TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Resources
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Assembly required

Using the Common Resources

By Frank Alviani

Resources are the most mystifying of all the Mac technology, mainly because they are undocumented, and not usually found on other computers. The purpose of resources are to seperate text, icons, fonts, menu items and dialogs from the executable source code of a program where they can be easily changed without re-compilation. With the resource editor and other tools, this opens up a world of “user customized” programs. The user literally changes the program resources to his own tastes. This makes for an exciting possibility in software adaptation that has yet to be fully explored. In the meantime, programmers still must struggle to make use of resources effectively.

A big problem is not having adequate documentation of the format of each resource in terms of a binary file specification; exactly how many bytes and in what format each resource item is specified. While the RMaker provides an easy way to assembly resources, it does little to explain their internal format. The Apple Assembler has the ability to compile resources directly, offering an alternative to the RMaker utility. All that is lacking is the correct assembler source code format of each resource. Now Frank Alviani has filled this omission gap by providing us with the assembler format of all the major resources. This information should go a long way toward improving the resource void. We encourage others to help in this area by sending in articles or information on resources to help improve our understanding of this vital Mac concept. [David E. Smith, Editor]

Linker or RMaker

The big advantage to using the linker rather than the RMaker is flexability. You can control every detail - type style, etc. To balance this, linking is significantly longer and certain RMaker capabilities simply don’t exist - “linking” in picture resources, for example. With RMover, those disadvantages are pretty small, however.

Only the reasonably common resources are documented here (mostly those in volume 1 of IM). I didn’t include the Font resource defs, since nobody in their right minds would do a font in assembler (I had to do 2 in assembler for a DEC Pro system when I wrote a custom screen manager and I KNOW how bad that is!!). While there are probably others that aren’t included, I’ve had no use for them.

The few notes regard (1) The correction to the “control type” field in the Control resource, and (2) an explanation of the enabling mask field in the Menu resource. These are naturally confusing since IM is wrong or silent on the matters.

I decided to take this approach to building a “prototypes” file, rather than use macros, because (a) A typical macro call would be too big to fit on a line, and I am somewhat fussy about the appearance of my code (I have enough trouble without messy code confusing me further...) (b) I include explanatory comments on each line, so I don’t have to keep referring to reference material for each field. Disk space is virtually free, so why not?

;
;Resource Prototypes for Assembler usage
;
;Frank Alviani
;
;More verbose than macros, but easier to copy & fill in...
;
;NOTES -
;
;ALL resources using local labels (labels starting with @) must
;be bracketed by regular labels; local labels can be re-used only
;if the duplicates are separated by regular labels. This applies
;even if no warning appears in the resource prototype!
;
;These are arranged roughly alphabetically, altho the DLOG/ALRT/DITL
;are grouped together at the end.
;
;In general # represents a numeric field normally filled in.
;The name and attribute fields on the RESOURCE line are optional.
;
;The idea is to have this in one editor window, and to copy to the
;resource file being built as needed. This will hopefully speed the
;process, and give flexability the RMaker doesn’t.
;
;There are some additional explanatory comments with various resources.
;
;Some of this is copied from MacTutor 1/4.

;RESOURCE ATTRIBUTES

SYSREF  EQU 128
SYSHEAP EQU 64
PURGABLEEQU 32
LOCKED  EQU 16
PROTECTED EQU    8
PRELOAD EQU 4
CHANGED EQU 2

;RESOURCE FILE ATTRIBUTES

READONLYEQU 128
COMPACT EQU 64
MAPCHANGEDEQU    32

;DITL TYPE EQUATES
BUTTON  EQU 4
CHKBOX  EQU 5
RADIO   EQU 6
RESCTL  EQU 7
;
STATEXT EQU 8
EDITEXT EQU 16
ICONITM EQU 32
QDPICT  EQU 64
USERITM EQU 0
;
DISABLE EQU 128

;WINDOW TYPES
DOCBOX  EQU 0    ;standard document window
ALERT   EQU 1    ;alert
PLAIN   EQU 2    ;plain
PLAINSHDEQU 3    ;plain with shadow
NOGROWDOC EQU    4 ;document window w/o grow box
ROUNDBOXEQU 16   ;rounded-corner window (see IM for setting corner radius..)

