TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Light thru Windows
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:4
Column Tag:Basic school

Light thru the Windows

By Dave Kelly

Let’s put some light on the subject of windows. Almost everything you write in Microsoft BASIC 2.0 requires some window programming. This is especially true if you want your program to conform to the Macintosh user interface. First, a rundown on the commands we have available to program our windows:

WINDOW window-id [title ]
                [,[rectangle ][, type ]]]
WINDOW CLOSE window-id
WINDOW OUTPUT window-id
WINDOW OUTPUT #file-number

The window-id identifies the output window. Window-id is a number from 1 to 4. This means that you may only have up to 4 windows open at any one time. BASIC opens up Window 1 when BASIC starts. If this window gets closed you can select the output window from the Windows menu in BASIC or type WINDOW 1 from the command window. A window must be open and specified as the output window before anything can be printed in the window.

The title is the name displayed in the title bar of a document window if the window has a title bar.

The rectangle specifies the location of the window on the Macintosh screen. It is given in the form (x1,y1)-(x2,y2) where (x1,y1) is the upper left corner of the window and (x2,y2) is the lower right corner of the window. This sounds easy but someone out there will probably be confused. The entire Macintosh screen has a resolution of 512 X 342. To open a window which fills the entire screen you could use (0,0)-(512,342). However, you’ll find that the desktop border (for pull down menus will cover the title bar of your document window. The desktop border on the top of the screen is about 40 pixels down from the top. By using (2,40) as the top corner and (510,340) as the bottom corner your window will fill the screen except for the desktop border. A couple of pixels are allowed at the edge of the screen to make it look a little better. So much for filling the entire screen with a window. It can require some trial and error to get your window positioned where you want when you try to center a smaller window on the screen. Other BASIC commands use the rectangle format to specify the location relative to the upper-left corner of the window. The rectangle format in the WINDOW command specifies the location of the window relative to the upper-left corner of the screen.

There are 4 types of windows that are available with type. They are (for type =1-4) :

1. Document window

2. Dialog box with two line border

3. Window with simple one-line border

4. Window with a shadow

Only type 1, the document window, has a size box and a title bar. Also, only type 1 can be moved with the mouse. The other types will not change position on the screen without redefining the window with the WINDOW command. A negative type number is called a modal dialog box. In this case any attempt to select outside of the window results in a beep.

The WINDOW CLOSE statement closes the indicated window. WINDOW OUTPUT indicates which window will be the window used for output when there are multiple windows. This allows you to send output to another window without changing the active window. If a file-number is indicated instead of a window-id, the output will be sent to the indicated file. Currently, only files opened to LPT1: are valid with this statement. As other devices which support graphics are made available, this will change.

Info About Windows

The window function WINDOW(n) returns information about the windows. If n = 0, the function returns the window-id of the active output window. n = 1 returns the window-id of the current output window. This is the window where output will be sent. n = 2 gives the width of the current output window and n = 3 returns the height of the current output window. n = 4 and n = 5 returns the x and y coordinate (respectively) in the current output window where the next character will be drawn. This function may be used to determine where the next character or section of a drawing should continue.

Our sample window shows how these commands are used to control windows. The program sets up all four windows as type 1 (document with size box and title). Information about each window is printed in the window. The information about the width and height might be used when trying to get just the right sized window for your program.

An important thing to note when working with windows is that everything does not happen automatically as you may be used to when moving, opening, or closing windows in application programs you may have run. You have to do everything which you took for granted before. For some people this may be hard to figure out, but just try to imitate the way the commercial applications are supposed to use the Macintosh user interface. Try this with my sample program: move one of the windows on top of another and then back again. The printed information which may have been destroyed by overlaying a window over another needs to be refreshed. Changing the size box has the same effect.

REFRESHING WINDOWS

The DIALOG(5) function returns the window-id of the window which needs to be refreshed. Updating a window is not automatically performed but must be done by the program. In the Event: subroutine when DIALOG(0) sets d=5, the output window is set to the window indicated by DIALOG(5) and the window is printed again. It would be desirable to setup a subroutine to refresh windows if this feature is desired. Just for fun, delete the line that starts with IF d=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT DIALOG(5) and then run the program. You can see that the window will not be automatically refreshed without this event trapping. In some programs you may not want to refresh all (or even any) of the windows.

The printwindowinfo: subroutine prints the information on the current output window. You can change this and print your own message if you like. Try changing the window type just to see what it will do.

The command LOCATE[row][,column] positions the pen at a specified row and column in the output window. This position is with respect to the upper-left corner of the current output window. Since most fonts are proportionally spaced, the spacing is that of the letter “0”, because it is an average width for most fonts. Another way to control the location of the pen is the use of CALL GETPEN, CALL MOVETO(x,y) or CALL MOVE(xdelta,ydelta). (Note: MSBASIC 2.0 allows you to optionally leave off the word CALL and just use the routine name-useful for creating your own basic commands by calling machine language routines).

