TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Computing Caverns
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:6
Column Tag:Modula-2 and the Macintosh, PART II

The Caverns of Computing

By John R. Bogan, Microcomputing Consultant

The Caverns of Computing

S: January 26, 1985
E: February 14, 1985

Often I think of computing as an extraordinary, Real-Life, Adventure game beckoning the computer warrior to descend into a yawning cavern riddled with many dark and intriguing passageways all begging to be explored. At the “end” of each corridor there lies a treasure, usually small and mostly ordinary but sometimes great and wonderous. These treasures are all jewels of knowledge and enlightenment about the marvels of logic.

I honestly believe that we (the computing community) have barely scratched the surface of our particular Adventure and some of the passageways that extend in front of us obviously go on for miles, twisting and turning with many small and alluring side alleys to explore or ignore as we choose.

It is up to each of us to decide which of these passageways we will pursue and to sift through the myriad of clues we discover along the way to decide which treasures to seek. Last year about this time several of my favorite and well trod corridors of computing converged and I found at their juncture a wealth of riches. These corridors which I have eagerly explored for more than half a decade are low-cost professional microsystems, the Motorola 68000 and Pascal. All the clues I had accumulated these past five years told me there would be something special waiting when these paths crossed. The glittering jewel of logic I found at their confluence now occupies the position of honor on my desk. It is the Apple Macintosh.

The reason the Mac is such a valuable jewel is that it sheds a piercing light on such gloomy corridors as “user friendly” and “software integration” and “computing for the masses”. And as any Adventure fan knows any bright light is a most valuable tool in the caverns of computing. As an early Macintosh enthusiast who has eagerly watched the hi-res graphics, mice, windows, icons, pulldown menus and cut and paste integration passageways blossom into well mapped, well trod aisles of acceptance and imitation over the past year I could argue the wisdom and majesty of the Apple strategy and direction long after I ran out of rational things to say. After all the Mac is clearly the product of wizards and elfin folk who possess great magic (One look at Burrell Smith proves that). But the purpose of this column is not to look back and congratulate Apple that it made it this far but to use our new bright light to illumunate some of the dark passages that lie ahead of us.

Deep Background

It is one of the best kept secrets in Computer Science and Software Engineering (CSSE) that the proper role of High Level Languages (HLLs) is to permit and encourage wide ranging experimentation and evaluation of new ideas in a cost efficient and timely fashion. Since the time I learned the difference between FORTRAN and COBOL I have followed and participated in the religious wars over which computer language is Best and I have concluded that most of the time the arguments are largely irrelevant since they concentrate on the question - What language should our software be written in when it is shipped to the consumer? As someone who is more interested in exceptional software requiring extensive R&D I have consigned that question to the trash can. The microscope people who can focus only on maximizing speed and space will insist on Assembler (ASM). The puzzle fanatics will choose Forth. The compromisers who can’t quite give up the chance to get their hands dirty with a little register optimization will probably choose “C”. But the thoughful scientists and engineers in the R&D labs who desire to conserve the scarce R&D dollar and even scarcer R&D minute will choose - Modula-2.

Here’s Why

HLLs are invaluable because they permit the Software Engineer to build complex and innovative programs, which break new ground, in the shortest possible time and for the fewest R&D dollars. This means that within a given budget and deadline more ideas can be explored and evaluated and thus more progress can be made toward achieving an ideal piece of software. This is not a theory, it is an observation of the history of microcomputing. Let’s look at some of the most important software breakthroughs in the past few years and examine the language influences on the R&D of these milestone products.

o CP/M. Designed in large part in PL/M, a structured HLL. Responsible for the early success of 8080 and Z-80 S-100 small business systems.

o Visicalc. Designed largely in BASIC. Responsible for the immense success of the Apple //.

o Lotus 1 2 3. Cloned from MBA Context which was written in UCSD Pascal. Responsible for the flood of integrated software and the dominance of the IBM PC.

o UCSD Pascal P-system. Contributed to pull down menus and menu driven Operating Environments.

o Xerox Altos testbed. This system never made it into the commercial world at all yet it has to be considered the Grandfather of the graphic, iconic, windowed personal workstation. This system was developed in the HLL Mesa - a Pascal derivative.

o Apple LISA. The first commercial microcomputer to make it to the marketplace bearing the fruit of the Xerox Alto. LISA was designed and written in Pascal.

o Apple Macintosh. Designed in Pascal and translated into hand optimized ASM. The third milestone microcomputer, the most successful introduction of any professional micro at any time.

o Kildal’s GEM and Tramiel’s “Jackintosh”. Cloned from the Mac.

