TweetFollow Us on Twitter

MacPaint files
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:C Workshop

MacPaint file format

By Keith McGreggor

The MacPaint file format is rapidly becoming the standard for transferring graphic information from one application to another. This article will explain that format and show you how to transfer your own images into MacPaint files.

A Little Bit of QuickDraw

The Macintosh’s screen is a bit image. That is, what appears on the screen is actually a collection of consecutive bits in memory that the hardware in the Mac interprets as screen dots (or pixels). If the value of one of these bits is 1, then the pixel corresponding to it will be black. If the bit is 0, then the pixel will be white.

Figure #1. Bits represent pixels

The Mac screen is 512 pixels wide by 342 pixels tall. The bit image in memory takes up 175,104 bits (or 21,888 bytes with 8 bits per byte). We can consider the screen bit image as being 342 rows with 64 bytes per row. Due to the 68000 microprocessor in the Macintosh, every bit image must have an even number of bytes per row, and the rows must begin and end on word boundaries.

In C, the easiest way to define a bit image is with an array of characters. For example, if we wanted to define the Macintosh screen’s bit image, the definition would be:

Figure #2. C definition of a bit image

Bit images are manipulated by Quick- Draw through the use of bitmaps. A bit- map is a structure which points to a bit image and associates a coordinate system with it. The definition of a bitmap is:

Figure #3. C definition of a bitmap

The baseAddr field points to the first byte (character) in the bit image. The rowBytes field contains the number of bytes per row in the bit image. The rectangle bounds provides the coordinate system for the bits. The top left corner of the rectangle is aligned with the first bit of the bit image.

Since we can treat bit images in C as arrays of characters, we don’t always have to display them immediately. You can easily create a picture in a bit image off-screen, and later in your program “stamp” it onto the Mac’s screen.

The Macintosh’s ROM contains several QuickDraw calls that allow you to manipulate bitmaps (on- or off-screen). We’ll look at two of these later in the program.

MacPaint images are kept in the data fork of a MacPaint file. The file is essentially a 512 byte header followed by a bit image that is 576 pixels wide by 720 pixels tall (or 72 bytes by 720 rows).

Figure #4. The MacPaint File Format

The 512 bytes of header contain version information, pattern definitions, and an unused area for future expansion. If you change the contents of this section with care, you can set up your own patterns. If the version number is zero, the default patterns are used. If the number is not zero, then the patterns in the header are used.

Fig.#5.The Paint File Header Format

The MacPaint file bit image is considerably larger than the Macintosh screen’s bit image. In fact, if you were to store a bit image 72 bytes by 720 rows directly onto disk, each MacPaint file would take a minimum of 52K bytes! To make these files smaller, each row of pixels has been compressed using the PackBits routine in the Macintosh ROM. Using PackBits, the typical MacPaint file compresses down to around 10K bytes.

Dipping in the Bit Bucket

To make your program transfer an image into a MacPaint file, you need only to copy the bitmap containing the image into the compressed MacPaint file format. To be able to do this, you need to use two ROM routines, CopyBits and PackBits.

CopyBits transfers the contents of one bitmap into another. If you want, you can specify a mask region in the destination bitmap to prevent CopyBits from destroying the entire image. CopyBits will shrink or expand the contents of the source bitmap to fit the destination bitmap’s rectangle. To call CopyBits from C, use this format:

Figure #6. Calling CopyBits from C

where “copymode” is one of the source transfer modes:

Figure #7. Source Transfer Modes

PackBits compacts a string of bytes by compressing runs of equal bytes. You call PackBits from C like so:

Figure #8. Calling PackBits from C

where “numbytes” is the number of bytes pointed to by “srcPtr.”

Initially, “dstPtr” should point to the first destination byte. The PackBits routine will move “dstPtr” to point to the next available byte. To find out how much space the original bytes were compacted into, you need to subtract the original location of “dstPtr” from its current location.

Fig. #9 How PackBits moves “dstPtr”

About the Program

This program will demonstrate how to “cut” a part of an image into a MacPaint file. It is written for the Consulair Mac C system and Toolkit. You’ll probably need to change things a bit to make it work with other versions of C.

The program opens a single window and draws a few inverted rectangles in it. Then, a gray flashing rectangle will appear and follow the position of the cursor. Use the mouse to position this rectangle where you want, and then press the mouse button. The image inside the rectangle will be cut from the screen (using CopyBits) and transferred into a MacPaint file called “DummyFileName” (using repeated calls to PackBits).

