TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Resources
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Assembly required

Using the Common Resources

By Frank Alviani

Resources are the most mystifying of all the Mac technology, mainly because they are undocumented, and not usually found on other computers. The purpose of resources are to seperate text, icons, fonts, menu items and dialogs from the executable source code of a program where they can be easily changed without re-compilation. With the resource editor and other tools, this opens up a world of “user customized” programs. The user literally changes the program resources to his own tastes. This makes for an exciting possibility in software adaptation that has yet to be fully explored. In the meantime, programmers still must struggle to make use of resources effectively.

A big problem is not having adequate documentation of the format of each resource in terms of a binary file specification; exactly how many bytes and in what format each resource item is specified. While the RMaker provides an easy way to assembly resources, it does little to explain their internal format. The Apple Assembler has the ability to compile resources directly, offering an alternative to the RMaker utility. All that is lacking is the correct assembler source code format of each resource. Now Frank Alviani has filled this omission gap by providing us with the assembler format of all the major resources. This information should go a long way toward improving the resource void. We encourage others to help in this area by sending in articles or information on resources to help improve our understanding of this vital Mac concept. [David E. Smith, Editor]

Linker or RMaker

The big advantage to using the linker rather than the RMaker is flexability. You can control every detail - type style, etc. To balance this, linking is significantly longer and certain RMaker capabilities simply don’t exist - “linking” in picture resources, for example. With RMover, those disadvantages are pretty small, however.

Only the reasonably common resources are documented here (mostly those in volume 1 of IM). I didn’t include the Font resource defs, since nobody in their right minds would do a font in assembler (I had to do 2 in assembler for a DEC Pro system when I wrote a custom screen manager and I KNOW how bad that is!!). While there are probably others that aren’t included, I’ve had no use for them.

The few notes regard (1) The correction to the “control type” field in the Control resource, and (2) an explanation of the enabling mask field in the Menu resource. These are naturally confusing since IM is wrong or silent on the matters.

I decided to take this approach to building a “prototypes” file, rather than use macros, because (a) A typical macro call would be too big to fit on a line, and I am somewhat fussy about the appearance of my code (I have enough trouble without messy code confusing me further...) (b) I include explanatory comments on each line, so I don’t have to keep referring to reference material for each field. Disk space is virtually free, so why not?

;
;Resource Prototypes for Assembler usage
;
;Frank Alviani
;
;More verbose than macros, but easier to copy & fill in...
;
;NOTES -
;
;ALL resources using local labels (labels starting with @) must
;be bracketed by regular labels; local labels can be re-used only
;if the duplicates are separated by regular labels. This applies
;even if no warning appears in the resource prototype!
;
;These are arranged roughly alphabetically, altho the DLOG/ALRT/DITL
;are grouped together at the end.
;
;In general # represents a numeric field normally filled in.
;The name and attribute fields on the RESOURCE line are optional.
;
;The idea is to have this in one editor window, and to copy to the
;resource file being built as needed. This will hopefully speed the
;process, and give flexability the RMaker doesn’t.
;
;There are some additional explanatory comments with various resources.
;
;Some of this is copied from MacTutor 1/4.

;RESOURCE ATTRIBUTES

SYSREF  EQU 128
SYSHEAP EQU 64
PURGABLEEQU 32
LOCKED  EQU 16
PROTECTED EQU    8
PRELOAD EQU 4
CHANGED EQU 2

;RESOURCE FILE ATTRIBUTES

READONLYEQU 128
COMPACT EQU 64
MAPCHANGEDEQU    32

;DITL TYPE EQUATES
BUTTON  EQU 4
CHKBOX  EQU 5
RADIO   EQU 6
RESCTL  EQU 7
;
STATEXT EQU 8
EDITEXT EQU 16
ICONITM EQU 32
QDPICT  EQU 64
USERITM EQU 0
;
DISABLE EQU 128

;WINDOW TYPES
DOCBOX  EQU 0    ;standard document window
ALERT   EQU 1    ;alert
PLAIN   EQU 2    ;plain
PLAINSHDEQU 3    ;plain with shadow
NOGROWDOC EQU    4 ;document window w/o grow box
ROUNDBOXEQU 16   ;rounded-corner window (see IM for setting corner radius..)