;CONTROL TYPES
CBUTTON EQU 0    ;simple button
CCHKBOX EQU 1    ;check box
CRADIO  EQU 2    ;radio button
USEWFNT EQU 8    ;add to above to use window’s fonts
CSCROLL EQU 16   ;scroll bar

; IDENTIFICATION resource - needed for Finder to locate Icon
 RESOURCE ‘WCA1’ 0 ‘IDENTIFICATION’
 DC.B   AA1-@1
@1:DC.B ‘Ver. 0.1 3/31/85’
AA1:

;BUNDLE resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘BNDL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   ‘WCA1’   ;signature
 DC.W   0,1 ;data (doesn’t change)
 DC.L   ‘ICN#’   ;icon mappings
 DC.W   0 ;number of mappings - 1
 DC.W   0,128    ;map 0 to icon 128
 
 DC.L   ‘FREF’   ;FREF mappings
 DC.W   0 ;number of mappings - 1
 DC.W   0,128    ;map 0 to fref 128

;CONTROL resource
;
;NOTE - although the assembler definition of this claims that the
;“control type” field is a long word, IT LIES. Control type is a 16-bit
;field!!

 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘CNTL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;initial value
 DC.W   0 ;visible (T/F)
 DC.W   # ;max value
 DC.W   # ;min value
 DC.W   # ;control type
 DC.L   0 ;refCon
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length (at least 1)
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;title
@2:


;CURSOR resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘CURS’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   #,# ;1st 8 bytes of cursor
 DC.L   #,# ;2nd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;3rd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;4th 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;1st 8 bytes of mask
 DC.L   #,# ;2nd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;3rd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;4th 8 bytes  
 DC.W   #,# ;h,v of hot spot
 
;FREF resource
 RESOURCE ‘FREF’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.B   ‘APPL’,0,0,0
 
;ICN# resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘ICN#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
;there’d usually be an ‘include’ here...

;MENU resource
;
;NOTE - the “enable field”: bits are number right to left 0-15. Bit
;1 is the first menu item. A “0” bit in the mask disables that item.
;I haven’t tried it, but I think turning off bit 0 of the mask
;disables the entire menu..

 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘MENU’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
lbl:  DC.W1 ;MENU ID
 DC.W   0 ;width holder
 DC.W   0 ;height holder
 DC.L   0 ;std menu pro holder
 DC.L   $1FF;enable all items
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length (in bytes)
@1:DC.B 20;title (this is the apple)
@2:

;MENU ITEM resource
 DC.B   # ;item length
 DC.B   ‘xxx’    ;menu item
 DC.B   0 ;no icon
 DC.B   0 ;keyboard equivalent
 DC.B   0 ;marking character
 DC.B   0 ;style of item’s text
 
 DC.B   0 ;END OF MENU ITEMS
 
;PATTERN stuff
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘PAT ‘ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   #,# ;1st, 2nd 4 bytes of pattern
 
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘PAT#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;# of patterns
 DC.L   #,# ;1st, 2nd 4 bytes of pattern #1

;STRING resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘STR ‘ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:

;STRING LIST resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘STR#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;count of strings
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length - string #1
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:
label:  ;REQUIRED REGULAR LABEL HERE!

;WINDOW resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘WIND’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;window type
 DC.W   # ;visible (T/F)
 DC.W   # ;draw goAway (T/F)
 DC.L   0 ;refCon (available)
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;title
@2:

; -- Dialog / Alert / DITL are grouped together --

;DIALOG resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘DLOG’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;window type
 DC.B   # ;visible (T/F)
 DC.B   0 ;IGNORED
 DC.B   # ;goAway flag (T=has close box)
 DC.B   0 ;IGNORED
 DC.L   0 ;refCon
 DC.W   # ;ID of DITL list
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:

;ALERT resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘ALRT’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;resource ID of DITL list
 DC.W   # ;stages (see IM for details..)

;DITL resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘DITL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;# of items - 1

lbl:  DC.L0 ;handle holder
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.B   type;item-type
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;item length (MUST BE EVEN)
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;item
@2:

; items must be even length
; item types are as follows
;  control item - control-item + 4
;     button0
;check box1
;radio button  2
;resource 3
;
;static text8
;edit text16
;icon item32
;quickdraw pict  64
;user item0
;
; disable item - item + 128
; system icons
;stop   0
;note   1
;alert  2

 
AAPL
$111.78
Apple Inc.
-0.87
MSFT
$47.66
Microsoft Corpora
+0.14
GOOG
$516.35
Google Inc.
+5.25