The key routine, MakePaintFile, takes as input a C string containing a filename, and a pointer to a bitmap of arbitrary size. It then creates that file (if possible) on the active disk drive, sets the file signature and type to a MacPaint file type, and compresses that bitmap into the file using PackBits. If the bitmap is smaller than 576 by 720 (as will usually be the case), the bitmap is padded with white space. If the bitmap is larger than 576 by 720, the bitmap is clipped to 576 by 720.

/*
 * MakePaint.h
 *        a C routine to create a MacPaint file
 *        from a given bitmap
 *
 * (c) 1985 by Keith McGreggor for MacTutor
 *       
 */

#define WRITEONLY 7

MakePaintFile( myfilename, mybitmap )
char myfilename[63];
struct ABitMap *mybitmap;
{
 char dstbuf[511],srcbuf[511];
 char *srcPtr;
 char *dstPtr;
 char *mypointer;
 short i,j,dstBytes;
 FILE myfile;
 short t,b,vsize,hsize;
 
// attempt to create the file
 
 myfile = creat( myfilename, WRITEONLY );
 if (myfile != 0) {

// turn the file into a MacPaint file
// and write out a 512 byte header
// full of zeros (we’re not using any of
// our own patterns)

    SetFileSignature(myfilename,’MPNT’); 
    SetFileType(myfilename,’PNTG’);
    for (i = 0; i < 512; i++) fputc(0,myfile);

// figure out how big the bitmap is and set up
// a general pointer to the bit image

    mypointer = mybitmap->baseAddr;
    hsize = mybitmap->rowBytes;
    vsize = (mybitmap->bounds.bottom)
                        - (mybitmap->bounds.top);

// now, write out 720 rows of bytes

    for (j = 1; j <= 720; j++) {

// reinitialize source and destination pointers

 srcPtr = &srcbuf[0];
 dstPtr = &dstbuf[0];

// copy the next row of bytes into srcbuf[],
// clipping or expanding where necessary

 for (i = 0; i < 72; i++) {
        if ((i < hsize) && (j <= vsize)) {
      srcbuf[i] = *mypointer;
           mypointer++;
           }
            else srcbuf[i] = 0;  // 8 white bits
 }

// compress srcbuf[] into dstbuf[]

 #PackBits(&srcPtr,&dstPtr,72);

// figure out how much compression occurred 
// and write those bytes out to the file

 dstBytes= (short)(dstPtr-&dstbuf[0]);
 for (i = 0; i < dstBytes; i++)
                   fputc(dstbuf[i],myfile);
    }

// all 720 lines have been written, so
// close up everything and return

    close(myfile);
 }
}




 /*    CutToPaint.C
  *      A sample program to illustrate
  *      the use of PackBits and CopyBits
  *
  * (c) 1985 by Keith McGreggor for MacTutor
  */
  #Options -N
  #include “Stdio.h”
  #include “MacCdefs.h”
  #include “Window.h”
  #define TRUE 0xFF
  _#define BUTTONNOTPRESSED !#Button()
  #define GRAY &(QD->gray)
  
  // allocate the application’s window
  
  WindowPtr mywindow;
  Rect mywindowrect = { 40, 5, 300, 507 };
  
  // allocate the tracking variables
  
  Rect trackingrect{0,0,100,100};
  short globx,globy,incx,incy;
  
  // allocate a bitmap and bit image to
  // hold the cut bits
  
  struct ABitMap{
   char *baseAddr;
 short  rowbytes;
 Rect bounds;
 };
 
  struct ABitMap targetmap;
  char theactualbits[14][100];
  
  #include “MakePaint.h”
  /* ------------------------------------*/
  // draw some inverted rectangles
  // just to have something to “cut”
  
  DrawSomeStuff()
  {
  Rect temprect;
  short i;
  
  #MoveTo(10,240);
  #DrawString(“\020Press the button!”);
  for (i=0;i<200;i += 10) {
   #SetRect(&temprect,i+20,i+20,i+100,i+40);
 #InvertRect(&temprect);
 }
  }
  
  /*------------------------------------*/
  // Open a window for drawing
  // and do general housekeeping
  
  InitializeOurSystem()
  {
  #InitDialogs(0);
  mywindow = (WindowPtr)#NewWindow(0,  &mywindowrect,”\021A Window for 
bits”,  TRUE,0,-1,TRUE,0);
  #SetPort(mywindow);
  DrawSomeStuff();
  #FlushEvents(-1,0);
  #InitCursor();
  #PenSize(2,2);   // set up pen for
  #PenMode(patXor);  // drawing the
  #PenPat(GRAY);   // ghost rectange
  }

  /*------------------------------------*/
  // Draw the ghost rectangle
  
  DrawCurrentPosition()
  {
  #FrameRect(&trackingrect);
  }

  /*--------------------------------------*/
  // Find out where the mouse is and
  // update global variables
  
