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Volume Number:1
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Assembly required

Using the Common Resources

By Frank Alviani

Resources are the most mystifying of all the Mac technology, mainly because they are undocumented, and not usually found on other computers. The purpose of resources are to seperate text, icons, fonts, menu items and dialogs from the executable source code of a program where they can be easily changed without re-compilation. With the resource editor and other tools, this opens up a world of “user customized” programs. The user literally changes the program resources to his own tastes. This makes for an exciting possibility in software adaptation that has yet to be fully explored. In the meantime, programmers still must struggle to make use of resources effectively.

A big problem is not having adequate documentation of the format of each resource in terms of a binary file specification; exactly how many bytes and in what format each resource item is specified. While the RMaker provides an easy way to assembly resources, it does little to explain their internal format. The Apple Assembler has the ability to compile resources directly, offering an alternative to the RMaker utility. All that is lacking is the correct assembler source code format of each resource. Now Frank Alviani has filled this omission gap by providing us with the assembler format of all the major resources. This information should go a long way toward improving the resource void. We encourage others to help in this area by sending in articles or information on resources to help improve our understanding of this vital Mac concept. [David E. Smith, Editor]

Linker or RMaker

The big advantage to using the linker rather than the RMaker is flexability. You can control every detail - type style, etc. To balance this, linking is significantly longer and certain RMaker capabilities simply don’t exist - “linking” in picture resources, for example. With RMover, those disadvantages are pretty small, however.

Only the reasonably common resources are documented here (mostly those in volume 1 of IM). I didn’t include the Font resource defs, since nobody in their right minds would do a font in assembler (I had to do 2 in assembler for a DEC Pro system when I wrote a custom screen manager and I KNOW how bad that is!!). While there are probably others that aren’t included, I’ve had no use for them.

The few notes regard (1) The correction to the “control type” field in the Control resource, and (2) an explanation of the enabling mask field in the Menu resource. These are naturally confusing since IM is wrong or silent on the matters.

I decided to take this approach to building a “prototypes” file, rather than use macros, because (a) A typical macro call would be too big to fit on a line, and I am somewhat fussy about the appearance of my code (I have enough trouble without messy code confusing me further...) (b) I include explanatory comments on each line, so I don’t have to keep referring to reference material for each field. Disk space is virtually free, so why not?

;Resource Prototypes for Assembler usage
;Frank Alviani
;More verbose than macros, but easier to copy & fill in...
;ALL resources using local labels (labels starting with @) must
;be bracketed by regular labels; local labels can be re-used only
;if the duplicates are separated by regular labels. This applies
;even if no warning appears in the resource prototype!
;These are arranged roughly alphabetically, altho the DLOG/ALRT/DITL
;are grouped together at the end.
;In general # represents a numeric field normally filled in.
;The name and attribute fields on the RESOURCE line are optional.
;The idea is to have this in one editor window, and to copy to the
;resource file being built as needed. This will hopefully speed the
;process, and give flexability the RMaker doesn’t.
;There are some additional explanatory comments with various resources.
;Some of this is copied from MacTutor 1/4.






DOCBOX  EQU 0    ;standard document window
ALERT   EQU 1    ;alert
PLAIN   EQU 2    ;plain
PLAINSHDEQU 3    ;plain with shadow
NOGROWDOC EQU    4 ;document window w/o grow box
ROUNDBOXEQU 16   ;rounded-corner window (see IM for setting corner radius..)

CBUTTON EQU 0    ;simple button
CCHKBOX EQU 1    ;check box
CRADIO  EQU 2    ;radio button
USEWFNT EQU 8    ;add to above to use window’s fonts
CSCROLL EQU 16   ;scroll bar

; IDENTIFICATION resource - needed for Finder to locate Icon
 DC.B   AA1-@1
@1:DC.B ‘Ver. 0.1 3/31/85’

;BUNDLE resource
 RESOURCE ‘BNDL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   ‘WCA1’   ;signature
 DC.W   0,1 ;data (doesn’t change)
 DC.L   ‘ICN#’   ;icon mappings
 DC.W   0 ;number of mappings - 1
 DC.W   0,128    ;map 0 to icon 128
 DC.L   ‘FREF’   ;FREF mappings
 DC.W   0 ;number of mappings - 1
 DC.W   0,128    ;map 0 to fref 128

;CONTROL resource
;NOTE - although the assembler definition of this claims that the
;“control type” field is a long word, IT LIES. Control type is a 16-bit

 RESOURCE ‘CNTL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;initial value
 DC.W   0 ;visible (T/F)
 DC.W   # ;max value
 DC.W   # ;min value
 DC.W   # ;control type
 DC.L   0 ;refCon
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length (at least 1)
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;title

;CURSOR resource
 RESOURCE ‘CURS’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   #,# ;1st 8 bytes of cursor
 DC.L   #,# ;2nd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;3rd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;4th 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;1st 8 bytes of mask
 DC.L   #,# ;2nd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;3rd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;4th 8 bytes  
 DC.W   #,# ;h,v of hot spot
;FREF resource
 RESOURCE ‘FREF’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.B   ‘APPL’,0,0,0
;ICN# resource
 RESOURCE ‘ICN#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
;there’d usually be an ‘include’ here...

;MENU resource
;NOTE - the “enable field”: bits are number right to left 0-15. Bit
;1 is the first menu item. A “0” bit in the mask disables that item.
;I haven’t tried it, but I think turning off bit 0 of the mask
;disables the entire menu..

 RESOURCE ‘MENU’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
lbl:  DC.W1 ;MENU ID
 DC.W   0 ;width holder
 DC.W   0 ;height holder
 DC.L   0 ;std menu pro holder
 DC.L   $1FF;enable all items
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length (in bytes)
@1:DC.B 20;title (this is the apple)

;MENU ITEM resource
 DC.B   # ;item length
 DC.B   ‘xxx’    ;menu item
 DC.B   0 ;no icon
 DC.B   0 ;keyboard equivalent
 DC.B   0 ;marking character
 DC.B   0 ;style of item’s text
;PATTERN stuff
 RESOURCE ‘PAT ‘ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   #,# ;1st, 2nd 4 bytes of pattern
 RESOURCE ‘PAT#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;# of patterns
 DC.L   #,# ;1st, 2nd 4 bytes of pattern #1

;STRING resource
 RESOURCE ‘STR ‘ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text

;STRING LIST resource
 RESOURCE ‘STR#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;count of strings
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length - string #1
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text

;WINDOW resource
 RESOURCE ‘WIND’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;window type
 DC.W   # ;visible (T/F)
 DC.W   # ;draw goAway (T/F)
 DC.L   0 ;refCon (available)
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;title

; -- Dialog / Alert / DITL are grouped together --

;DIALOG resource
 RESOURCE ‘DLOG’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;window type
 DC.B   # ;visible (T/F)
 DC.B   # ;goAway flag (T=has close box)
 DC.L   0 ;refCon
 DC.W   # ;ID of DITL list
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text

;ALERT resource
 RESOURCE ‘ALRT’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;resource ID of DITL list
 DC.W   # ;stages (see IM for details..)

;DITL resource
 RESOURCE ‘DITL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;# of items - 1

lbl:  DC.L0 ;handle holder
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.B   type;item-type
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;item length (MUST BE EVEN)
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;item

; items must be even length
; item types are as follows
;  control item - control-item + 4
;     button0
;check box1
;radio button  2
;resource 3
;static text8
;edit text16
;icon item32
;quickdraw pict  64
;user item0
; disable item - item + 128
; system icons
;stop   0
;note   1
;alert  2

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