;CONTROL TYPES
CBUTTON EQU 0    ;simple button
CCHKBOX EQU 1    ;check box
CRADIO  EQU 2    ;radio button
USEWFNT EQU 8    ;add to above to use window’s fonts
CSCROLL EQU 16   ;scroll bar

; IDENTIFICATION resource - needed for Finder to locate Icon
 RESOURCE ‘WCA1’ 0 ‘IDENTIFICATION’
 DC.B   AA1-@1
@1:DC.B ‘Ver. 0.1 3/31/85’
AA1:

;BUNDLE resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘BNDL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   ‘WCA1’   ;signature
 DC.W   0,1 ;data (doesn’t change)
 DC.L   ‘ICN#’   ;icon mappings
 DC.W   0 ;number of mappings - 1
 DC.W   0,128    ;map 0 to icon 128
 
 DC.L   ‘FREF’   ;FREF mappings
 DC.W   0 ;number of mappings - 1
 DC.W   0,128    ;map 0 to fref 128

;CONTROL resource
;
;NOTE - although the assembler definition of this claims that the
;“control type” field is a long word, IT LIES. Control type is a 16-bit
;field!!

 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘CNTL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;initial value
 DC.W   0 ;visible (T/F)
 DC.W   # ;max value
 DC.W   # ;min value
 DC.W   # ;control type
 DC.L   0 ;refCon
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length (at least 1)
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;title
@2:


;CURSOR resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘CURS’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   #,# ;1st 8 bytes of cursor
 DC.L   #,# ;2nd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;3rd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;4th 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;1st 8 bytes of mask
 DC.L   #,# ;2nd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;3rd 8 bytes
 DC.L   #,# ;4th 8 bytes  
 DC.W   #,# ;h,v of hot spot
 
;FREF resource
 RESOURCE ‘FREF’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.B   ‘APPL’,0,0,0
 
;ICN# resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘ICN#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
;there’d usually be an ‘include’ here...

;MENU resource
;
;NOTE - the “enable field”: bits are number right to left 0-15. Bit
;1 is the first menu item. A “0” bit in the mask disables that item.
;I haven’t tried it, but I think turning off bit 0 of the mask
;disables the entire menu..

 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘MENU’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
lbl:  DC.W1 ;MENU ID
 DC.W   0 ;width holder
 DC.W   0 ;height holder
 DC.L   0 ;std menu pro holder
 DC.L   $1FF;enable all items
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length (in bytes)
@1:DC.B 20;title (this is the apple)
@2:

;MENU ITEM resource
 DC.B   # ;item length
 DC.B   ‘xxx’    ;menu item
 DC.B   0 ;no icon
 DC.B   0 ;keyboard equivalent
 DC.B   0 ;marking character
 DC.B   0 ;style of item’s text
 
 DC.B   0 ;END OF MENU ITEMS
 
;PATTERN stuff
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘PAT ‘ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.L   #,# ;1st, 2nd 4 bytes of pattern
 
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘PAT#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;# of patterns
 DC.L   #,# ;1st, 2nd 4 bytes of pattern #1

;STRING resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘STR ‘ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:

;STRING LIST resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘STR#’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;count of strings
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length - string #1
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:
label:  ;REQUIRED REGULAR LABEL HERE!

;WINDOW resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘WIND’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;window type
 DC.W   # ;visible (T/F)
 DC.W   # ;draw goAway (T/F)
 DC.L   0 ;refCon (available)
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;title length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;title
@2:

; -- Dialog / Alert / DITL are grouped together --

;DIALOG resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘DLOG’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;window type
 DC.B   # ;visible (T/F)
 DC.B   0 ;IGNORED
 DC.B   # ;goAway flag (T=has close box)
 DC.B   0 ;IGNORED
 DC.L   0 ;refCon
 DC.W   # ;ID of DITL list
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;text length
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;text
@2:

;ALERT resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘ALRT’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.W   # ;resource ID of DITL list
 DC.W   # ;stages (see IM for details..)