  GetNewMouse()
  {
  Point mypoint;
  
  #GetMouse(&mypoint);
  #GlobalToLocal(&mypoint);
  incx = mypoint.h-globx;
  incy = mypoint.v-globy;
  globx = mypoint.h;
  globy = mypoint.v;
  }

  /*------------------------------------*/
  // move the ghost rectange to track
  // the motion of the mouse
  
  UpdatePostion()
  {
  #OffsetRect(&trackingrect,incx,incy);
  }
  
  /*------------------------------------*/
  // First, move around a ghost rectange
  // until the button is pressed.
  // Then, create a bitmap and copy
  // whatever is inside the rectange to
  // the bitmap.
  
  CutARectangle()
  {
  globx = 0;
  globy = 0;
  while (BUTTONNOTPRESSED) {
   DrawCurrentPosition();
 GetNewMouse();
 DrawCurrentPosition();
 UpdatePosition();
  }
  #FlushEvents(-1,0);
  #LocalToGlobal(&trackingrect.topleft);
  #LocalToGlobal(&trackingrect.botRight);
  targetmap.baseAddr = &theactualbits[0][0];
  targetmap.rowBytes = 14;
  targetmap.bounds.left = 0;
  targetmap.bounds.top = 0;
  targetmap.bounds.right = trackingrect.right-trackingrect.left;
  targetmap.bounds.bottom = trackingrect.bottom-   trackingrect.top;
  
  // mywindow -> portBits is the Macintosh screen bit image
  
  #CopyBits(&(mywindow->portBits), &targetmap,
   &trackingrect,
 &(targetmap.bounds),
 srcCopy,
 0);
  }
  
  /*------------------------------------*/
  // call makepaintfile to save the
  // bitmap away as a macpaint file
  // named “dummyfilename”
  // (note: see MakePaint.h listing)
  
