TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Light thru Windows
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:4
Column Tag:Basic school

Light thru the Windows

By Dave Kelly

Let’s put some light on the subject of windows. Almost everything you write in Microsoft BASIC 2.0 requires some window programming. This is especially true if you want your program to conform to the Macintosh user interface. First, a rundown on the commands we have available to program our windows:

WINDOW window-id [title ]
                [,[rectangle ][, type ]]]
WINDOW CLOSE window-id
WINDOW OUTPUT window-id
WINDOW OUTPUT #file-number

The window-id identifies the output window. Window-id is a number from 1 to 4. This means that you may only have up to 4 windows open at any one time. BASIC opens up Window 1 when BASIC starts. If this window gets closed you can select the output window from the Windows menu in BASIC or type WINDOW 1 from the command window. A window must be open and specified as the output window before anything can be printed in the window.

The title is the name displayed in the title bar of a document window if the window has a title bar.

The rectangle specifies the location of the window on the Macintosh screen. It is given in the form (x1,y1)-(x2,y2) where (x1,y1) is the upper left corner of the window and (x2,y2) is the lower right corner of the window. This sounds easy but someone out there will probably be confused. The entire Macintosh screen has a resolution of 512 X 342. To open a window which fills the entire screen you could use (0,0)-(512,342). However, you’ll find that the desktop border (for pull down menus will cover the title bar of your document window. The desktop border on the top of the screen is about 40 pixels down from the top. By using (2,40) as the top corner and (510,340) as the bottom corner your window will fill the screen except for the desktop border. A couple of pixels are allowed at the edge of the screen to make it look a little better. So much for filling the entire screen with a window. It can require some trial and error to get your window positioned where you want when you try to center a smaller window on the screen. Other BASIC commands use the rectangle format to specify the location relative to the upper-left corner of the window. The rectangle format in the WINDOW command specifies the location of the window relative to the upper-left corner of the screen.

There are 4 types of windows that are available with type. They are (for type =1-4) :

1. Document window

2. Dialog box with two line border

3. Window with simple one-line border

4. Window with a shadow

Only type 1, the document window, has a size box and a title bar. Also, only type 1 can be moved with the mouse. The other types will not change position on the screen without redefining the window with the WINDOW command. A negative type number is called a modal dialog box. In this case any attempt to select outside of the window results in a beep.

The WINDOW CLOSE statement closes the indicated window. WINDOW OUTPUT indicates which window will be the window used for output when there are multiple windows. This allows you to send output to another window without changing the active window. If a file-number is indicated instead of a window-id, the output will be sent to the indicated file. Currently, only files opened to LPT1: are valid with this statement. As other devices which support graphics are made available, this will change.

Info About Windows

The window function WINDOW(n) returns information about the windows. If n = 0, the function returns the window-id of the active output window. n = 1 returns the window-id of the current output window. This is the window where output will be sent. n = 2 gives the width of the current output window and n = 3 returns the height of the current output window. n = 4 and n = 5 returns the x and y coordinate (respectively) in the current output window where the next character will be drawn. This function may be used to determine where the next character or section of a drawing should continue.

Our sample window shows how these commands are used to control windows. The program sets up all four windows as type 1 (document with size box and title). Information about each window is printed in the window. The information about the width and height might be used when trying to get just the right sized window for your program.

An important thing to note when working with windows is that everything does not happen automatically as you may be used to when moving, opening, or closing windows in application programs you may have run. You have to do everything which you took for granted before. For some people this may be hard to figure out, but just try to imitate the way the commercial applications are supposed to use the Macintosh user interface. Try this with my sample program: move one of the windows on top of another and then back again. The printed information which may have been destroyed by overlaying a window over another needs to be refreshed. Changing the size box has the same effect.

REFRESHING WINDOWS

The DIALOG(5) function returns the window-id of the window which needs to be refreshed. Updating a window is not automatically performed but must be done by the program. In the Event: subroutine when DIALOG(0) sets d=5, the output window is set to the window indicated by DIALOG(5) and the window is printed again. It would be desirable to setup a subroutine to refresh windows if this feature is desired. Just for fun, delete the line that starts with IF d=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT DIALOG(5) and then run the program. You can see that the window will not be automatically refreshed without this event trapping. In some programs you may not want to refresh all (or even any) of the windows.