Notice that by selecting the active window from the pull down menu causes a different result than clicking on the window. When the window is clicked it is selected as both the active and output window. By selecting from the menus, one window can be active while output is going to another. This is exactly the same procedure used when refreshing the screen. This is observed by changing the output window from the menu. To return to BASIC, use the quit menu.

You now have an introduction to windows. The important thing to remember is that you must control where windows are opened, and which windows are selected or deselected, and which window is the output window. For simple programs which only need a place to print, the statement WINDOW creates an output window if none currently exsists and makes it active. Your program will have to do the work of deciding what should be done with each window, as it is not automatic. Do you have some questions or programming tips to share with MacTutor’s reader’s? Send your questions or contributions to BASIC SCHOOL care of MacTutor, P.O. Box 846, Placentia, CA. 92670.


‘   Window Demo
‘   by Dave Kelly
‘   MACTUTOR   March 1985

‘SET UP MENUS
MENU 4,0,1,”Quit”
MENU 4,1,1,”Return to BASIC”
MENU 5,0,1,”Output Window”
MENU 5,1,1,”Window 1"
MENU 5,2,0, “-” ‘MENU DASH LINE
MENU 5,3,1,”Window 2"
MENU 5,4,0, “-”
MENU 5,5,1,”Window 3"
MENU 5,6,0, “-”
MENU 5,7,1,”Window 4"
MENU 6,0,1,”Active Window”
MENU 6,1,1,”Window 1"
MENU 6,2,0, “-”
MENU 6,3,1,”Window 2"
MENU 6,4,0, “-”
MENU 6,5,1,”Window 3"
MENU 6,6,0, “-”
MENU 6,7,1,”Window 4"

‘TURN ON MENU SELECT TRAP
ON MENU GOSUB menus:MENU ON

‘SET UP WINDOWS and PRINT INFO

WINDOW 1,”Window 1",(2,40)-(252,190)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 2,”Window 2",
                  (260,40)-(510,190)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 3,”Window 3",
                  (2,195)-(252,345)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 4,”Window 4",
                  (260,195)-(510,345)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
DIALOG ON

‘ENABLE EVENT TRAP

ON DIALOG GOSUB Event
pause:GOTO pause

Event:
    
d=DIALOG(0)    ‘EVENT OCCURED
    ‘d=3  USER CLICKED INACTIVE WINDOW
    IF d=3 THEN window.picked=
        DIALOG(3):WINDOW window.picked
    ‘d=4  USER CLICKED GO-AWAY BOX
    IF d=4 THEN window.closed=
        DIALOG(4):WINDOW CLOSE
        window.closed
    ‘d=5  WINDOW NEEDS TO BE REFRESHED
    IF d=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT
          DIALOG(5):GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

menus: 

‘THIS HANDLES MENUS

menunumber=MENU(0)
menuitem=MENU(1):MENU
IF menunumber<>4 THEN menu5
‘MENU 4 QUITS
MENU RESET:END
menu5:IF menunumber<>5 THEN menu6    ‘MENU 5 SELECTS OUTPUT WINDOW

IF menuitem=1 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 1
IF menuitem=3 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 2
IF menuitem=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 3
IF menuitem=7 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 4
GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

menu6:

IF menunumber<>6 THEN RETURN    ‘MENU 6 SELECTS ACTIVE WINDOW
menuitem=MENU(1):MENU
IF menuitem=1 THEN WINDOW  1
IF menuitem=3 THEN WINDOW  2
IF menuitem=5 THEN WINDOW  3
IF menuitem=7 THEN WINDOW  4
GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

printwindowinfo:

LOCATE 1,1
PRINT”Current active window is “;
           WINDOW(0)
PRINT”Current output window is “;
           WINDOW(1)
PRINT”Window width is “;WINDOW(2)
PRINT”Window height is “;WINDOW(3)
RETURN
 
AAPL
$116.47
Apple Inc.
+0.16
MSFT
$47.98
Microsoft Corpora
-0.72
GOOG
$537.50
Google Inc.
+2.67