These are not idle opinions, this is not some wierd hallucination that can be dismissed with a snort and a wave of the hand, these are verifiable historical facts - which can not be ignored. They clearly illustrate the major role of HLLs and in particular - the structured language Pascal - in the software R&D labs throughout the micro world. The reason for this success is obvious and worth restating. With a structured HLL it is easy to break new ground and if this new ground is genuinely helpful and makes small computers more productive and easier to master then the consumer will eat them up.

Why are structured languages going to be the bright light of choice in the R&D labs of the micro world for the indefinite future? The answer lies in history and economics and logic.

Programming as Engineering

Back in the mid 1960’s computer specialists noticed a troubling trend. While hardware was getting exponentially cheaper, the cost of producing software was taking off as programs got more complex to take advantage of the improved hardware. The following graphic illustrates this point.

Following the realization that software costs were getting out of hand the computer industry gradually started to divert resources from the hardware side of the industry to the software side. Along with this attention came some discipline ... the discipline of engineering. A rough definition of engineering is that it is the art of measuring and optimizing resources.

Thus the productivity boys came in to the Data Processing departments with their legal pads and stopwatches. The metric (unit of measure) they decided on was the number of lines of code per day per programmer and to their horror here is what they found.

o The average programmer could crank out only ten lines of debugged code a day!

o It didn’t matter what language the programmers were coding in, if they were programming in Assembly the daily output was ten ASM statements, if the language was COBOL or FORTRAN - ten statements!

The first, and obvious, conclusion that was drawn was that the COBOL and FORTRAN programmers were ten to one hundred times more productive than the ASM programmers since each line of FORTRAN could generate ten lines of ASM and some lines of COBOL could generate 100 ASM statements. I believe that these widely reported results are in no small measure responsible for the fact that most large DP departments are now and forever locked into COBOL as their language of choice. So much for the benefits of Software Engineering!

But before we dismiss Software Engineering as merely the tool of the devil let’s look at what else was learned in their productivity studies.

When you ask a talented hacker how long he took writing a 1,000 line program don’t be surprised if he scratches his beard and replies, “Oh, I did that one night a couple of months ago.” This would seem to contradict the ten statement/day finding ... by orders of magnitude. But then ask your hacker how long he spent making his program bug-free. He might just reply, “Well, I expect to get the last bug out of it anytime now.” One night writing the code and two months debugging it, this is more common than you might think. Anyways this was the second major conclusion of the Software Engineers. The piechart below illustrates the traditional division of labor and hence cost in creating significant programs.

Careful study of the above graphic reveals just how obscene it is. In traditional programming two thirds of the effort, and money, goes into the toilet known as maintenance.

MODULE HanoiPuzzle;

(* Declare I/O from Modula-2 Standard Library *)
FROM Terminal IMPORT ClearScreen;
FROM InOut IMPORT WriteLn, WriteString, WriteCard, ReadCard,
                  Write;
  
CONST Start = “a”;
      Int = “b”;
      Finish = “c”;
      
VAR DiskCount: CARDINAL; Done: BOOLEAN;

(* Get number of disks or set terminate flag *)
PROCEDURE GetInput (VAR NumberOfDisks: CARDINAL;
                    VAR Quit: BOOLEAN);
BEGIN
   ClearScreen;
   WriteString(“Enter number of disks (between 3 and 9)”);
   WriteLn;
   WriteString(“To quit - enter number out of range”);
   WriteLn;
   ReadCard(NumberOfDisks);
   IF (NumberOfDisks < 3) OR (NumberOfDisks > 9)
      THEN Quit := TRUE
      ELSE Quit := FALSE
   END; (*IF*)
   ClearScreen;
END GetInput;