The printwindowinfo: subroutine prints the information on the current output window. You can change this and print your own message if you like. Try changing the window type just to see what it will do.

The command LOCATE[row][,column] positions the pen at a specified row and column in the output window. This position is with respect to the upper-left corner of the current output window. Since most fonts are proportionally spaced, the spacing is that of the letter “0”, because it is an average width for most fonts. Another way to control the location of the pen is the use of CALL GETPEN, CALL MOVETO(x,y) or CALL MOVE(xdelta,ydelta). (Note: MSBASIC 2.0 allows you to optionally leave off the word CALL and just use the routine name-useful for creating your own basic commands by calling machine language routines).

Notice that by selecting the active window from the pull down menu causes a different result than clicking on the window. When the window is clicked it is selected as both the active and output window. By selecting from the menus, one window can be active while output is going to another. This is exactly the same procedure used when refreshing the screen. This is observed by changing the output window from the menu. To return to BASIC, use the quit menu.

You now have an introduction to windows. The important thing to remember is that you must control where windows are opened, and which windows are selected or deselected, and which window is the output window. For simple programs which only need a place to print, the statement WINDOW creates an output window if none currently exsists and makes it active. Your program will have to do the work of deciding what should be done with each window, as it is not automatic. Do you have some questions or programming tips to share with MacTutor’s reader’s? Send your questions or contributions to BASIC SCHOOL care of MacTutor, P.O. Box 846, Placentia, CA. 92670.


‘   Window Demo
‘   by Dave Kelly
‘   MACTUTOR   March 1985

‘SET UP MENUS
MENU 4,0,1,”Quit”
MENU 4,1,1,”Return to BASIC”
MENU 5,0,1,”Output Window”
MENU 5,1,1,”Window 1"
MENU 5,2,0, “-” ‘MENU DASH LINE
MENU 5,3,1,”Window 2"
MENU 5,4,0, “-”
MENU 5,5,1,”Window 3"
MENU 5,6,0, “-”
MENU 5,7,1,”Window 4"
MENU 6,0,1,”Active Window”
MENU 6,1,1,”Window 1"
MENU 6,2,0, “-”
MENU 6,3,1,”Window 2"
MENU 6,4,0, “-”
MENU 6,5,1,”Window 3"
MENU 6,6,0, “-”
MENU 6,7,1,”Window 4"

‘TURN ON MENU SELECT TRAP
ON MENU GOSUB menus:MENU ON

‘SET UP WINDOWS and PRINT INFO

WINDOW 1,”Window 1",(2,40)-(252,190)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 2,”Window 2",
                  (260,40)-(510,190)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 3,”Window 3",
                  (2,195)-(252,345)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 4,”Window 4",
                  (260,195)-(510,345)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
DIALOG ON

‘ENABLE EVENT TRAP

ON DIALOG GOSUB Event
pause:GOTO pause

Event:
    
d=DIALOG(0)    ‘EVENT OCCURED
    ‘d=3  USER CLICKED INACTIVE WINDOW
    IF d=3 THEN window.picked=
        DIALOG(3):WINDOW window.picked
    ‘d=4  USER CLICKED GO-AWAY BOX
    IF d=4 THEN window.closed=
        DIALOG(4):WINDOW CLOSE
        window.closed
    ‘d=5  WINDOW NEEDS TO BE REFRESHED
    IF d=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT
          DIALOG(5):GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

menus: 

‘THIS HANDLES MENUS

menunumber=MENU(0)
menuitem=MENU(1):MENU
IF menunumber<>4 THEN menu5
‘MENU 4 QUITS
MENU RESET:END
menu5:IF menunumber<>5 THEN menu6    ‘MENU 5 SELECTS OUTPUT WINDOW

IF menuitem=1 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 1
IF menuitem=3 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 2
IF menuitem=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 3
IF menuitem=7 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 4
GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

menu6:

