TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Screen Buffer
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:9
Column Tag:Modula 2 Mods

"Using the Alternate Screen Buffer"

By Tom Taylor, Software Engineer, Modula-2 Corp., Provo, Ut., MacTutor Contributing Editor

This article discusses the "alternate screen" capabilities of the Macintosh and presents a module that allows easy access to this facility from MacModula-2.

The Alternate Screen

As far as I know, Inside Macintosh only mentions the alternate screen buffer in two places: in the Memory Manager Programmer's Guide and in the Segment Loader Programmer's Guide. The Memory Manager section simply says, "There are alternate screen and sound buffers for special applications. If you use either or both of these, the space available for use by your application is reduced accordingly..." The alternate screen buffer can be used for high-speed flicker free graphics or a slide show program. For example, an application can be drawing in one screen while displaying a different screen. The popular "Tumbling Mac" demo by Mainstay uses the alternate screen buffer to create a high-speed flicker-free animation application. According to figure 1, the alternate screen buffer is allocated 32768 bytes below the main screen buffer.

Figure 1. Partial memory map showing sizes of various buffers.

The Segment Loader section mentions that the Chain and Launch traps configure memory for the sound and screen buffers. Whenever one of these traps is called, a parameter is passed that determines how these buffers are set up. The word (16-bit) parameter has three possible values:

Zero - Only the main sound and screen buffers are allocated. This is the normal situation and gives an application the most possible memory.

Negative - The alternate sound buffer and main screen buffer is allocated.

Positive - Both the alternate sound and screen buffers are allocated.

A Screen Switcher Module

Instead of building a specific program to demonstrate the alternate screen in Modula-2, this article presents a library module that can be used in many different programs in many different types of applications. This article will also present a small program that uses the developed screen switcher module.

A screen switcher module should support at least four functions:

• launch a program with the alternate screen,

• copy the main screen into the alternate screen,

• change the screen back and forth between the main and alternate screens, and

• set the screen buffer to the main screen before a program exits.

Apparently, the Finder always launches a program with the main sound and screen buffers (parameter set to 0). In order for a program to use the alternate screen, the program must be re-launched with the appropriate parameter (-1). The procedure LaunchWithAltScreen re-launches the program with the alternate screen if the alternate screen is not already allocated.

Here are the Definition and Implementation modules for handling the alternate screen:

DEFINITION MODULE ScreenSwitcher;

  EXPORT QUALIFIED
    LaunchWithTwoScreens,
    CopyScreens,
    SwitchScreens,
    SetMainScreen;
  
  PROCEDURE LaunchWithTwoScreens;
    (* This procedure re-launches the
       current program with the alternate
       screen.  If the alternate screen is
       already installed, this procedure 
       does nothing. *)

  PROCEDURE CopyScreens;
    (* CopyScreens copies the main screen
       into the alternate screen. *)
  
  PROCEDURE SwitchScreens;
    (* SwitchScreens alternately switches
       what is being displayed from the
       one screen to the other. *)
  
  PROCEDURE SetMainScreen;
    (* Sets the current screen buffer to
       the main screen so that when the
       program exits to the Finder
       the screen will be the right one. *)
  
END ScreenSwitcher.

IMPLEMENTATION MODULE ScreenSwitcher;

  FROM Launcher IMPORT
          CountAppFiles,
   LaunchRec,
   Launch;

  FROM Terminal IMPORT
          WriteString;

  FROM MacSystemTypes IMPORT
          Str255, LongCard;

  FROM Strings IMPORT
          StrModToMac;

  FROM SYSTEM IMPORT
          ADR, WORD, ADDRESS;

  FROM MacInterface IMPORT
          thePort;

  FROM QuickDraw1 IMPORT
          GrafPtr;

  CONST
    vBufA = 1e00h; (* Buffer A offset from
                                VIA interface chip *)
    vPage2 = 1;    (* This is a bit into
                              vBufA, if 0, select
                              alternate screen *)

  TYPE
    ScreenPtr
        = POINTER TO ARRAY [1..10944] OF
                 WORD;
      (* The Mac screen buffer is 10944
           16-bit words long *)