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

LibreOffice 4.3.5.2 - Free Open Source o...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
CleanApp 5.0.0 Beta 5 - Application dein...
CleanApp is an application deinstaller and archiver.... Your hard drive gets fuller day by day, but do you know why? CleanApp 5 provides you with insights how to reclaim disk space. There are... Read more
Monolingual 1.6.2 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. It requires a 64-bit capable Intel-based Mac and at least... Read more
NetShade 6.1 - Browse privately using an...
NetShade is an Internet security tool that conceals your IP address on the web. NetShade routes your Web connection through either a public anonymous proxy server, or one of NetShade's own dedicated... Read more
calibre 2.13 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Mellel 3.3.7 - Powerful word processor w...
Mellel is the leading word processor for OS X and has been widely considered the industry standard since its inception. Mellel focuses on writers and scholars for technical writing and multilingual... Read more
ScreenFlow 5.0.1 - Create screen recordi...
Save 10% with the exclusive MacUpdate coupon code: AFMacUpdate10 Buy now! ScreenFlow is powerful, easy-to-use screencasting software for the Mac. With ScreenFlow you can record the contents of your... Read more
Simon 4.0 - Monitor changes and crashes...
Simon monitors websites and alerts you of crashes and changes. Select pages to monitor, choose your alert options, and customize your settings. Simon does the rest. Keep a watchful eye on your... Read more
BBEdit 11.0.2 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
ExpanDrive 4.2.1 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Make your own Tribez Figures (and More)...
Make your own Tribez Figures (and More) with Toyze Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
So Many Holiday iOS Sales Oh My Goodness...
The holiday season is in full-swing, which means a whole lot of iOS apps and games are going on sale. A bunch already have, in fact. Naturally this means we’re putting together a hand-picked list of the best discounts and sales we can find in order... | Read more »
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode f...
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode for Angry Birds Epic Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minec...
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minecraft: Story Mode – A Telltale Games Series Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their...
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their New Game: Tempo Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] WarChest Ltd and Splash Damage Ltd are teaming up again to work | Read more »
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary...
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary with a Bunch of Free Games Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] BulkyPix has | Read more »
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking F...
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking Fever’s new sushi-themed update Posted by Simon Reed on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Lithuanian developer Nordcurrent has yet again updated its restaurant simulat | Read more »
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to C...
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to Celebrate 20 Million Downloads Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Desti...
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Destiny, and Beyond – AppSpy Takes a Look at AAA Companion Apps Posted by Rob Rich on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] These day | Read more »
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Fre...
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Free for the Holidays Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Kodak Returns to CES With New Consumer Produ...
Former photography colossus Kodak is returning to CES for the first time in three years where the Kodak booth (#21818 South Hall 1) will showcase a wide range of innovative, imaging-related products... Read more
Invaluable Launches New Eponymously -Named A...
Invaluable, the world’s largest online live auction marketplace, hhas announced the official launch of the Invaluable app for iPad, now available for download in the iTunes App Store. Invaluable... Read more
IDC Reveals Worldwide Mobile Enterprise Appli...
International Data Corporation (IDC) last week hosted the IDC FutureScape: Worldwide Mobile Enterprise Applications and Solutions 2015 Predictions Web conference. The session provided organizations... Read more
Hello Vino Wine App Launches “Safe Ride Home”...
Hello Vino has announced addition of a new “Get a Safe Ride Home” feature in its Food & Drink app with a direct connection to Uber, the technology platform that connects users with rides. The... Read more
DEVON-technologies Releases DEVONthink To Go...
Coeur d’Alene, Idaho based DEVON-technologies, LLC has updated DEVONthink To Go, its mobile companion to DEVONthink, to version 1.5. The update includes an iOS 8 extension, compatibility with the... Read more
The Apple Store offering free next-day shippi...
The Apple Store is now offering free next-day shipping on all in stock items if ordered before 12/23/14 at 10:00am PT. Local store pickup is also available within an hour of ordering for any in stock... Read more
It’s 1992 Again At Sony Pictures, Except For...
Techcrunch’s John Biggs interviewed a Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) employee, who quite understandably wished to remain anonymous, regarding post-hack conditions in SPE’s L.A office, explaining “... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Pros for...
 B&H Photo has new MacBook Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP as part of their Holiday pricing. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1699... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Airs for...
B&H Photo has 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP, for a limited time, for the Thanksgiving/Christmas Holiday shopping season. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: iMacs for up to $...
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. B&H will also include a free copy of Parallels Desktop software: - 21″ 1.4GHz... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Store Leader Program (US) - Apple, I...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on experience, Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.