmaps
; have strides which are powers of two.
;
NLOOP:  ; here for another time around
        cmp.l A4,D0; is row in bounds?
        bge.s NNEXT; no: clip this

NLOOPROW: ; here when we know the row number is OK
        move.w D0,D6 ; copy the sequence element
        and.w D5,D6; find just the column number
        cmp.w A2,D6; too far to the right? (past oCols?)
        bgt.s NNEXT; yes: skip out
        move.l D0,D4 ; we know element will be used; copy it
        sub.w D6,D4; remove column's bits
        lsr.l D2,D4 ; shift down to row, NOT right-justified
        move.w A5,D7 ; get log2 of stride per row (in bits)
        move.l D4,D1 ; make a working copy of the row number
        lsl.l D7,D1 ; * stride/row is source row's offset in bits
        add.l D6,D1 ; add in column offset (bits)
        add.l A0,D1 ; plus base of bitmap (bits [sic])
        move.b D1,D7 ; save the bottom three bits for the BTST
        lsr.l #3,D1; while we shift down to a byte address
        move.l D1,A3 ; and save that for the test, too
        not.b D7 ; get right bit number (compute #7-D7)

        move.w A6,D1 ; extract log2 of destination stride
        lsl.l D1,D4; stride*row number = dest row's offset in bits
        add.l D6,D4; add in column bit offset
        add.l A1,D4; and base address, also in bits
        move.b D4,D6 ; set aside the bit displacement
        lsr.l #3,D4; make a byte displacement
        not.b D6 ; get right bit number (compute #7-D6)
        btst D7,(A3)  ; test the D7th bit of source byte
        move.l D4,A3 ; point to target byte (don't ruin CC from btst)
        bne.s NSETON ; if on, go set destination on
        bclr D6,(A3)  ; else clear destination bit

NNEXT:  ; jump here if D0 not in bounds
        lsr.l #1,D0 ; slide one bit to the right
        bhi.s NLOOPROW  ; if no carry out, but not zero, loop
        eor.l D3,D0 ; flip magic bits...
        cmp.l D3,D0; ...but has this brought us to square 1?
        bne.s NLOOP; if not, loop back; else...
        bra DONE  ; ...we're finished

NSETON:
        bset D6,(A3) ; source bit was on: set destination on
        lsr.l #1,D0; slide one bit to the right
        bhi.s NLOOPROW  ; if no carry out, but not zero, loop
        eor.l D3,D0; flip magic bits...
        cmp.l D3,D0; ...but has this brought us to square 1?
        bne.s NLOOP; if not, loop back; else fall through
        bra DONE ; and finish
;
; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
;
; super-special case, which happens to hold for the whole mac screen 
-- or subsets
; of it which are as wide as the screen. here, we've found that the shift 
counts
; in D2, A5, and A6 can all be collapsed to zero.  and D5 equals A2, 
so there's
; no need to check whether D6 is in limits -- or even take it out of 
D0!  so, this loop
; is the NLOOP code without the shifts or the check on the column number. 
 should
; run like a bat; have you ever seen a bat run?
;
; oh, yes, one further restriction -- the addresses in A0 and A1 must 
point to
; integral byte addresses with no bit offset.  (this still holds for 
full-screen
; copies.)  because both the source and destination are byte-aligned, 
we can skip
; the ritual Negation Of The Bit Offset which the 68000 usually demands.

SCREEN: ; here to set up to do the whole screen, or at least its width
        move.l A0,D6 ; take the base source address...
        lsr.l #3,D6; ... and make it a byte address
        move.l D6,A0 ; replace pointer
        move.l A1,D6 ; now do the same...
        lsr.l #3,D6; ...for...
        move.l D6,A1 ; ...the destination address
        bra.s N2LOOP ; jump into loop

N2HEAD: ; here when we shifted and a bit carried out
        eor.l D3,D0; flip magic bits to make the sequence work

N2LOOP: ; here for another time around
        cmp.l A4,D0; is row in bounds?
        bge.s N2NEXT ; no: clip this