;DITL resource
 .ALIGN 2
 RESOURCE ‘DITL’ ### ‘name’ [(attr)]
 DC.W   # ;# of items - 1

lbl:  DC.L0 ;handle holder
 DC.W   # ;top
 DC.W   # ;left
 DC.W   # ;bottom
 DC.W   # ;right
 DC.B   type;item-type
 DC.B   @2-@1    ;item length (MUST BE EVEN)
@1:DC.B ‘xxx’    ;item
@2:

; items must be even length
; item types are as follows
;  control item - control-item + 4
;     button0
;check box1
;radio button  2
;resource 3
;
;static text8
;edit text16
;icon item32
;quickdraw pict  64
;user item0
;
; disable item - item + 128
; system icons
;stop   0
;note   1
;alert  2

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Cyberduck 4.7.1 - FTP and SFTP browser....
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
PDFpen 7.2 - Edit and annotate PDFs with...
We're also offering PDFpenPro for 30% off! PDFpen allows users to easily edit PDF's. Add text, images and signatures. Fill out PDF forms. Merge or split PDF documents. Reorder and delete pages. Even... Read more
Skype 7.9.746 - Voice-over-internet phon...
Skype allows you to talk to friends, family and co-workers across the Internet without the inconvenience of long distance telephone charges. Using peer-to-peer data transmission technology, Skype... Read more
Apple GarageBand 10.1 - Complete recordi...
The new GarageBand is a whole music creation studio right inside your Mac -- complete with keyboard, synths, orchestral and percussion instruments, presets for guitar and voice, an entirely... Read more
Duplicate Annihilator 5.7.7 - Find and d...
Duplicate Annihilator takes on the time-consuming task of comparing the images in your iPhoto library using effective algorithms to make sure that no duplicate escapes. Duplicate Annihilator... Read more
OS X Server 4.1.3 - For OS X 10.10 Yosem...
Designed for OS X and iOS devices, OS X Server makes it easy to share files, schedule meetings, synchronize contacts, develop software, host your own website, publish wikis, configure Mac, iPhone,... Read more
Firefox 39.0 - Fast, safe Web browser. (...
Firefox offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and casual... Read more
pwSafe 4.1 - Secure password management...
pwSafe provides simple and secure password management across devices and computers. pwSafe uses iCloud to keep your password databases backed-up and synced between Macs and iOS devices. It is... Read more
Kodi 15.0.rc1 - Powerful media center to...
Kodi (was XBMC) is an award-winning free and open-source (GPL) software media player and entertainment hub that can be installed on Linux, OS X, Windows, iOS, and Android, featuring a 10-foot user... Read more
Coda 2.5.11 - One-window Web development...
Coda is a powerful Web editor that puts everything in one place. An editor. Terminal. CSS. Files. With Coda 2, we went beyond expectations. With loads of new, much-requested features, a few surprises... Read more

