TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Printing Techniques 2
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:11
Column Tag:Basic School

Printing Techniques for Basic

By Dave Kelly, Hybrids Engineer, MacTutor Editorial Board

Managing BASIC Font Printing

Sometimes when talking about the Macintosh, people have asked "How many columns does the Macintosh have?". My answer to them is that it depends. Many of you like myself started out on other computers such as the Apple //. Many of the early computers had only 40 columns of text display. This severely limited the usefulness of word processing software until the introduction of 80-col display plug in boards. Back in those days it was very important to ask how many columns there were because of the limitations that are imposed by the lack of 80 column display. The Macintosh is an entirely different animal though. Because of the ability of the Macintosh to display proportional spaced fonts on the screen just as it will look when printed, it is not applicable to refer to the Macintosh screen as an 80-col display. It is important in development of applications for the Macintosh that we realize the difference between the Macintosh and other computers when it comes to displaying and printing data. Some may have experienced some frustration in trying to format text when using proportional fonts. I'll try to discuss a few items to keep in mind when using proportional spacing. There are some advantages and disadvantages to be aware of. This month we will explore some of the ins and outs of printing in different size fonts.

First, lets take a look at the difference between proportional and monospaced fonts. The unit of measurement for the spacing is the size of the character "0" in the current font. For monospaced fonts the character "0" happens to be the same width as the rest of the characters in the font. For the proportional spaced font, the "0" is an average width but not necessarily the same width as the other characters. Notice that the spacing of all the uppercase characters for a monospaced font is the same as for the lower case characters. Also note that the proportional spaced "A" is wider than the "a".

The advantage of using the monspaced type of font is that you can always be sure of just where each character will be printed or displayed. In the proportional font each of the letters are a different width depending on how much spacing each character requires. Now that we have a feel for proportional characters, try the following lines of BASIC and compare the results of printing with monospacing and proportional spacing:

' Sample program #1 
' Dave Kelly 
' MACTUTOR ©1985 

l1$="Name #1":r1$="Name #2" 
l2$="123 Main St.":r2$="456 Central Ave." 
l3$="Anyplace, USA":R3$="Anywhere, USA" 

FOR i=1 TO 40     

WIDTH 40,20 
GOSUB printit 
GOSUB printit 

PRINT  l1$,r1$ 
PRINT  l2$,r2$ 
PRINT  l3$,R3$ 
PRINT  zero$

PRINT  l1$;TAB(21);r1$ 
PRINT  l2$;TAB(21);r2$ 
PRINT  l3$;TAB(21);R3$ 
PRINT  zero$

In the sample program it is clear that the spacing of "0" is different for the 2 fonts, which explains why the second column does not line up. RULE 1: Remember that when mixing fonts you can't expect them to line up. This program demonstrates the use of the BASIC WIDTH command. The syntax of the WIDTH command is defined on page 264 of the MSBASIC manual. In general the syntax is: WIDTH [size ] [,print-zone ] . The size is the number of standard characters that a line may contain. In other words, BASIC will force a carriage return after the line size is full. If the size is 255 then BASIC will not force any carriage returns. The print-zone assigns the width of the print zone. The print zones are similar to tab stops, and they are forced by comma delimiters in the PRINT or LPRINT statements. In the sample program you can see that by using TAB or by using WIDTH the same result can be achieved. Using WIDTH the position of the 2nd column is determined by the print-zone. By using TAB(I), print position moves to the position indicated by I. An understanding of how these commands may be used is helpful when you are trying to format your printed output. An example would be the printing of a multiple column roster or newsletter where different fields might be combined together to create an entire line. The traditional way to do this would be to combine the fields together as one string variable and then to print the variable. The spacing of each field is filled to the size of the print-zone before combining all the fields, so that the total width of all the fields will fit. This works fine with monospaced fonts but it quite difficult to accomplish with proportional spaced fonts. An alternative solution is to use TAB or WIDTH functions to specify where each field will be printed. It is still important to check the length of each field before printing to make sure that each field will fit into the specified print zone. If it won't fit then either the field must be truncated or the print-zone should be adjusted. If not, then the field will print past the assigned print-zone and into the next print-zone. The next field to be printed will be pushed over to the next available print-zone.

This can be demonstated by changing the sample program. In the program the print-zone is set at 20 characters wide. If fewer than 20 characters are printed then the next print field will begin 20 characters after the start of the first print field. Try changing the line: l1$="Name #1":r1$="Name #2" to a field that has more than 20 characters, for example: l1$="Name #1 is too long now":r1$="Name #2" to demonstate the problem. To fix the line change it to:

l1$=LEFT$("Name #1 is too long now",20):r1$="Name #2" or adjust the WIDTH statement to: WIDTH 40,25.

