TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Resources
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Assembly required

Using the Common Resources

By Frank Alviani

Resources are the most mystifying of all the Mac technology, mainly because they are undocumented, and not usually found on other computers. The purpose of resources are to seperate text, icons, fonts, menu items and dialogs from the executable source code of a program where they can be easily changed without re-compilation. With the resource editor and other tools, this opens up a world of “user customized” programs. The user literally changes the program resources to his own tastes. This makes for an exciting possibility in software adaptation that has yet to be fully explored. In the meantime, programmers still must struggle to make use of resources effectively.

A big problem is not having adequate documentation of the format of each resource in terms of a binary file specification; exactly how many bytes and in what format each resource item is specified. While the RMaker provides an easy way to assembly resources, it does little to explain their internal format. The Apple Assembler has the ability to compile resources directly, offering an alternative to the RMaker utility. All that is lacking is the correct assembler source code format of each resource. Now Frank Alviani has filled this omission gap by providing us with the assembler format of all the major resources. This information should go a long way toward improving the resource void. We encourage others to help in this area by sending in articles or information on resources to help improve our understanding of this vital Mac concept. [David E. Smith, Editor]

Linker or RMaker

The big advantage to using the linker rather than the RMaker is flexability. You can control every detail - type style, etc. To balance this, linking is significantly longer and certain RMaker capabilities simply don’t exist - “linking” in picture resources, for example. With RMover, those disadvantages are pretty small, however.

Only the reasonably common resources are documented here (mostly those in volume 1 of IM). I didn’t include the Font resource defs, since nobody in their right minds would do a font in assembler (I had to do 2 in assembler for a DEC Pro system when I wrote a custom screen manager and I KNOW how bad that is!!). While there are probably others that aren’t included, I’ve had no use for them.

The few notes regard (1) The correction to the “control type” field in the Control resource, and (2) an explanation of the enabling mask field in the Menu resource. These are naturally confusing since IM is wrong or silent on the matters.

I decided to take this approach to building a “prototypes” file, rather than use macros, because (a) A typical macro call would be too big to fit on a line, and I am somewhat fussy about the appearance of my code (I have enough trouble without messy code confusing me further...) (b) I include explanatory comments on each line, so I don’t have to keep referring to reference material for each field. Disk space is virtually free, so why not?

;
;Resource Prototypes for Assembler usage
;
;Frank Alviani
;
;More verbose than macros, but easier to copy & fill in...
;
;NOTES -
;
;ALL resources using local labels (labels starting with @) must
;be bracketed by regular labels; local labels can be re-used only
;if the duplicates are separated by regular labels. This applies
;even if no warning appears in the resource prototype!
;
;These are arranged roughly alphabetically, altho the DLOG/ALRT/DITL
;are grouped together at the end.
;
;In general # represents a numeric field normally filled in.
;The name and attribute fields on the RESOURCE line are optional.
;
;The idea is to have this in one editor window, and to copy to the
;resource file being built as needed. This will hopefully speed the
;process, and give flexability the RMaker doesn’t.
;
;There are some additional explanatory comments with various resources.
;
;Some of this is copied from MacTutor 1/4.

;RESOURCE ATTRIBUTES

SYSREF  EQU 128
SYSHEAP EQU 64
PURGABLEEQU 32
LOCKED  EQU 16
PROTECTED EQU    8
PRELOAD EQU 4
CHANGED EQU 2

;RESOURCE FILE ATTRIBUTES

READONLYEQU 128
COMPACT EQU 64
MAPCHANGEDEQU    32

;DITL TYPE EQUATES
BUTTON  EQU 4
CHKBOX  EQU 5
RADIO   EQU 6
RESCTL  EQU 7
;
STATEXT EQU 8
EDITEXT EQU 16
ICONITM EQU 32
QDPICT  EQU 64
USERITM EQU 0
;
DISABLE EQU 128

;WINDOW TYPES
DOCBOX  EQU 0    ;standard document window
ALERT   EQU 1    ;alert
PLAIN   EQU 2    ;plain
PLAINSHDEQU 3    ;plain with shadow
NOGROWDOC EQU    4 ;document window w/o grow box
ROUNDBOXEQU 16   ;rounded-corner window (see IM for setting corner radius..)

;CONTROL TYPES
CBUTTON EQU 0    ;simple button
CCHKBOX EQU 1    ;check box
CRADIO  EQU 2    ;radio button
USEWFNT EQU 8    ;add to above to use window’s fonts
CSCROLL EQU 16   ;scroll bar

; IDENTIFICATION resource - needed for Finder to locate Icon
 RESOURCE ‘WCA1’ 0 ‘IDENTIFICATION’
 DC.B   AA1-@1
@1:DC.B ‘Ver. 0.1 3/31/85’
AA1:

;BUNDLE resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘BNDL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   ‘WCA1’   ;signature
 DC.W   0,1 ;data (doesn’t change)
 DC.L   ‘ICN#’   ;icon mappings
 DC.W   0 ;number of mappings - 1
 DC.W   0,128    ;map 0 to icon 128
 
 DC.L   ‘FREF’   ;FREF mappings
 DC.W   0 ;number of mappings - 1
 DC.W   0,128    ;map 0 to fref 128

;CONTROL resource
;
;NOTE - although the assembler definition of this claims that the
;“control type” field is a long word, IT LIES. Control type is a 16-bit
;field!!

