TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Reading Paint Files
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:10
Column Tag:Basic School

"Reading Paint Files"

By Dave Kelly, Hybrids Engineer, MacTutor Editorial Board

This month we will explore how to read MacPaint files via MSBASIC. We will start by generally dissecting a paint file.

The 8"X10" MacPaint pictures that we are used to seeing are represented by 576 X 720 pixels. That's 414,720 pixels which would require 51,840 bytes to store directly to disk. The first 512 bytes (first block) contain the brush and fill pattern information. Fortunately, the bit map is compressed a row at a time in order to conserve disk space or we really wouldn't have much room to do anything else. Therefore there is a block of encoded pixels for each of the 720 rows. There are two flavors of encoding these entries, a straight bitmap and a run-length encoded sequence.

PATTERN BYTES

The first 512 bytes start with 00 00 00 02. Then after these four bytes are the 38 patterns that you see when you open your MacPaint document. The patterns may be edited with the pattern editor provided in MacPaint and your custom patterns may then be used as needed. Each of the 38 patterns are represented by 8 bytes each where each byte represents a row in the pattern grid. The pattern rows are mapped from left to right and top to bottom. The order of the patterns is the same as appear at the bottom of the MacPaint screen. The patterns are not encoded. The remainder of the first 512 bytes are filled with zeros.

BITMAP FLAVORS

Both flavors start with a one byte count. In the bitmap flavor the count indicates the number of pixel bytes which will follow minus one. As an example of this see figure 1 (Flavor 1) below:

Fig. 2 Program Output

In the example, the pattern 0100101011010010 (where a 1 represents a black pixel and a 0 represents a white pixel) would be encoded as 014AD2. The first byte (01) is the count minus one, therefore the count is 2 bytes. The following 2 bytes represent the data (4AD2).

The second flavor is composed of a sequence of 8 bits which is repeated. The count indicates the number of times which the sequence is repeated. For the second flavor the count byte (first byte) is set negative. Negative binary numbers have the first bit set to indicate that it is negative. In this case, the first byte is the absolute value of the of the first byte minus one. For example FDFF would represent 4 bytes of "FF", or "FF FF FF FF". FD is 11111101. The absolute value (negative) is 00000010 = 3. Therefore the count is 3+1 = 4 bytes. A row that is entirely blank is represented by B900 where B9 = -71. The inverse is 71. Add one to get the count (71+1=72 bytes of the 8-bit pattern "00". There are 72 bytes (72X8 = 576 pixels) in one row of a MacPaint document. The pattern may be any combination of ones and/or zeros. This would be most useful in coding patterns of bits which are repeated.

The tricky part is determining which of the flavors to use. In reading the file this is not too much of a problem because we can always look at the first bye. If it is negative then it is of the second flavor. Writing a MacPaint file is not quite as simple but can be done if you plan ahead.

BASIC PROGRAMS

I'm sure that you have probably seen the public domain program which will read the top left corner of a MacPaint document and display it on the screen. The program below called Paint Pokes will read any MacPaint file and display it on the screen using the Prof. Mac Pokes procedures that I have shown before (see Apr. 85 MacTutor, pg. 34). The problem is that this method of printing on the screen is extreamly slow. I would still like to convert the paint file (or a portion of it) into a BASIC PICTURE$ which could be printed to the screen much quicker, but so far I have not been able to understand how PICTURE$ (or the clipboard for that matter) is encoded. The problem is that BASIC does not recognize anything that has been poked onto the screen. Because of this the screen GET and screen PUT won't work for saving the picture via BASIC for later use. Anyone have the answer??

Paint Pokes asks for the paint file to be displayed and then reads the file and pokes it onto the screen. Press the mouse button at the end to continue when the display has finished (or when you have finished looking at it). The program then returns to BASIC.

Pattern Editor is a BASIC program which allows you to edit the patterns used in MacPaint. The pattern editor built into MacPaint is really more useful, but the BASIC pattern editor demonstrates the format of the patterns stored in a paint file. To use the pattern editor run the program and select the desired menus. First load in a Paint document. The entire document is read in so that it can be completely written back to disk again a with modified set of patterns. Select 'Display Pattern' to show the patterns as they are now defined. Choose 'Edit Pattern' to edit a particular pattern. Use the mouse to select the desired pattern and then a grid will appear and allow you to change the bits. To change the pattern as you are editing it choose 'Display Pattern' and the patterns will be re-drawn using your new pattern. If you display the pattern, the pattern will now be changed for good, you can't undo what has been displayed unless you want to re-edit the same pattern back to the original pattern. You may revert back to the original pattern set by loading the paint document again or you may want to save the changes to a new Paint document.