  SaveItAway()
  {
  MakePaintFile(“DummyFileName”,&targetmap);
  }
  
  /*----------------------------------*/
  // Our main program
  
  main()
  {
   InitializeOurSystem();
 CutARectangle();
 SaveItAway();
 #ExitToShell();
  }
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Luminar 1.0.2 - Powerful, adaptive, conf...
Luminar is the new full-featured image editor that adapts to the way you edit photos. Over 300 essential tools to fix, edit, and enhance your photos with comfort. The future of photo editing is here... Read more
WhatRoute 2.0.10 - Geographically trace...
WhatRoute is designed to find the names of all the routers an IP packet passes through on its way from your Mac to a destination host. It also measures the round-trip time from your Mac to the router... Read more
Slack 2.3.3 - Collaborative communicatio...
Slack is a collaborative communication app that simplifies real-time messaging, archiving, and search for modern working teams. Version 2.3.3: Fixed window zoom jumping back-and-forth OS X 10.9... Read more
Lens Blur 1.4.3 - True out-of-focus boke...
Lens Blur transforms your existing photo into true SLR-quality out-of-focus bokeh effect! Everyone needs a gorgeous personalized background for a social profile, blog, Web/UI design, presentation, or... Read more
CleanMyMac 3.6.0 - $39.95
CleanMyMac makes space for the things you love. Sporting a range of ingenious new features, CleanMyMac lets you safely and intelligently scan and clean your entire system, delete large, unused files... Read more
DEVONthink Pro 2.9.8 - Knowledge base, i...
DEVONthink Pro is your essential assistant for today's world, where almost everything is digital. From shopping receipts to important research papers, your life often fills your hard drive in the... Read more
MacFamilyTree 8.1 - Create and explore y...
MacFamilyTree gives genealogy a facelift: modern, interactive, convenient and fast. Explore your family tree and your family history in a way generations of chroniclers before you would have loved.... Read more
HoudahSpot 4.2.7 - Advanced file-search...
HoudahSpot is a powerful file search tool. Use HoudahSpot to locate hard-to-find files and keep frequently used files within reach. HoudahSpot will immediately feel familiar. It works just the way... Read more
TunnelBear 3.0.7 - Subscription-based pr...
TunnelBear is a subscription-based virtual private network (VPN) service and companion app, enabling you to browse the internet privately and securely. Features Browse privately - Secure your data... Read more
Garmin Express 4.5.0.0 - Manage your Gar...
Garmin Express is your essential tool for managing your Garmin devices. Update maps, golf courses and device software. You can even register your device. Update maps Update software Register your... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Amateur Surgeon 4 Guide: Become the worl...
It's time to wield your trusty pizza cutter again, as Amateur Surgeon has returned with a whole fresh set of challenges (and some old, familiar ones, too). Starting anew isn't easy, especially when all you have at your disposal is a lighter, the... | Read more »
Le Parker: Sous Chef Extraordinaire (Ga...
Le Parker: Sous Chef Extraordinaire 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Telltale Games really is working on a Gu...
Telltale Games' next episodic adventure is indeed Guardians of the Galaxy. A document tied to the voice actors strike suggested that the project was in the work, but now we have direct confirmation following an announcement at the Game Awards that... | Read more »
Amateur Surgeon returns to iOS and Andro...
Amateur Surgeon and its two sequels disappeared from the App Store some time and it was sad days for all. But now, just in time for the holidays, the Adult Swim favorite makes its joyous return in the shape of Amateur Surgeon 4, a remake with... | Read more »
The best board games on mobile
Sometimes you need to ditch all of the high speed, high action games in favor of something a little more traditional. If you don't feel like parting ways from your mobile device, though, there are still plenty of ways to get that old-school fix.... | Read more »
The best Facebook Messenger Instant Game...
Facebook's new Instant Games is now here, meaning you can play games with your friends directly via Facebook. It's a fun new way to connect with friends, of course, but it's also proving to be a solid gaming experience in its own right, with a... | Read more »
You can now play game's on Facebook...
Facebook launched its new Instant Games platform in an exciting new attempt to engage its user base. As a result, you can now play a number of different games directly through Facebook Messenger. All of these games run with HTML5, meaning you play... | Read more »
Apollo Justice Ace Attorney (Games)
Apollo Justice Ace Attorney 1.00.00 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.00.00 (iTunes) Description: Court Is Back In Session Star as rookie defense attorney, Apollo Justice, as he visits crime scenes,... | Read more »
KORG iWAVESTATION (Music)
KORG iWAVESTATION 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Music Price: $19.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: A revolutionary new world of sound.The Wave Sequence Synthesizer for iPad - KORG iWAVESTATION | Read more »
Don't Grind Guide: Tips for becomin...
Don’t Grind is a surprising, derpy little one touch game with fun hand-drawn graphics. The goal is simple -- get the high score without being chopped to bits. That can be tough when you’re not used to the game, and that’s compounded by the fact... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Parallels Toolbox 1.3 for Mac Offers 25 Singl...
Parallels has launched Parallels Toolbox 1.3 for Mac, an upgrade that adds five new utilities to the stand-alone application which was released in August and is available exclusively online at http... Read more
OWC Mercury Elite Pro Dual mini Ultra-Portabl...
OWC has introduced the new OWC Mercury Elite Pro Dual mini, a powerful yet ultra-portable dual-drive RAID solution. The new Mercury Elite Pro Dual mini packs phenomenal performance into a small... Read more
Clearance 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros availab...
B&H Photo has clearance 2015 13″ Retina Apple MacBook Pros available for up to $200 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $... Read more
Roundup of 2016 13-inch 2.0GHz MacBook Pro sa...
B&H has the non-Touch Bar 13″ MacBook Pros in stock today for $50-$100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pro Space Gray (MLL42LL/A): $1449 $... Read more
New 13-inch 2.0GHz Space Gray MacBook Pro in...
Adorama has the new 13″ 2.0GHz Space Gray MacBook Pro (non-Touch Bar, MLL42LL/A) in stock for $1499 including a free 3-year AppleCare Protection Plan. Shipping is free, and Adorama charges sales tax... Read more
Finnair Adopts iOS Enterprise iPad Apps from...
Finnair and IBM have announced a first-of-its-kind agreement to utilize iOS enterprise apps from IBM to support the airline’s overall digital transformation. Finnair is focused on Asia-Europe traffic... Read more
Tech21 Launches Evo Go iPhone 7 Case Availabl...
Tech21 has announced the launch of the Evo Go case for Apple iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus, exclusively at T-Mobile. Available online and at participating T-Mobile stores nationwide, Evo Go cases start... Read more
Apple Turns (RED) with More Ways to Join the...
In recognition of World AIDS Day, Apple is offering more ways than ever for customers to join (RED) in its mission to create an AIDS-free generation. Apple is the worlds largest corporate contributor... Read more
Deals on new 15-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros,...
B&H Photo has new 2016 Apple 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pro models in stock today with some available for $50 off MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar... Read more
12-inch Retina MacBooks on sale for up to $10...
12-inch Retina MacBooks remain on sale at B&H Photo with models available for up to $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. B&H will also include a free copy... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on Read more
*Apple* & PC Desktop Support Technician...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Dallas TX Introduction: We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our most Read more
*Apple* &Amp Pc Desktop Support Technici...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Monroe, CT Introduction: We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our most Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions, Fort Wo...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.