 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘CNTL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;initial value
 DC.W   0 ;visible (T/F)
 DC.W   # ;max value
 DC.W   # ;min value
 DC.W   # ;control type
 DC.L   0 ;refCon
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length (at least 1)
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;title
@2:


;CURSOR resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘CURS’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   #,# ;1st 8 bytes of cursor
 DC.L   #,# ;2nd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;3rd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;4th 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;1st 8 bytes of mask
 DC.L   #,# ;2nd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;3rd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;4th 8 bytes  
 DC.W   #,# ;h,v of hot spot
 
;FREF resource
 RESOURCE ‘FREF’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.B   ‘APPL’,0,0,0
 
;ICN# resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘ICN#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
;there’d usually be an ‘include’ here...

;MENU resource
;
;NOTE - the “enable field”: bits are number right to left 0-15. Bit
;1 is the first menu item. A “0” bit in the mask disables that item.
;I haven’t tried it, but I think turning off bit 0 of the mask
;disables the entire menu..

 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘MENU’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
lbl:  DC.W1 ;MENU ID
 DC.W   0 ;width holder
 DC.W   0 ;height holder
 DC.L   0 ;std menu pro holder
 DC.L   $1FF;enable all items
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length (in bytes)
@1:DC.B 20;title (this is the apple)
@2:

;MENU ITEM resource
 DC.B   # ;item length
 DC.B   ‘xxx’    ;menu item
 DC.B   0 ;no icon
 DC.B   0 ;keyboard equivalent
 DC.B   0 ;marking character
 DC.B   0 ;style of item’s text
 
 DC.B   0 ;END OF MENU ITEMS
 
;PATTERN stuff
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘PAT ‘ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   #,# ;1st, 2nd 4 bytes of pattern
 
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘PAT#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;# of patterns
 DC.L   #,# ;1st, 2nd 4 bytes of pattern #1

;STRING resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘STR ‘ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:

;STRING LIST resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘STR#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;count of strings
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length - string #1
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:
label:  ;REQUIRED REGULAR LABEL HERE!

;WINDOW resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘WIND’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;window type
 DC.W   # ;visible (T/F)
 DC.W   # ;draw goAway (T/F)
 DC.L   0 ;refCon (available)
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;title
@2:

; -- Dialog / Alert / DITL are grouped together --

;DIALOG resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘DLOG’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;window type
 DC.B   # ;visible (T/F)
 DC.B   0 ;IGNORED
 DC.B   # ;goAway flag (T=has close box)
 DC.B   0 ;IGNORED
 DC.L   0 ;refCon
 DC.W   # ;ID of DITL list
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:

;ALERT resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘ALRT’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;resource ID of DITL list
 DC.W   # ;stages (see IM for details..)

;DITL resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘DITL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;# of items - 1

lbl:  DC.L0 ;handle holder
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.B   type;item-type
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;item length (MUST BE EVEN)
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;item
@2:

; items must be even length
; item types are as follows
;  control item - control-item + 4
;     button0
;check box1
;radio button  2
;resource 3
;
;static text8
;edit text16
;icon item32
;quickdraw pict  64
;user item0
;
; disable item - item + 128
; system icons
;stop   0
;note   1
;alert  2

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Lyn 1.5.11 - Lightweight image browser a...
Lyn is a lightweight and fast image browser and viewer designed for photographers, graphic artists and Web designers. Featuring an extremely versatile and aesthetically pleasing interface, it... Read more
NeoOffice 2014.11 - Mac-tailored, OpenOf...
NeoOffice is a complete office suite for OS X. With NeoOffice, users can view, edit, and save OpenOffice documents, PDF files, and most Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint documents. NeoOffice 3.x... Read more
LaunchBar 6.4 - Powerful file/URL/email...
LaunchBar is an award-winning productivity utility that offers an amazingly intuitive and efficient way to search and access any kind of information stored on your computer or on the Web. It provides... Read more
Remotix 3.1.4 - Access all your computer...
Remotix is a fast and powerful application to easily access multiple Macs (and PCs) from your own Mac. Features Complete Apple Screen Sharing support - including Mac OS X login, clipboard... Read more
DesktopLyrics 2.6.6 - Displays current i...
DesktopLyrics is an application that displays the lyrics of the song currently playing in "iTunes" right on your desktop. The lyrics for the song have to be set in iTunes; DesktopLyrics does nothing... Read more
VOX 2.5.1 - Music player that supports m...
VOX is a beautiful music player that supports many filetypes. The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all... Read more
NetNewsWire 4.0.0 - RSS and Atom news re...
NetNewsWire is the best way to keep up with the sites and authors you read most regularly. Let NetNewsWire pull down the latest articles, and read them in a distraction-free and Mac-like way. Native... Read more
MacUpdate Desktop 6.0.6 - Search and ins...
MacUpdate Desktop 6 brings seamless 1-click installs and version updates to your Mac. With a free MacUpdate account and MacUpdate Desktop 6, Mac users can now install almost any Mac app on macupdate.... Read more
ForkLift 2.6.5 - Powerful file manager:...
ForkLift is a powerful file manager and ferociously fast FTP client clothed in a clean and versatile UI that offers the combination of absolute simplicity and raw power expected from a well-executed... Read more
Drive Genius 4.1.0 - Powerful system uti...
Drive Genius 4 gives you faster performance from your Mac while also protecting it. The award-winning and improved DrivePulse feature alerts you to hard drive issues before they become major problems... Read more