Another consideration when using fonts of different sizes and widths is that each font will use a different number of lines to print the same thing. Because there are so many different fonts and sizes available it is difficult to examine the effect of each one. So, before using any set of fonts you should test each one out to see how many lines will fit on a page and adjust your program to count the lines as they are printed. If you are printing in a 10 pt. font it is probable that you will have more lines than for a 12 pt. font. The Disk Labeler program is a quick sample of what might be done with the WIDTH statement. Keep in mind that this is just a sample and may or may not be a useful application, however it may be modified to meet your needs.

Disk Labeler Program Sample

The program will read filenames one at a time from the disk and place them in an array called filename$(i). I have limited the size to 10 files to simplify the program. Choose Add/Remove from the files menu to add or remove a file. The selected files are printed in window 1. The second menu lets you select the font info. This illustrates a method of changing the fonts and sizes that will be used. This could be expanded to select various attributes such as Bold or Italics. Keep in mind that the different attributes will also change the width of each character. The printlabel routine demonstrates printing different fonts to the printer. If you have had trouble changing fonts when printing to the printer you may want to take a closer look at this routine. The key is the WINDOW OUTPUT #1 statement. This statement is necessary to direct all graphics commands, including those which change the fonts, to the printer. The Set Disk Label item of the files menu will let you set the number of lines and the number of columns that will be printed. The columns are formatted with the WIDTH statement. Disk labels may be printed in any desired font by adding additional fonts to the menu. I recommend printing labels in a small font (9 point) in order to fit more on a label. Have any useful printing tips? Send your best suggestions to me care of MacTutor!

' Disk Labeler 
' By Dave Kelly 
' MACTUTOR ©1985
' Watch line breaks. A few Basic lines are longer than 
' this Journals column width, but the breaks are
' obviously placed so that it is clear the Basic line
' continues from the previous line. 

number.of.files=0:DEFINT i-m:maxfiles=10 number.of.lines=5:number.of.col=2 

DIM filename$(maxfiles)
chicago=0: Appl=1: Newyork=2: Geneva=3: Monaco=4 
activefont=Geneva: activesize=12
WINDOW 1,"",(200,50)-(400,275),2 
'menu clear 
FOR i=1 TO 5:MENU i,0,0,"":NEXT i 

'set new menus 

MENU 1,0,1,"File" 
MENU 1,1,1,"Add/Remove a file" 
MENU 1,2,1,"Clear all files" 
MENU 1,3,0,"-" 
MENU 1,4,1,"Print Disk Label" 
MENU 1,5,1,"Set Disk Label" 
MENU 1,6,1,"Quit"
MENU 2,0,1,"Font Info" 
MENU 2,1,0,"Fonts" 
MENU 2,2,1,"NewYork" 
MENU 2,3,2,"Geneva" 
MENU 2,4,1,"Monaco" 
MENU 2,5,0,"-" 
MENU 2,6,1,"9 point" 
MENU 2,7,1,"10 point" 
MENU 2,8,2,"12 point"
idle: GOTO idle
Menunumber=MENU(0): Menuitem=MENU(1)     
ON Menunumber GOSUB Filemenu, Fontmenu     

ON Menuitem GOSUB Add, Clearfiles,Blank,Printlabel,      Setlabel, Quit 

IF x$="" THEN GOSUB display:RETURN     'x$=MID$(x$,INSTR(x$,":")+1) 
'optional line:use to strip volume name     

FOR i= 1 TO number.of.files         
IF x$=filename$(i) THEN filename$(i)="zzzzz":      i=number.of.files+2: 
CALL Sort(filename$(),  number.of.files): number.of.files= number.of.files-1 
NEXT i     

IF number.of.files>=maxfiles THEN GOSUB display:   RETURN     
IF i=number.of.files+1 THEN filename$(i)=x$:       number.of.files=i 
CALL Sort (filename$(),number.of.files )     
GOSUB display     

GOSUB display     

CLS:PRINT number.of.files;"files have been selected."     TEXTFONT(activefont):TEXTSIZE(activesize) 
FOR i=1 TO number.of.files    
 IF activesize<=10 THEN maxlength=40     
 PRINT LEFT$(filename$(i),maxlength)     
IF number.of.files=maxfiles THEN 
 PRINT"Max.";maxfiles;"files allowed"     