N2LOOPROW:; here when we know the row number is OK
        move.l D0,D1 ; copy row number, shifted up, plus column offset
        lsr.l #3,D1; while we shift down to a word offset
        btst D0,0(A0,D1)  ; test bit of source byte
        bne.s N2SETON; if on, go set destination on
        bclr D0,0(A1,D1)  ; else clear destination bit

N2NEXT: ; jump here if D0 not in bounds
        lsr.l #1,D0; slide one bit to the right
        bhi.s N2LOOPROW ; if no carry out, but not zero, loop
        bne.s N2HEAD ; if carry out, but not zero, loop earlier
        bra.s N2DONE ; 0 means next sequence element would have been 
D3

N2SETON:
        bset D0,0(A1,D1)  ; source bit was on: set destination on
        lsr.l #1,D0 ; slide one bit to the right
        bhi.s N2LOOPROW ; if no carry out, but not zero, loop
        bne.s N2HEAD ; if carry out, but not zero, loop earlier
                                             ; zero means the loop has 
closed on itself
;
; because our bit-numbering isn't like that of the other two loops, we 
set up D0 and D1
; ourselves before joining a bit late with the common code to get the 
last bit.
;
N2DONE:
        move.l (SP)+,A6   ; restore the stack frame pointer
        move.w srcOurs+oLbits(A6),D0    ; pick up bit offset of left 
margin
        move.w dstOurs+oLbits(A6),D1    ; and ditto for target
        bra DONEA        ; go do the first bit, which the sequence doesn't 
cover
;
; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
;
; mulchk -- see if we can do without multiply instructions.
;
; calling sequence:
;       A5 holds the source stride
;       A6 holds the destination stride
;       clr.w -(SP)        ; reserve room for boolean function return
;       bsr MULCHK         ; go check things out
;       tst.w (SP)+        ; test result
;       bne.s SHIFT        ; if non-zero, we can shift and not multiply
;
;       (if we can shift, A5 and A6 have been turned into shift counts)
;  registers used: none  (A5, A6)

MULCHK:
        movem.l D0-D3,-(SP) ; stack caller's registers
        move.l A5,D0 ; take the source stride
        bsr BITWIDTH ; take log base 2
        move.l #1,D1 ; pick up a one...
        lsl.l D0,D1; ...and try to recreate the stride
        cmp.l A5,D1; does it come out the same?
        bne.s NOMULCHK  ; nope -- bag it
        move.w D0,D3 ; save magic logarithm of source stride
        move.l A6,D0 ; yes -- now how about destination stride?
        bsr BITWIDTH ; convert that one, also
        move.l #1,D1 ; again, try a single bit...
        lsl.l D0,D1; ...and see if original # was 1 bit
        cmp.l A6,D1; how'd it come out?
        bne.s NOMULCHK  ; doesn't match -- bag this
;
; we can shift instead of multiplying.  change address registers & tell 
our caller.
;
        move.w D3,A5 ; set up shift for source stride
        move.w D0,A6 ; and for destination stride
        st 4+16(SP); tell our caller what's what
        bra.s MULRET ; and return