(* The recursive guts of the programs ... calculate moves. *)
PROCEDURE Hanoi(n: CARDINAL; StartNeedle, IntNeedle,
                 FinishNeedle: CHAR);
BEGIN
   IF n#0
      THEN
  Hanoi(n-1, StartNeedle, FinishNeedle, IntNeedle);
  WriteLn;
  WriteString(“Move disk -”);
  WriteCard(n,2);
  WriteString(“ from “);
  Write(StartNeedle);
  WriteString(“ to “);
  Write(FinishNeedle);
  Hanoi(n-1, IntNeedle, StartNeedle, FinishNeedle);
   END; (*IF*)
END Hanoi;

(* Mainline ... control main loop ... get input & do it. *)
BEGIN
   GetInput(DiskCount, Done);    
   WHILE NOT Done DO
      Hanoi(DiskCount, Start, Int, Finish);
      GetInput(DiskCount, Done);
   END; (*WHILE*)
END HanoiPuzzle.

 
AAPL
$524.94
Apple Inc.
+5.93
MSFT
$40.01
Microsoft Corpora
-0.39
GOOG
$536.10
Google Inc.
-20.44

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

VMware Fusion 6.0.3 - Run Windows apps a...
VMware Fusion allows you to create a Virtual Machine on your Mac and run Windows (including Windows 8.1) and Windows software on your Mac. Run your favorite Windows applications alongside Mac... Read more
Tweetbot 1.5.1 - Popular iOS twitter cli...
Tweetbot is a full-featured OS X Twitter client with a lot of personality. Whether it's the meticulously-crafted interface, sounds and animation, or features like multiple timelines and column views... Read more
Mac DVDRipper Pro 4.1.7 - Copy, backup,...
Mac DVDRipper Pro is the DVD backup solution that lets you protect your DVDs from scratches, save your batteries by reading your movies from your hard disk, manage your collection with just a few... Read more
PDFpenPro 6.2 - Advanced PDF toolkit for...
PDFpenPro allows users to edit PDF's easily. Add text, images and signatures. Fill out PDF forms. Merge or split PDF documents. Reorder and delete pages. Even correct text and edit graphics! Create... Read more
PDFpen 6.2 - Edit and annotate PDFs with...
PDFpen allows users to easily edit PDF's. Add text, images and signatures. Fill out PDF forms. Merge or split PDF documents. Reorder and delete pages. Even correct text and edit graphics! Features... Read more
Monolingual 1.5.9 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. It requires a 64-bit capable Intel-based Mac and at least... Read more
Maya 2015 - Professional 3D modeling and...
Maya is an award-winning software and powerful, integrated 3D modeling, animation, visual effects, and rendering solution. Because Maya is based on an open architecture, all your work can be scripted... Read more
Starcraft II: Wings of Liberty 1.1.1.180...
Download the patch by launching the Starcraft II game and downloading it through the Battle.net connection within the app. Starcraft II: Wings of Liberty is a strategy game played in real-time. You... Read more
Sibelius 7.5.0 - Music notation solution...
Sibelius is the world's best-selling music notation software for Mac. It is as intuitive to use as a pen, yet so powerful that it does most things in less than the blink of an eye. The demo includes... Read more
Typinator 5.9 - Speedy and reliable text...
Typinator turbo-charges your typing productivity. Type a little. Typinator does the rest. We've all faced projects that require repetitive typing tasks. With Typinator, you can store commonly used... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