IF number.of.files=0 THEN RETURN    
WINDOW OUTPUT #1     TEXTFONT(activefont):TEXTSIZE(activesize)     
colwid=30:IF number.of.col=2 THEN colwid=20     
WIDTH "LPT1:",(colwid+1)*2,colwid+1     
PRINT: items=number.of.files     
ON ERROR GOTO Error.handle 'check for printing abort     
IF number.of.col=1 THEN onecol    
IF number.of.lines<number.of.files/2 THEN    items=number.of.lines*2 
 FOR i= 1 TO items STEP 2         
PRINT #1,LEFT$(filename$(i),colwid), LEFT$(filename$(i+1),colwid)    


GOSUB display     

IF number.of.lines<number.of.files THEN      items=number.of.lines 
FOR i= 1 TO items         
 PRINT #1,LEFT$(filename$(i),colwid)     
CLOSE #1     
GOTO Exit.printing     

Error.handle: RESET:RESUME

LOCATE 1,1:PRINT"Lines per label:"     
LOCATE 3,1:PRINT "# of columns:"     lines$=STR$(number.of.lines)    
EDIT FIELD 2,cwid$,(125,31)-(155,46),1,2
 EDIT FIELD 1,lines$,(125,1)-(145,16),1,2     
BUTTON 1,1,"OK",(25,70)-(75,88)    


IF d=1 THEN Done ' got OK button         
IF d=2 THEN i=DIALOG(2):EDIT FIELD i 'got field 
IF d=6 THEN Done 'got return key         
IF d=7 THEN i=(i MOD 2)+1:EDIT FIELD i 'got TAB key         GOTO loop 

IF number.of.lines<1 OR  number.of.lines>9 THEN loop         cwid$=EDIT$(2) 
IF number.of.col<1 OR number.of.col>2 THEN loop        
BUTTON CLOSE 1         
GOSUB display 

WINDOW 1,"Disk Labeler",(2,40)-(510,250),1     

ON Menuitem GOSUB Blank,NY,Geneva,Monaco,          Blank,Pt09,Pt10,Pt12 
GOSUB display     

NY:     activefont=Newyork     
MENU 2,2,2: MENU 2,3,1:  MENU 2,4,1     

Geneva:     activefont=Geneva     
MENU 2,2,1: MENU 2,3,2:  MENU 2,4,1     

Monaco:     activefont=Monaco     
MENU 2,2,1: MENU 2,3,1: MENU 2,4,2     

 Pt09:     activesize=9     
MENU 2,6,2: MENU 2,7,1: MENU 2,8,1     

Pt10:     activesize=10     
MENU 2,6,1:  MENU 2,7,2: MENU 2,8,1     

Pt12:     activesize=12     
MENU 2,6,1: MENU 2,7,1: MENU 2,8,2     

SUB  Sort (item$(maxfiles),N) STATIC      
FOR i=1 TO  N-1        
 FOR j=i+1 TO  N             
IF  item$(i)> item$(j) THEN SWAP item$(i),item$(j)         
NEXT  j     

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

ExpanDrive - Access cloud storag...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
Markly 1.5.3 - Create measurement and de...
Markly is a measurement and design-spec plugin/extension for Photoshop and Sketch. It is made for modern Web designers and app front-end developers. You can add specification marks simply by clicking... Read more
Suitcase Fusion 6 17.3.0 - Font manageme...
Suitcase Fusion 6 is the creative professional's font manager. Every professional font manager should deliver the basics: spectacular previews, powerful search tools, and efficient font organization... Read more
Nisus Writer Pro 2.1.2 - Multilingual wo...
Nisus Writer Pro is a powerful multilingual word processor, similar to its entry level products, but brings new features such as table of contents, indexing, bookmarks, widow and orphan control,... Read more
calibre 2.40.0 - Complete e-book library...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Vivaldi - An advanced browser...
Vivaldi is a browser for our friends. In 1994, two programmers started working on a web browser. Our idea was to make a really fast browser, capable of running on limited hardware, keeping in mind... Read more
OmniPlan 3.0 - Robust project management...
With OmniPlan, you can create logical, manageable project plans with Gantt charts, schedules, summaries, milestones, and critical paths. Break down the tasks needed to make your project a success,... Read more
Yummy FTP 1.11 - FTP/SFTP/FTPS client fo...
Yummy FTP is an FTP + SFTP + FTPS file transfer client which focuses on speed, reliability and productivity. Whether you need to transfer a few files or a few thousand, schedule automatic backups, or... Read more
Tweetbot 2.1 - Popular Twitter client. (...
Tweetbot is a full-featured OS X Twitter client with a lot of personality. Whether it's the meticulously-crafted interface, sounds and animation, or features like multiple timelines and column views... Read more
MacPilot 8.0 - Enable over 1,200 hidden...
MacPilot gives you the power of UNIX and the simplicity of Macintosh, which means a phenomenal amount of untapped power in your hands! Use MacPilot to unlock over 1,200 features, and access them all... Read more