    FlagsPtr
        = POINTER TO BITSET;

  VAR
    CurPageOption [936h] : INTEGER;
       (* Mac global variable containing
           value of parameter at launch time
           that determines sound and screen
           buffers. *)
    ScrnBase [824h] : ScreenPtr;
       (* Mac global containing address of
           main screen. *)
    AltBase : ScreenPtr;
       (* Our homebrew alternate screen
            pointer. *)
    VIA6522Chip [1d4h] : FlagsPtr;
       (* VIA base address - from MDS's
           SysEqu.txt *)
    BufferA : FlagsPtr;
       (* Our pointer to vBuffer A *)
    originalPort  : GrafPtr;
       (* Save GrafPtr to whole screen *)

  PROCEDURE LaunchWithTwoScreens;
    VAR
      PrintOrWhat, count : INTEGER;
      launchRec : LaunchRec;
      prog : Str255;
  BEGIN
    IF CurPageOption >= 0 THEN
      CountAppFiles(PrintOrWhat,count);
        (* Get the number of Modula-2
            programs launched.  It better
            be one... this one! *)
      IF count # 1 THEN
        WriteString('Double-click the ');
        WriteString('program icon to start');
        WriteString(' the program');
        HALT;
      END;
      StrModToMac(prog,'Modula-2');
      launchRec.Name := ADR(prog);
      launchRec.SoundScreenBuffer := -1;
      Launch(launchRec);
    END;
  END LaunchWithTwoScreens;
  
  PROCEDURE CopyScreens;
  BEGIN
    AltBase^ := ScrnBase^;
  END CopyScreens;
  
  PROCEDURE SwitchScreens;
  BEGIN
    (* According to the MDS SysEqu.Txt
        file, the vPage2 bit in the BufferA
        flags is zero for the alternate
        screen and one for the main screen.
     *)
    WITH originalPort^.portBits DO
      IF baseAddr = ADDRESS(ScrnBase)
      THEN
          (* Graphical operations apply
              to alternate screen while
              displaying main screen. *)
 baseAddr := ADDRESS(AltBase);
 INCL(BufferA^,vPage2);
          (* Turn on bit *)
      ELSE
          (* Graphical operations apply
              to main screen while displaying
              alternate screen. *)
 baseAddr := ADDRESS(ScrnBase);
 EXCL(BufferA^,vPage2);
          (* Turn off  bit *)
      END;
    END;
  END SwitchScreens;
  
  PROCEDURE SetMainScreen;
  BEGIN
    IF NOT(vPage2 IN BufferA^) THEN
      SwitchScreens;
    END;
  END SetMainScreen;

BEGIN
  AltBase := ScrnBase;
   (* Set up pointer to alt screen *)
  DEC(AltBase,32768);
  
  BufferA := VIA6522Chip;
   (* Set up pointer to Buffer A flags *)
  INC(BufferA,vBufA);
  
   (* Save screen GrafPort *)
  originalPort := thePort;
END ScreenSwitcher.

            Here is a program module that actually uses the ScreenSwitcher module.  The 
program simply bounces a picture of a Lisa computer around the screen.  The program draws 
the picture in one screen, switches screens, erases the old picture, moves to a new position, 
draws the picture, and switches to the other screen and applies the same sequence of operations. 
 In order for this program to run properly, it is important to have this program and the 
Modula-2 program on the system disk.  Click the mouse to exit the program.

MODULE Animate;

  FROM QuickDraw1 IMPORT
          QDPtr, StuffHex, HideCursor,
          BitMap, Rect, SetRect,
          srcOr, srcBic, OffsetRect,
          Random;

  FROM QuickDraw2 IMPORT
          CopyBits;
   
  FROM MacSystemTypes IMPORT
          Str255;
   
  FROM Strings IMPORT
          StrModToMac;

  FROM SYSTEM IMPORT
          ADR, WORD;

  FROM MacInterface IMPORT
          thePort, Write;

  FROM EventManager IMPORT
          Button;

  FROM ScreenSwitcher IMPORT
          LaunchWithTwoScreens,
          CopyScreens, SwitchScreens;