This Week at 148Apps: April 14-18, 2014
Spring Into Our App Reviews   | Read more »
Have a Special Dead Trigger 2 Easter Bas...
Have a Special Dead Trigger 2 Easter Basket Full of Goodies, Courtesy of Madfinger Games Posted by Rob Rich on April 18th, 2014 [ permalink ] Dead Trigger 2 | Read more »
Almost All of Playdek’s Library is on Sa...
Almost All of Playdek’s Library is on Sale Right Now, and You Should Check it Out Posted by Rob Rich on April 18th, 2014 [ permalink ] Playdek has released quite a few great iOS ports of board and card games over the years, and now most of them... | Read more »
Zynga Launches Brand New Farmville Exper...
Zynga Launches Brand New Farmville Experience with Farmville 2: Country Escape Posted by Tre Lawrence on April 18th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
David. Review
David. Review By Cata Modorcea on April 18th, 2014 Our Rating: :: MINIMALISTIC IN A DIFFERENT WAYUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad David is a minimalistic game wrapped inside of a soothing atmosphere in which the hero... | Read more »
Eyefi Unveils New Eyefi Cloud Service Th...
Eyefi Unveils New Eyefi Cloud Service That Allows Users to Share Media Across Personal Devices Posted by Tre Lawrence on April 18th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Tales from the Dragon Mountain: The Lair...
Tales from the Dragon Mountain: The Lair Review By Jennifer Allen on April 18th, 2014 Our Rating: :: STEADY ADVENTURINGiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Treading a safe path, Tales from the Dragon Mountain: The Lair is a... | Read more »
Yahoo Updates Flickr App with Advanced E...
Yahoo Updates Flickr App with Advanced Editing Features and More Posted by Tre Lawrence on April 18th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
My Incredible Body - A Kid's App to...
My Incredible Body - A Kid's App to Learn about the Human Body 1.1.00 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.1.00 (iTunes) Description: Wouldn’t it be cool to look inside yourself and see what was going on... | Read more »
Trials Frontier Review
Trials Frontier Review By Carter Dotson on April 18th, 2014 Our Rating: :: A ROUGH LANDINGUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Trials Frontier finally brings the famed stunt racing franchise to mobile, but how much does its... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Deal Alert! 13-inch MacBook Pro on sale for $...
Best Buy has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $999.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Their price is $200 off MSRP. Price is valid... Read more
Free HopTo 2.2 Helps Enhance Your Productivit...
The HopTo app helps you do more on your iPad by providing more and easier adaccess to files and documents. Version 2.2 adds Egnyte and HopTo’s Mac OSX File Connector. If you already have the hopTo... Read more
National Distracted Driving Awareness Month:...
As the country recognizes National Distracted Driving Awareness Month, Sprint is reminding wireless consumers to focus on driving while behind the wheel, to not text or email while driving, and to... Read more
13-inch 2.4GHz Retina MacBook Pro available f...
Abt has the 13″ 2.4GHz 128GB Retina MacBook Pro available for $1229 including free shipping. Their price is $70 off MSRP. Read more
iMacs on sale for up to $160 off MSRP this we...
Best Buy has iMacs on sale for up to $160 off MSRP for a limited time. Choose free home shipping or free instant local store pickup (if available). Prices are valid for online orders only, in-store... Read more
iPad Airs on sale this weekend for up to $100...
Best Buy has WiFi iPad Airs on sale for $50 off MSRP and WiFi + Cellular iPad Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP on their online store for a limited time, with prices now starting at $449. Choose free... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished Mac minis starting...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished Mac minis for up to $150 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 2.5GHz Mac... Read more
Hyundai Brings Apple CarPlay To The 2015 Sona...
Hyundai Motor America has announced it will bring Apple CarPlay functionality to the 2015 Sonata. CarPlay is pitched as a smarter, safer and easier way to use iPhone in the car and gives iPhone users... Read more
Updated iPads Coming Sooner Than We Had Thoug...
MacRumors, cites KGI securities analyst Ming Chi Kuo, well-respected as an Apple product prognisticator, saying that Apple will introduce an upgraded iPad Air and iPad mini in 2014/Q3, meaning the... Read more
Toshiba Unveils New High And Low End Laptop M...
Toshiba has announced new laptop models covering both the high-end and low-end of the notebook computer spectrum. Toshiba 4K Ultra HD Laptop Toshiba’s new Satellite P55t features one of the world’s... Read more

Jobs Board

Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
…customers purchase our products, you're the one who helps them get more out of their new Apple technology. Your day in the Apple Store is filled with a range of Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Inc. Research Data Specialist - Appl...
…of Worldwide Market Research & Intelligence. The team is responsible for conducting Apple branded consumer market research. It is also responsible for analyzing data Read more
*Apple* Automotive Parts Department position...
Apple Automotive is one of the fastest growing dealer…and it shows. Consider making the switch to the Apple Automotive Group today! At Apple Automotive, we Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.