Balloony Land offers a fresh twist on th...
Balloony Land by Palringo offers a fresh twist on the match three genre and is out now on iOS and Android. First-off, you'll be popping balloons instead of crushing candy and the balloons will float up and fill the empty spaces instead of dropping... | Read more »
Graphic - vector illustration and design...
Graphic - vector illustration and design 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Productivity Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Autodesk Graphic is a powerful full-featured vector drawing and illustration application right in... | Read more »
Sago Mini Babies (Education)
Sago Mini Babies 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Introducing the Sago Mini babies. Boys and girls love caring for these adorable characters. Feed Robin her favorite mush... | Read more »
PAUSE - Relaxation at your fingertip (H...
PAUSE - Relaxation at your fingertip 1.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Healthcare & Fitness Price: $1.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Super Sharp (Games)
Super Sharp 1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: Your finger has never been so sharp! Cut with skill to complete the 120 ingenious physics levels of Super Sharp and become a cut... | Read more »
Assembly - Graphic design for everyone...
Assembly - Graphic design for everyone 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Photography Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Assembly is the easiest most powerful design tool on the App Store. Create anything you can... | Read more »
Dub Dash (Games)
Dub Dash 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ARE YOU READY FOR THE ULTIMATE CHALLENGE? UNIQUE SYMBIOSIS OF MUSIC AND GRAPHICS | Read more »
Leave Me Alone (Games)
Leave Me Alone 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: 33% off launch sale!!! Somewhere between the 1980s and 1990s there exists a world that never was. A world of skatepunks,... | Read more »
YAMGUN (Games)
YAMGUN 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The invasion has begun! Protect the walls of the citadel against waves of enemies! But watch out, you will soon run out of ammo...... | Read more »
Chesh (Games)
Chesh 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: It’s like chess, only not at all. ***40% off for a limited time to celebrate our launch!*** Chesh is a game of skill, strategy, luck,... | Read more »

Price Scanner via

TP-LINK Next-Gen Routers Support a Large Numb...
TP-LINK, specialists in consumer and business networking products, have announced the availability of Archer C2600, the company’s next-generation router featuring wireless AC, multi-user MIMO, and 4-... Read more
Apple’s Education discount saves up to $300 o...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad using Apple’s Education Store and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free, and... Read more
Save up to $350 with Apple refurbished iMacs
Apple has Certified Refurbished iMacs available for up to $350 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac – $1949 $350 off MSRP - 27... Read more
Mac Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP
B&H Photo has Mac Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 3.7GHz 4-core Mac Pro: $2818.99, $181 off MSRP - 3.5GHz 6-core Mac Pro: $3699... Read more
5K iMacs on sale for up to $150 off MSRP, fre...
B&H Photo has the 27″ 3.3GHz 5K iMac on sale for $1899.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. They have the 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac on sale for $2149, $150 off MSRP... Read more
Twelve South Redesigns BookArc For Today’s Sm...
Twelve South has announced a redesigned version of their very first product, BookArc for MacBook. Tailored specifically for the newest generation of MacBooks, BookArc holds the new, smaller Apple... Read more
Phone 6s Tips & Tricks – Tips Book For iP...
Poole, United Kingdom based Tap Guides Ltd. has announced the release and immediate availability of iPhone 6s Tips & Tricks, an in-depth eBook available in the iBookstore that’s priced just $2.99... Read more
Apple refurbished 2014 13-inch Retina MacBook...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2014 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $400 off original MSRP, starting at $979. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $994,...
Best Buy has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro available for $994.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Their price is $105 off MSRP. Price valid... Read more
Is The iPad Pro Really A Serious Laptop Repla...
Probably not, at least for productive professionals and other power users. Steve Jobs declared that we’d entered the “post-PC Era” with the advent of the original iPad in 2010, a phrase we don’t hear... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant -Bilingual, Chi...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
SW QA Engineer - *Apple* TV - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** The Apple TV team is looking for experienced Quality Assurance Engineers with a passion for delivering first in class home entertainment solutions. **Key Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.