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Cobook 3.0.7 - Intelligent address book....
Cobook Contacts is an intuitive, engaging address book. Solve the problem of contact management with Cobook Contacts and its simple interface and powerful syncing and integration possibilities.... Read more
StatsBar 1.9 - Monitor system processes...
StatsBar gives you a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the following areas of your Mac: CPU usage Memory usage Disk usage Network and bandwidth usage Battery power and health (MacBooks only)... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6 - FTP and SFTP browser. (F...
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
Maya 2015 - Professional 3D modeling and...
Maya is an award-winning software and powerful, integrated 3D modeling, animation, visual effects, and rendering solution. Because Maya is based on an open architecture, all your work can be scripted... Read more
Evernote 6.0.1 - Create searchable notes...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more
calibre 2.11 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital... Read more
Herald 5.0.1 - Notification plugin for M...
Note: Versions 2.1.3 (for OS X 10.7), 3.0.6 (for OS X 10.8), and 4.0.8 (for OS X 10.9) are no longer supported by the developer. Herald is a notification plugin for Mail.app, Apple's Mac OS X email... Read more
Firetask 3.7 - Innovative task managemen...
Firetask uniquely combines the advantages of classical priority-and-due-date-based task management with GTD. Stay focused and on top of your commitments - Firetask's "Today" view shows all relevant... Read more
TechTool Pro 7.0.6 - Hard drive and syst...
TechTool Pro is now 7, and this is the most advanced version of the acclaimed Macintosh troubleshooting utility created in its 20-year history. Micromat has redeveloped TechTool Pro 7 to be fully 64... Read more
PhotoDesk 3.0.1 - Instagram client for p...
PhotoDesk lets you view, like, comment, and download Instagram pictures/videos! (NO Uploads! / Image Posting! Instagram forbids that! AND you *need* an *existing* Instagram account). But you can do... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to E...
Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to Earn In-Game Stuff for Far Cry 4 Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Golfinity – Tips, Tricks, Strategies, an...
Dig this: Would you like to know what we thought of being an infinite golfer? Check out our Golfinity review! Golfinity offers unlimited ways to test your skills at golf. Here are a few ways to make sure your score doesn’t get too high and your... | Read more »
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Meli...
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Melissa, is Available Now Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Meowza! Toyze Brings Talking Tom to Life...
Meowza! | Read more »
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG f...
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG for Mobile, Heavenstrike Rivals. Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] With their epic stories and gorgeous graphics, | Read more »
Quest for Revenge (Games)
Quest for Revenge 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: The great Kingdom of the west has fallen. The gods ignore the prayers of the desperate. A dark warlord has extinguished... | Read more »
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for Y...
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for You and Your Friends Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] In the tradition of round-robin storytelling, | Read more »
SteelSeries Stratus XL Hardware Review
Made by: SteelSeries Price: $59.99 Hardware/iOS Integration Rating: 4 out of 5 stars Usability Rating: 4.5 out of 5 stars Reuse Value Rating: 4.25 out of 5 stars Build Quality Rating: 4.5 out of 5 stars Overall Rating: 4.31 out of 5 stars | Read more »
ACDSee (Photography)
ACDSee 1.0.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Photography Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Capture, perfect, and share your photos with ACDSee. The ACDSee iPhone app combines an innovative camera, a powerful photo... | Read more »
ProTube for YouTube (Entertainment)
ProTube for YouTube 2.0.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Entertainment Price: $1.99, Version: 2.0.2 (iTunes) Description: ProTube is the ultimate, fully featured YouTube app. With it's highly polished design, ProTube offers ad-free... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Save up to $400 with Apple refurbished 2014 1...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping... Read more
New 13-inch 1.4GHz MacBook Air on sale for $8...
 Adorama has the 2014 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $899.99 including free shipping plus NY & NJ tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook... Read more
Apple Expected to Reverse Nine-Month Tablet S...
Apple and Samsung combined accounted for 62 percent of the nearly 36 million branded tablets shipped in 3Q 2014, according to early vendor shipment share estimates from market intelligence firm ABI... Read more
Stratos: 30 Percent of US Smartphone Owners t...
Stratos, Inc., creator of the Bluetooth Connected Card Platform, has announced results from its 2014 Holiday Mobile Payments Survey. The consumer survey found that nearly one out of three (30 percent... Read more
2014 1.4GHz Mac mini on sale for $449, save $...
 B&H Photo has lowered their price on the new 1.4GHz Mac mini to $449.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this new... Read more
Check Apple prices on any device with the iTr...
MacPrices is proud to offer readers a free iOS app (iPhones, iPads, & iPod touch) and Android app (Google Play and Amazon App Store) called iTracx, which allows you to glance at today’s lowest... Read more
64GB iPod touch on sale for $249, save $50
Best Buy has the 64GB iPod touch on sale for $249 on their online store for a limited time. Their price is $50 off MSRP. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for... Read more
15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $17...
 B&H Photo has the 2014 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $1799.99 for a limited time. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. B&H will also include free copies of... Read more
New Logitech AnyAngle Case/Stand Brings Flexi...
Logitec has announced the newest addition to its suite of tablet products — the Logitech AnyAngle. A protective case with an any-angle stand for iPad Air 2 and all iPad mini models, AnyAngle is the... Read more
Notebook PC Shipments Rise Year-Over-Year as...
According to preliminary results from the upcoming DisplaySearch Quarterly Mobile PC Shipment and Forecast Report, the global notebook PC market grew 10 percent year-over-year in Q3’14 to 49.4... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC)- Retail S...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Store Leader Program - College Gradu...
Job Description: Job Summary As an Apple Store Leader Program agent, you can continue your education as you major in the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Senior Event Manager, *Apple* Retail Market...
…This senior level position is responsible for leading and imagining the Apple Retail Team's global event strategy. Delivering an overarching brand story; in-store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.