  VAR
    icon : ARRAY [0..95] OF WORD;
       (* Storage to hold icon data *)
    x, y : ARRAY [0..1] OF INTEGER;
       (* coordinates of icon for each
           screen *)
    screen : [0..1];
       (* current screen reminder *)
    xDir, yDir : INTEGER;
       (* offset for each icon move *)
 
  PROCEDURE InitIcon;

    PROCEDURE MyStuffHex(ptr: QDPtr;
                         s : ARRAY OF CHAR);
    (* This procedure isolates the body of
       InitIcon from having to convert
       the Modula-style hex strings to
       Pascal format *)
      VAR
 macStr : Str255;
    BEGIN
      StrModToMac(macStr,s);
      StuffHex(ptr,macStr);
    END MyStuffHex;

  BEGIN
    (* Picture of a Lisa hoisted from
        Apple's QDSample program *)
    MyStuffHex(ADR(icon[ 0]),
'000000000000000000000000000000000000001FFFFFFFFC');
    MyStuffHex(ADR(icon[12]),
'00600000000601800000000B0600000000130FFFFFFFFFA3');
  MyStuffHex(ADR(icon[24]),
'18000000004311FFFFF00023120000080F231200000BF923');
    MyStuffHex(ADR(icon[36]),
'120000080F23120000080023120000080023120000080F23');
    MyStuffHex(ADR(icon[48]),
'1200000BF923120000080F2312000008002311FFFFF00023');
    MyStuffHex(ADR(icon[60]),
'08000000004307FFFFFFFFA30100000000260FFFFFFFFE2C');
    MyStuffHex(ADR(icon[72]),
'18000000013832AAAAA8A9F0655555515380C2AAAA82A580');
    MyStuffHex(ADR(icon[84]),
'800000000980FFFFFFFFF300800000001600FFFFFFFFFC00');
  END InitIcon;

  PROCEDURE DrawIcon(h,v: INTEGER;  mode : INTEGER);
    VAR
      srcBits : BitMap;
      srcRect, dstRect : Rect;
  BEGIN
    srcBits.baseAddr := ADR(icon);
    srcBits.rowBytes := 6;
    SetRect(srcBits.bounds,0,0,48,32);
    srcRect := srcBits.bounds;
    dstRect := srcRect;
    OffsetRect(dstRect,h,v);
    CopyBits(srcBits,thePort^.portBits,
                  srcRect,dstRect,mode,NIL);
  END DrawIcon;

  PROCEDURE MoveIcon;
  BEGIN
    (* Erase the old icon *)
    DrawIcon (x[screen],y[screen], srcBic);
    (* Calculate new position *)
    x[screen] := x[1-screen] + xDir;
    (* Don't let icon go off screen *)
    IF (x[screen] < 0) OR (x[screen] > 460) 
    THEN
      xDir := -xDir;
    END;
    y[screen] := y[1-screen] + yDir;
    IF (y[screen] < 0) OR (y[screen] > 310) 
    THEN
      yDir := -yDir;
    END;
    (* Draw the icon *)
    DrawIcon(x[screen],y[screen],srcOr);
    (* Swap our screen reminder *)
    screen := 1 - screen;
  END MoveIcon;
  
BEGIN
  HideCursor;
  (* Re-launch ourself with alt. screen *)
  LaunchWithTwoScreens;
  InitIcon;
  Write(14c); (* Clear Screen *)
  CopyScreens;
  screen := 0;
  x[0] := 100;
  y[0] := 100;
  x[1] := 100;
  y[1] := 100;
  xDir := 1;
  yDir := 1;
  WHILE NOT Button() DO
    MoveIcon;
    SwitchScreens;
  END;
END Animate.
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