NOMULCHK:
        sf 4+16(SP); tell caller we can't optimize
MULRET: ; here to return; result set
        movem.l (SP)+,D0-D3 ; pop some registers
        rts ; all set
;
; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
;
; table of (longword) masks to XOR in strange Knuthian algorithm.  the 
first table
; entry is for a bit-width of two, so the table actually starts two bytes 
before
; that.  hardware jocks among you may recognize this scheme as the software 
analog
; of a "maximum-length sequence generator".
;
; to save a bit of room, masks are packed in bytes, but should be aligned 
as
; described in the code before being used.
;
.ALIGN 2
table:  DC.B     0,0         ; first element is #2
 DC.B   3         ; 2
 DC.B   3         ; 3
 DC.B   3         ; 4
 DC.B   5         ; 5
 DC.B   3         ; 6
 DC.B   3         ; 7
 DC.B   23        ; 8
 DC.B   17        ; 9
 DC.B   9         ; 10
 DC.B   5         ; 11
 DC.B   101         ; 12
 DC.B   27        ; 13
 DC.B   53        ; 14
 DC.B   3         ; 15
 DC.B   45        ; 16
 DC.B   9         ; 17
 DC.B   129         ; 18
 DC.B   57        ; 19
 DC.B   9         ; 20
 DC.B   5         ; 21
 DC.B   3         ; 22
 DC.B   33        ; 23
 DC.B   27        ; 24
 DC.B   9         ; 25
 DC.B   113        ; 26
 DC.B   57        ; 27
 DC.B   9         ; 28
 DC.B   5         ; 29
 DC.B   101         ; 30
 DC.B   9         ; 31
 DC.B   163         ; 32
.align 2
;
; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
;
; convert -- convert a parameter bitMap and rectangle to our internal 
form.
;
; calling sequence:
;       lea bitMap,A0; point to the bitmap
;       lea rect,A1; and the rectangle inside it
;       lea ours,A2; and our data structure
;       bsr CONVERT; call us
;
; when done, all fields of the "ours" structure are filled in:
;       oBase is the address of the first byte in which any bits are 
to be changed
;       oLbits is the number of bits into that first byte which are ignored
;       oStride is the stride from one row to the next, in bits
;       oCols is the number of columns in the rectangle
;       oRows is the number of rows
;
; registers used: D0, D1, D2
;
CONVERT:
;
; save the starting word and bit address of the stuff:
;
       move.w top(A1),D0           ; pick up top of inner rectangle
       sub.w bounds+top(A0),D0; figure rows to skip within bitmap
       mulu rowbytes(A0),D0          ; compute bytes to skip (relative 
offset)
       add.l baseaddr(A0),D0         ; find absolute address of first 
row to use
       move.w left(A1),D1          ; pick up left coordinate of inner 
rect
       sub.w bounds+left(A0),D1  ; find columns to skip
       move.w D1,D2 ; copy that
       and.w #7,D2          ; compute bits to skip in first byte
       move.w D2,oLbits(A2)          ; save that in the structure
       lsr.w #3,D1 ; convert column count from bits to bytes
       ext.l D1  ; convert to a long value, so we can...
       add.l D1,D0 ; add to row start in bitmap to find 1st byte
       move.l D0,oBase(A2); save that in the structure
;
; save the stride of the bitmap. this is the same as for the original, 
but in bits.
;
       move.w rowbytes(A0),D0 ; pick up the stride
       lsl.w #3,D0          ; multiply by eight to get a bit stride
       move.w D0,oStride(A2)         ; stick it in the target structure
;
; save the number of rows and columns.
;
        move.w bottom(A1),D0         ; get the bottom of the rectangle
        sub.w top(A1),D0           ; less the top coordinate
        sub.w #1,D0         ; get number of highest row (1st is zero)
        bmi.s CERROR ; nothing to do?  (note: 0 IS ok)
        move.w D0,oRows(A2);; save that in the structure
        move.w right(A1),D0         ; get the right edge of the rectangle
        sub.w left(A1),D0         ; less the left coordinate
        sub.w #1,D0        ; make it zero-based
        bmi CERROR         ; nothing to do here?
        move.w D0,oCols(A2)         ; save that in the structure
;
; all done.  return.
;
        rts
;
; error found in CONVERT.  pop return and jump to the error routine, 
such as it is.
;
CERROR:
        addq.l #4,SP         ; pop four bytes of return address.
        bra ERROR        ; return silently
;
; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
;
; log2 -- find the ceiling of the log, base 2, of a number.
; bitwidth -- find how many bits wide a number is
;
; calling sequence:
;       move.l N,D0        ; store the number in D0
;       bsr LOG2         ; call us
;       move.w D0,...        ; D0 contains the word result
;
; registers used: D2, (D0)
;
BITWIDTH:
        sub.l #1,D0; so 2**n works right (sigh)
LOG2:
        tst.l D0 ; did they pass us a zero?
        beq.s LOGDONE; call log2(0) zero -- what the heck...
        beq.s LOGDONE; if D0 was one, answer is zero
        move.w #32,D2; initialize count
LOG2LP:
        lsl.l #1,D0; slide bits to the left by one
        dbcs D2,LOG2LP  ; decrement and loop until a bit falls off
        move.w D2,D0 ; else save our value where we promised it
LOGDONE: ; here with final value in D0
        rts  ; and return
 END    ; procedure dissBits

 
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