This Week at 148Apps: June 29-July 3, 20...
Into July With 148Apps How do you know what apps are worth your time and money? Just look to the review team at 148Apps. We sort through the chaos and find the apps you're looking for. The ones we love become Editor’s Choice, standing out above the... | Read more »
Sonic Runners Guide
Despite its flaws, Sonic Runners' platforming action is actually quite fun. Though it can be a little more complicated than old-school Sonic games. Here's how to make sure you're up to speed when jumping in. [Read more] | Read more »
Rage of Bahamut is Giving Almost All of...
The App Store isn't what it used to be back in 2012, so it's not unexpected to see some games changing their structures with the times. Now we can add Rage of Bahamut to that list with the recent announcement that the game is severely cutting back... | Read more »
Adventures of Pip (Games)
Adventures of Pip 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ** ONE WEEK ONLY — 66% OFF! *** “Adventures of Pip is a delightful little platformer full of charm, challenge and impeccable... | Read more »
Divide By Sheep - Tips, Tricks, and Stre...
Who would have thought splitting up sheep could be so involved? Anyone who’s played Divide by Sheep, that’s who! While we’re not about to give you complete solutions to everything (because that’s just cheating), we will happily give you some... | Read more »
NaturalMotion and Zynga Have Started Tea...
An official sequel to 2012's CSR Racing is officially on the way, with Zynga and NaturalMotion releasing a short teaser trailer to get everyone excited. Well, as excited as one can get from a trailer with no gameplay footage, anyway. [Read more] | Read more »
Grab a Friend and Pick up Overkill 3, Be...
Overkill 3 is a pretty enjoyable third-person shooter that was sort of begging for some online multiplayer. Fortunately the begging can stop, because its newest update has added an online co-op mode. [Read more] | Read more »
Scanner Pro's Newest Update Adds Au...
Scanner Pro is one of the most popular document scanning apps on iOS, thanks in no small part to its near-constant updates, I'm sure. Now we're up to update number six, and it adds some pretty handy new features. [Read more] | Read more »
Heroki (Games)
Heroki 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $7.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: CLEAR THE SKIES FOR A NEW HERO!The peaceful sky village of Levantia is in danger! The dastardly Dr. N. Forchin and his accomplice,... | Read more »
Wars of the Roses (Games)
Wars of the Roses 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple refurbished Mac minis available startin...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 Mac minis available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $419 $80 off... Read more
College Student Deals: Additional $100 off Ma...
Take an additional $100 off all MacBooks and iMacs at Best Buy Online with their College Students Deals Savings, valid through August 8, 2015. Anyone with a valid .EDU email address can take... Read more
Sky Atlas Star Walk 2 App For iPhone And iPa...
Vito Technology, developer of educational apps for Android and iOS, is for a limited time offering free of charge their Star Walk 2, the next generation of the company’s best-selling stargazing guide... Read more
13-inch 1.6GHz MacBook Air on sale for $849,...
Amazon has the 2015 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $849.99 including free shipping. Their price is $150 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $999,...
Adorama has the 13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $999 including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Read more
Updated Mac Price Trackers
We’ve updated our Mac Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers: - 15″ MacBook Pros - 13″ MacBook... Read more
15-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to...
B&H Photo has new 2015 15″ Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to $225 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1819 $180 off - 15″ 2.5GHz Retina... Read more
RamDisk4Mac App Helps Run Your Mac Faster And...
Ever use a RAM disk? If you’ve come to the Mac in the OS X era, likely not. The Classic Mac OS had a RAM disk function built-in, but that was dropped in the conversion to OS X. What is a RAM disk?... Read more
13-inch 1.6GHz MacBook Air on sale for $849,...
Best Buy has the 2015 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $849.99 on their online store this weekend. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders... Read more
Apple Refurbished iMacs available for up to $...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished iMacs available for up to $380 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac – $1949 $... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail Sales...
**Job Summary** As an Apple Solutions Consultant (ASC) you are the link between our customers and our products. Your role is to drive the Apple business in a retail Read more
Senior Payments Security Manager - *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple , Inc. is looking for a highly motivated, innovative and hands-on senior payments security manager to join the Apple Pay security team. You will Read more
Sr. Technical Services Consultant, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple Professional Services (APS) has an opening for a senior technical position that contributes to Apple 's efforts for strategic and transactional Read more
Sr. Payment Program Manager, *Apple* Pay -...
**Job Summary** Apple Pay is an exciting environment and a…devices in a simple, private and secure way. The Apple Pay Team is looking for an experienced Senior Read more
Project Manager - *Apple* Pay Security - Ap...
**Job Summary** The Apple Pay Security team is seeking a highly organized, results-driven Project Manager to drive the development of Apple Pay Security. If you are Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.