How to evolve Eevee in Pokemon GO
By now, almost everyone should be hip to how to evolve Pokemon in Pokemon GO (and if not, there's a guide for that). Just gather enough candy of the appropriate type, feed them all to the Pokemon, and evolution happens. It's a miracle that would... | Read more »
CSR Racing 2: Guide to all game modes
It might not seem like there are all that many ways to go fast in a straight line, but CSR Racing 2 begs to differ. [Read more] | Read more »
Bulb Boy (Games)
Bulb Boy 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Multi-award winning 2D point & click horror adventure about a boy with a glowing head. | Read more »
5 top free emoji keyboard apps
If we're not at peak emoji yet as a society, it feels like we definitely should be. The emoji concept has gone far beyond what anyone in Japan could have envisioned when the people there unleashed it on an unsuspecting world, but the West has... | Read more »
How to unlock more characters in Disney...
One of the big charms of Disney Emoji Blitz is seeing a wide variety of beloved Disney and Pixar characters transformed into smiling emojis. Even someone like the sneaky Randall from Monsters Inc., who probably never cracked a smile on film, is... | Read more »
Cubway (Games)
Cubway 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Cubway is a journey with an abstract story of lifecycle of rebirth, called Samsara. Guide the cube through the long way full of dangers... | Read more »
Colorcube (Games)
Colorcube 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Turn pieces and blend colours in this minimal yet visually stunning puzzler.Over 200 handcrafted and challenging levels. Features... | Read more »
Doodle God Griddlers (Games)
Doodle God Griddlers 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Crusader Kings: Chronicles (Games)
Crusader Kings: Chronicles 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Crusader Kings: Chronicles is an interactive text based game that puts you in the shoes of Guy de Rose as you make... | Read more »
Roads of Rome: New Generation (Games)
Roads of Rome: New Generation 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $5.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple price trackers, updated continuously
Scan our Apple Price Trackers for the latest information on sales, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers. We update the trackers continuously: - 15″... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (Apple refurbished...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for $829, or $270 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros... Read more
21-inch iMacs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 21″ iMacs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 21″ 3.1GHz iMac 4K: $1379 $120 off MSRP - 21″ 2.8GHz iMac: $1199.99 $100 off MSRP - 21″ 1... Read more
Charitybuzz Set to Auction Unique Apple-1 Com...
Offering an opportunity to own the computer that sparked a revolution, on Monday, July 25, leading online charity auction platform Charitybuzz will auction what is claimed to be the world’s most... Read more
MacBook Airs on sale for up to $150 off MSRP
Amazon has 11″ and 13″ MacBook Airs on sale for up to $150 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free: - 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air (sku MMGF2LL/A): $899.99 $100 off MSRP - 13″ 1.6GHz/256GB... Read more
Apple refurbished 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $270 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.7GHz... Read more
Apple refurbished 11-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 11″ MacBook Airs (the latest models), available for up to $170 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is... Read more
Apple iPad Pro Sales Far Outpacing Microsoft...
A report on Appleinsider notes that despite Microsoft Surface tablet PC sales growing by 9 percent year over year, revenues remained below $1 billion, and are down sequentially from the $1.1 billion... Read more
DEVONthink 2.9 Features Ultra-fast, Robust, A...
DEVONthink 2.9 allows users to keep databases synchronized using many means of transport. It transmits them between Macs on the local network or stores them in a syncable form on removable hard... Read more
12-inch WiFi Apple iPad Pros on sale for up t...
B&H Photo has 12″ WiFi iPad Pros on sale for up to $100 off MSRP, each including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 12″ Space Gray 32GB WiFi iPad Pro: $749 $50 off MSRP - 12″... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - APPLE (United...
Job Summary As an Apple Solutions Consultant, you'll be the link between our future customers and our products. You'll showcase your entrepreneurial spirit as you Read more
*Apple* Professional Learning Specialist - A...
Job Summary The Apple Professional Learning Specialist is a full-time position for one year with Apple in the Phoenix, AZ area. This position requires a high Read more
*Apple* Picker - Apple Hill Orchard (United...
Apple Hill Orchard, Co. Rte. 21,Whitehall, NY 9/7/16-10/228/16. Pick fresh market or processing apples Productivity of 60 boxes and 80 boxes processing fruit per Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - APPLE (United...
Job Summary As an Apple Solutions Consultant, you'll be the link between our future customers and our products. You'll showcase your entrepreneurial spirit as you Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.