Biz Builder Delux (Games)
Biz Builder Delux 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Ah, there's nothing like the rhythmic bustle of a burgeoning business burg... especially when you're the one building it... | Read more »
Auroch Digital is Bringing Back Games Wo...
| Read more »
Carbo - Handwriting in the Digital Age...
Carbo - Handwriting in the Digital Age 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Productivity Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Draggy Dead (Games)
Draggy Dead 1.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.1 (iTunes) Description: Ditch your dead end job and take up a rewarding career in Grave Robbing today!Guide the recently deceased to a fun filled life of... | Read more »
Bad Dinos (Games)
Bad Dinos 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
The Apple Watch isn't Great as a Fi...
| Read more »
Show the World What You See With Stre.am...
Live broadcasting is getting popular on mobile devices, which is why you can now get Stre.am, by Infinite Takes. [Read more] | Read more »
PhotoTime's 2.1 Update Adds Apple W...
The latest PhotoTime update is adding even more functionality to the handy photo organizing app. Yep, including Apple Watch support. [Read more] | Read more »
Oh My Glob! Adventure Time Puzzle Quest...
Finn and Jake are taking over D3 Go!'s popular puzzle game series in the upcoming Adventure Time Puzzle Quest. [Read more] | Read more »
Earthcore: Shattered Elements - Tips, Tr...
At first glance, Earthcore: Shattered Elements seems like a rather simple card-battling game. Once you’re introduced to skills that will change quite a bit. Even more so once you start to acquire hero cards. But it’s not so complicated that we... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

OtterBox Maximizes Portability, Productivity...
From the kitchen recipe book to the boarsroom presentation, the OtterBox Agility Tablet System turns tablets into one of the most versatile pieces of handheld technology available. Available now, the... Read more
Launch of New Car App Gallery and Open Develo...
Automatic, a company on a mission to bring the power of the Internet into every car, has announced the launch of the Automatic App Gallery, an app store for nearly every car or truck on the road... Read more
Memorial Day Weekend Sale: 13-inch 1.6GHz Mac...
Best Buy has the new 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $849 on their online store this weekend. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders... Read more
Memorial Day Weekend Sale: 27-inch 3.5GHz 5K...
Best Buy has the 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac on sale for $2099.99 this weekend. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders only, in-store prices may vary.... Read more
Sale! 16GB iPad mini 3 for $349, save $50
B&H Photo has the 16GB iPad mini 3 WiFi on sale for $349 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
Price drop on 2014 15-inch Retina MacBook Pro...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros by $200. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1799.99 save $200 - 15″ 2.5GHz... Read more
With a Mission to Make Mobile Free, Scratch W...
Scratch Wireless, claiming to be the world’s first truly free mobile service, has announced the availability of a new Scratch-enabled Android smartphone, the Coolpad Arise. The smartphone is equipped... Read more
First-Ever Titanium Alloy Curved iPhone 6 Scr...
One of the most common problems with mobile phones is damage to the screens. The slightest drop can cause a dreaded spider web of gashes and cracks in the glass panel surface that can cost $hundreds... Read more
Preorder new 12-inch MacBook, $10 off, save o...
Adorama has new 12″ Retina MacBooks available for preorder for $10 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. For a limited time, Adorama will include a free Apple USB-C to USB... Read more
Will iOS 9 Finally Bring Productivity Friendl...
Ah, the irony. From its original announcement in 2010, Apple has doggedly insisted that the iPad remain “simple,” thus arbitrarily limiting its considerable potential as a content creation and... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
Business Development Manager - *Apple* Pay...
**Job Summary** Apple Pay is seeking an experienced Business Development professional to join the Apple Pay team to develop partnerships and strategic alliances with Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Retail New Store O...
**Job Summary** An Apple Retail New Store Openings & Remodels Project Manager is responsible for successfully managing the openings, remodels, and small works of Read more
SW QA Engineer - *Apple* TV - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** The Apple TV team is looking for experienced Quality Assurance Engineers with a passion for delivering first in class home entertainment solutions. **Key Read more
Partner Marketing Manager - *Apple* Pay - A...
**Job Summary** The Apple Pay partner marketing team is looking for a marketing manager to develop and drive US marketing programs with our financial institution Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.