Thanks go to Bob Denny for his analysis of MacPaint file format.

'    Paint Pokes
'    By Dave Kelly
'    ©MACTUTOR 1985

start=108288!     'Set up beginning screen addr.
ending=130175!      'Set up ending screen addr.
mac512=(512-128)*1024    'Set up addr. for 512K Mac
IF FRE(0)>100000! THEN start=start+mac512
ending=ending+mac512
screen=start
WINDOW 1,"",(0,0)-(512,342),3
x$=FILES$(1,"PNTG")  'Get a MacPaint file
IF x$="" THEN quit   'No selection,  quit
HIDECURSOR
OPEN x$ FOR INPUT AS #1
    FOR i%= 1 TO 512  'Disgard the first 512 bytes
        x$=INPUT$(1,#1)
    NEXT i%
    pixel%=0
    WHILE NOT EOF(1)
    count=ASC(INPUT$(1, #1))
    IF count<&H80 THEN GOSUB type1 ELSE GOSUB type2  'Check if high bit 
is set
    WEND
CLOSE #1

wait.for.mouse.click:
    pause:IF MOUSE(0)>0 THEN  quit
    GOTO pause

Quit: MENU RESET:SHOWCURSOR
WINDOW 1,"Output Window",(2,40)-(510,340),1
END

Pokescreen:
    IF pixel%>511 THEN RETURN
    POKE screen,ASC(byte$)
    screen=screen+1
    IF screen >=ending THEN wait.for.mouse.click
    RETURN


type1:  'first flavor
    FOR i% = 1 TO count+1
        byte$=INPUT$(1,#1)  'Read a byte
        GOSUB Pokescreen
        pixel%=pixel%+8 'Count pixels printed
    NEXT i%
    IF pixel%>=576 THEN pixel%=0   'line is full
RETURN

type2:  'second flavor
    byte$=INPUT$(1,#1)    ' Read a byte
    FOR i%=1 TO (&H101-count)
        GOSUB Pokescreen
        pixel%=pixel%+8 'Count pixels printed
    NEXT i%
    IF pixel%>=576 THEN pixel%=0  'line is full
RETURN


***************************************
'    Pattern Editor
'    By Dave Kelly
'    ©MACTUTOR 1985

start=108288! 'Set up beginning screen addr.
ending=130175!      'Set up ending screen addr.
mac512=(512-128)*1024    'Set up address for 512K Mac
IF FRE(0)>100000! THEN start=start+mac512:ending=ending+mac512
screen=start:editor%=0:NewYork=2
Bold=1:Plain=0: DEFINT i,j,k
DIM pattern%(512), k$(1),Bound0%(72),  Bound1%(72),Bound2%(72), 
 Bound3%(72),Bstatus%(72),  
WINDOW 1,"",(2,24)-(510,150),3
FOR i%=1 TO 5
    MENU i%,0,0,""  'Erase old menus
NEXT i%
MENU 1,0,1,"File"
MENU 1,1,1,"Load Paint patterns"
MENU 1,2,0,"Save Paint patterns"
MENU 1,3,1,"Quit"
MENU 2,0,0,"Patterns"
MENU 2,1,1,"Display Patterns"
MENU 2,2,1,"Edit a Pattern"

ON MENU GOSUB menu.selection
MENU ON
pause:GOTO pause

menu.selection:
    menunumber=MENU(0)
    menuitem=MENU(1):MENU:MENU OFF
    IF menunumber=1 THEN ON menuitem GOSUB read.paint.file,    
 write.paint.file, Quit
    IF menunumber=2 THEN ON menuitem GOSUB Display.patterns,   
 Edit.pattern
    MENU ON:RETURN

read.paint.file:
    x$=FILES$(1,"PNTG")    'Get a MacPaint file
    IF x$="" THEN RETURN  'No selection,                        then 
forget it.
    MENU 1,0,0:MENU 2,0,0
    HIDECURSOR
    TEXTFONT(NewYork):TEXTSIZE(14)
    TEXTFACE(Bold)
    CLS:LOCATE 4,1
PRINT"Now Reading Macpaint document.....           Please wait."
    OPEN x$ FOR INPUT AS #1 LEN= 2000
    ERASE k$
    DIM k$(LOF(1)+1)
    FOR i%= 1 TO 512
        k$(i%)=INPUT$(1,#1)
    NEXT i%
    WHILE NOT EOF(1)
        k$(i%)=INPUT$(1,#1)
        i%=i%+1
    WEND
    number.of.bytes=i%
CLOSE #1
SHOWCURSOR:CLS
MENU 2,0,1:MENU 1,0,1:MENU 1,2,1
BEEP:RETURN 

write.paint.file:
TEXTFONT(NewYork):TEXTSIZE(14)
TEXTFACE(Bold)
CLS:LOCATE 4,1
PRINT "Now writing new MacPaint document....                   Please 
wait."
x$=FILES$(0,"Choose a new filename:") 'Get a                         
                  Paint file
IF x$="" THEN RETURN  'No selection, then                            
                                                  forget it.
MENU 2,0,0:MENU 1,0,0
OPEN x$ FOR OUTPUT AS #1
    FOR i1%=1 TO number.of.bytes
        PRINT #1, k$(i1%);
    NEXT i1%
CLOSE #1
NAME x$ AS x$,"PNTG"
MENU 1,0,1:MENU 2,0,1
LOCATE 4,1:PRINT SPACE$(80)
BEEP:RETURN

Quit: MENU RESET:SHOWCURSOR
WINDOW CLOSE 2
WINDOW 1,"Output Window", (2,40)-(510,340),1
END

Display.patterns:
'Poke the display onto the screen
HIDECURSOR:MENU 1,0,0:MENU 2,0,0
a1=start+64*50+3
b1=3
'These loops poke the patterns to the screen
FOR qloop =0 TO 9 STEP 8
FOR pat% = 0 TO 18
    FOR i%=  (pat%*8)+1 TO(8*pat%)+8
        row=i%+4
        POKE a1+((row MOD 8+qloop)*64)+            (b1*pat%), ASC(k$(row))
        POKE a1+((row MOD 8+qloop)*64)+            (b1*pat%)+1, ASC(k$(row))
        POKE a1+((row MOD 8+qloop)*64)+            (b1*pat%)+2, ASC(k$(row))
    NEXT i%
NEXT pat%
NEXT qloop
a1=start+64*70+3
FOR qloop=0 TO 9 STEP 8
FOR pat% = 19 TO 38
    FOR i%= (pat%*8)+1 TO (8*pat%)+8
        row=i%+4
        POKE a1+((row MOD 8+qloop)*64)+            (b1*(pat%-19)), ASC(k$(row))
        POKE a1+((row MOD 8+qloop)*64)+            (b1*(pat%-19))+1, 
ASC(k$(row))
     POKE a1+((row MOD 8+qloop)*64)+ (b1*(pat%-19))+2, ASC(k$(row))
    NEXT i%
NEXT pat%
NEXT qloop
SHOWCURSOR:MENU 1,0,1:MENU 2,0,1
RETURN

Choose.pattern:  'Pattern% = selected pattern #
SHOWCURSOR:WINDOW 1
IF editor%=1 THEN makeselection
GOSUB Display.patterns
makeselection:
LOCATE 5,1:PRINT"Please use mouse to select pattern"
Edit.pattern:
GOSUB Choose.pattern
IF editor%=1 THEN editor
InitEditor:
WINDOW 2,"Pattern Editor",  (10,160)-(500,320),2
x=20:y=20:offsetx=0:offsety=0:editor%=1
TEXTFONT(NewYork):TEXTSIZE(14)
TEXTFACE(Bold)
LOCATE 5,1
PRINT"Please wait.... Initializing Editor."
PICTURE ON
FOR j= 0 TO 7
    FOR k=7 TO 0 STEP -1
        rectangle%(0)=y+offsety
        Bound0%((j*8)+k)=rectangle%(0)
        rectangle%(1)=x+offsetx
        Bound1%((j*8)+k)=rectangle%(1)
        rectangle%(2)=y+offsety+12
        Bound2%((j*8)+k)=rectangle%(2)
        rectangle%(3)=x+offsetx+12
        Bound3%((j*8)+k)=rectangle%(3)
        Bstatus%((j*8)+k)=0:offsetx=11+offsetx
        FRAMERECT(VARPTR(rectangle%(0)))
    NEXT k
    offsety=11+offsety:offsetx=0
NEXT j
PICTURE OFF
grid$=PICTURE$

editor:
    WINDOW 2
    TEXTFONT(NewYork):TEXTSIZE(14)
   TEXTFACE(Bold)
    LOCATE 5,1
   PRINT"Please wait for Setup of Editor."
    GOSUB Bitstatus
    ' set up new cursor
    GOSUB print.pic
    LOCATE 2,26:PRINT"Define New Pattern"
    GOSUB Print.message
    GOSUB Draw.Datapixels
    GOSUB Define
    CLS:BUTTON CLOSE 1
    TEXTFONT(NewYork):TEXTSIZE(14)
    TEXTFACE(Bold)
    LOCATE 5,1:PRINT"Please wait."
    GOSUB Set.pattern
    LOCATE 5,1:PRINT SPACE$(70)
    GOSUB Display.patterns
    RETURN

print.pic: CLS:PICTURE,grid$ 'print the grid 
    TEXTFONT(NewYork)
    TEXTSIZE(14)
    TEXTFACE(Bold)
    RETURN

Print.message:
    TEXTFACE(Plain)
    TEXTSIZE(12)
    LOCATE 4,35
    PRINT"Click              to  continue"                           
                  'This space ^^^^belongs here
    BUTTON 1,1,"OK",(310,40)-(350,80),1
    RETURN

Draw.Datapixels:
    FOR i= 0 TO 63
        IF Bstatus%(i)=1 THEN rectangle%(0)=Bound0%(i):
 rectangle%(1)=Bound1%(i):
 rectangle%(2)=Bound2%(i):
 rectangle%(3)=Bound3%(i):
 PAINTRECT(VARPTR(rectangle%(0))):
 FRAMERECT(VARPTR(rectangle%(0)))
 'end if
    NEXT i
    RETURN

mousepress:
    GOSUB getpixel   'see which pixel is selected
    IF pixel%=64 THEN  RETURN
    IF Bstatus%(pixel%)=0 THEN     Bstatus%(pixel%)=1          ELSE Bstatus%(pixel%)=0
    rectangle%(0)=Bound0%(pixel%)
    rectangle%(1)=Bound1%(pixel%)
    rectangle%(2)=Bound2%(pixel%)
    rectangle%(3)=Bound3%(pixel%)
    INVERTRECT(VARPTR(rectangle%(0)))
    FRAMERECT(VARPTR(rectangle%(0)))
    RETURN

getpixel:
    pixel%=64
    FOR i = 0 TO 63
        IF Bound0%(i)<MOUSE(2) AND Bound2%(i)>MOUSE(2) AND     
 Bound1%(i)<MOUSE(1) AND  Bound3%(i)>MOUSE(1) THEN             pixel%=i:i=64
    NEXT i
    RETURN

Define:
    WHILE DIALOG(0)<>1
    IF MOUSE(0)>0 THEN GOSUB  mousepress
    IF MENU(0)=2 AND MENU(1)=1 THEN  GOSUB Set.pattern:        GOSUB 
Display.patterns
    WEND
    BEEP:RETURN

Bitstatus: 'get status of each grid row
    FOR j=  0 TO 7
        row=j+((pattern%-1)*8)+5
        t%=ASC(k$(row))
        FOR k=7  TO 0 STEP -1
        IF t%<2^k THEN Bstatus%(j*8+k)=0
        IF t%>=2^k THEN   Bstatus%(j*8+k)=1:t%=t%-2^k
        endloop:NEXT k
    NEXT j
RETURN

Set.pattern: 'set bits to match bit status
    FOR j=  0 TO 7
        row=j+((pattern%-1)*8)+5
        t%=0
        FOR k=7  TO 0 STEP -1
            t%=(Bstatus%(j*8+k)*2^k)+t%
        NEXT k
        k$(row)=CHR$(t%)
    NEXT j
RETURN
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Skype 7.5.0.738 - Voice-over-internet ph...
Skype allows you to talk to friends, family and co-workers across the Internet without the inconvenience of long distance telephone charges. Using peer-to-peer data transmission technology, Skype... Read more
PushPal 3.0 - Mirror Android notificatio...
PushPal is a client for Pushbullet, which automatically shows you all of your phone's notifications right on your computer. This means you can see who's calling or read text messages even if your... Read more
Logic Pro X 10.1.1 - Music creation and...
Apple Logic Pro X is the most advanced version of Logic ever. Sophisticated new tools for professional songwriting, editing, and mixing are built around a modern interface that's designed to get... Read more
VLC Media Player 2.2.0 - Popular multime...
VLC Media Player is a highly portable multimedia player for various audio and video formats (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, MP3, OGG, ...) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. It... Read more
Sound Studio 4.7.8 - Robust audio record...
Sound Studio lets you easily record and professionally edit audio on your Mac. Easily rip vinyls and digitize cassette tapes, or record lectures and voice memos. Prepare for live shows with live... Read more
LibreOffice 4.4.1.2 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
VueScan 9.5.03 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
Freeway Pro 7.0.3 - Drag-and-drop Web de...
Freeway Pro lets you build websites with speed and precision... without writing a line of code! With its user-oriented drag-and-drop interface, Freeway Pro helps you piece together the website of... Read more
Cloud 3.3.0 - File sharing from your men...
Cloud is simple file sharing for the Mac. Drag a file from your Mac to the CloudApp icon in the menubar and we take care of the rest. A link to the file will automatically be copied to your clipboard... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6.5 - FTP and SFTP browser....
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more

The first ever action 3D card battler Al...
On the other hand, you probably haven’t played an action 3D card battler – until now. Step forward, All Star Legion. All Star Legion is a 3D QTE-based action RPG card battler, but fear not – the game itself isn’t as convoluted as its description.... | Read more »
Travel Back to the 1980s With the Making...
Headup Games has released a hilarious making of video for its upcoming title, Pixel Heroes: Byte & Magic. The game is a RPG/Roguelike where you control three heroes set to save the township of Pixton from an evil cult called The Sons of Dawn.... | Read more »
Heavenstrike Rivals Review
Heavenstrike Rivals Review By Campbell Bird on March 2nd, 2015 Our Rating: :: HEAVENLY STRATEGICUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Despite a few flaws, this free-to-play strategy game is a fun mix of new and old strategy... | Read more »
Get The Whole Story – Lone Wolf Complete...
Get The Whole Story – Lone Wolf Complete is Now Available and On Sale Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Who Wore it Best? The Counting Dead vs....
Like it or not, the “clicker” genre, popularized by cute distractions like Candy Box and Cookie Clicker, seems like it’s here to stay. So Who Wore it Best? takes a look at two recent examples: The Counting Dead and AdVenture Capitalist. | Read more »
Card Crawl, the Mini Deck Building Game,...
Card Crawl, the Mini Deck Building Game, is Coming Soon Posted by Jessica Fisher on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Tinytouchtales and Mexer have announced their new game, | Read more »
Witness an all new puzzle mechanic in Bl...
Well, BlastBall MAX is not one of those games and is bucking trends such as timers, elements of randomness, and tacked-on mechanics in favor of pure puzzle gameplay. When you first boot up the game you’ll see a grid made up of squares that are each... | Read more »
This Princess Has a Dragon and She isn’t...
This Princess Has a Dragon and She isn’t Afraid to Useit. | Read more »
Mecha Showdown Review
Mecha Showdown Review By Lee Hamlet on February 27th, 2015 Our Rating: :: IN A SPINUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Mecha Showdown replaces traditional buttons with a slot machine mechanic in this robot fighting game,... | Read more »
Reliance Games and Dreamworks Unveil Rea...
Reliance Games and Dreamworks Unveil Real Steel Champions Posted by Ellis Spice on February 27th, 2015 [ permalink ] Reliance Games and Dreamworks have announced that a third game in | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Sale! 15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro for $...
 Best Buy has the 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1774.99 $1799.99, or $225 off MSRP. Choose free home shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Price valid for online orders... Read more
27-inch 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on...
 B&H Photo has the 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on sale for $2299 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for... Read more
Apple Launches Free Web-Based Pages and Other...
Apple’s new Web-only access to iWork productivity apps is a free level of iCloud service available to anyone, including people who don’t own or use Apple devices. The service includes access to Apple... Read more
Survey Reveals Solid State Disk (SSD) Technol...
In a recent SSD technology use survey, Kroll Ontrack, a firm specializing in data recovery, found that while nearly 90 percent of respondents leverage the performance and reliability benefits of SSD... Read more
Save up to $600 with Apple refurbished Mac Pr...
The Apple Store is offering Apple Certified Refurbished Mac Pros for up to $600 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each Mac Pro, and shipping is free. The... Read more
Updated Mac Price Trackers
We’ve updated our Mac Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers: - 15″ MacBook Pros - 13″ MacBook... Read more
Apple CEO Tim Cook to Deliver 2015 George Was...
Apple CEO Tim Cook will deliver the George Washington University’s Commencement address to GWU grads on May 17, at which time he will also be awarded an honorary doctorate of public service from the... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis for up t...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis, with models available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz... Read more
Save up to $50 on iPad Air 2s, NY tax only, f...
 B&H Photo has iPad Air 2s on sale for $50 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $469.99 $30 off - 64GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $549 $50 off - 128GB iPad Air 2... Read more
16GB iPad Air 2 on sale for $447, save $52
Walmart has the 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi on sale for $446.99 on their online store for a limited time. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders only,... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Pay Automation Engineer - iOS System...
**Job Summary** At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring passion and dedication to your job Read more
Sr. Technical Services Consultant, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple Professional Services (APS) has an opening for a senior technical position that contributes to Apple 's efforts for strategic and transactional Read more
Event Director, *Apple* Retail Marketing -...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global engagement strategy and team. Delivering an overarching brand Read more
*Apple* Pay - Site Reliability Engineer - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.