IF menunumber<>6 THEN RETURN    ‘MENU 6 SELECTS ACTIVE WINDOW
menuitem=MENU(1):MENU
IF menuitem=1 THEN WINDOW  1
IF menuitem=3 THEN WINDOW  2
IF menuitem=5 THEN WINDOW  3
IF menuitem=7 THEN WINDOW  4
GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

printwindowinfo:

LOCATE 1,1
PRINT”Current active window is “;
           WINDOW(0)
PRINT”Current output window is “;
           WINDOW(1)
PRINT”Window width is “;WINDOW(2)
PRINT”Window height is “;WINDOW(3)
RETURN
 
AAPL
$101.06
Apple Inc.
+0.10
MSFT
$47.06
Microsoft Corpora
-0.46
GOOG
$587.37
Google Inc.
-8.71

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Monosnap 2.2.2 - Versatile screenshot ut...
Monosnap allows you to save screenshots easily, conveniently, and quickly, sharing them with friends and colleagues at once. It's the ideal choice for anyone who is looking for a smart and fast... Read more
Tunnelblick 3.4beta36 - GUI for OpenVPN...
Tunnelblick is a free, open source graphic user interface for OpenVPN on OS X. It provides easy control of OpenVPN client and/or server connections. It comes as a ready-to-use application with all... Read more
SoftRAID 5.0.4 - High-quality RAID manag...
SoftRAID allows you to create and manage disk arrays to increase performance and reliability. SoftRAID's intuitive interface and powerful feature set makes this utility a must have for any Mac OS X... Read more
Audio Hijack Pro 2.11.3 - Record and enh...
Audio Hijack Pro drastically changes the way you use audio on your computer, giving you the freedom to listen to audio when you want and how you want. Record and enhance any audio with Audio Hijack... Read more
Airfoil 4.8.9 - Send audio from any app...
Airfoil allows you to send any audio to AirPort Express units, Apple TVs, and even other Macs and PCs, all in sync! It's your audio - everywhere. With Airfoil you can take audio from any... Read more
WhatRoute 1.13.0 - Geographically trace...
WhatRoute is designed to find the names of all the routers an IP packet passes through on its way from your Mac to a destination host. It also measures the round-trip time from your Mac to the... Read more
Chromium 37.0.2062.122 - Fast and stable...
Chromium is an open-source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable way for all Internet users to experience the web. FreeSMUG-Free OpenSource Mac User Group build is... Read more
Attachment Tamer 3.1.14b9 - Take control...
Attachment Tamer gives you control over attachment handling in Apple Mail. It fixes the most annoying Apple Mail flaws, ensures compatibility with other email software, and allows you to set up how... Read more
Duplicate Annihilator 5.0 - Find and del...
Duplicate Annihilator takes on the time-consuming task of comparing the images in your iPhoto library using effective algorithms to make sure that no duplicate escapes. Duplicate Annihilator detects... Read more
jAlbum Pro 12.2 - Organize your digital...
jAlbum Pro has all the features you love in jAlbum, but comes with a commercial license. With jAlbum, you can create gorgeous custom photo galleries for the Web without writing a line of code!... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Kitty Powers’ Matchmaker – Tips, Tricks,...
Hey There, Kittens: | Read more »
Goblin Sword Review
Goblin Sword Review By Andrew Fisher on September 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: RETRO GOODNESSUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Fun visuals, good music, engaging level design, and lots of content make Goblin Sword an... | Read more »
Major New Update for CSR Racing Adds Fer...
Major New Update for CSR Racing Adds Ferrari and Multiplaye​r Posted by Jessica Fisher on September 22nd, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Veditor Review
Veditor Review By Jennifer Allen on September 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: PIMP YOUR VIDEOUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Want to add stickers and music to your videos? Veditor can do that easily.   | Read more »
1849′s Nevada Silver DLC is Still Search...
A few months ago, I took a look at 1849 from SomaSim. This Gold Rush-themed city builder for iPad had a fair bit going for it, but lacked in a few crucial areas to make it a true stand-out on the App Store. SomaSim has since added in a sandbox mode... | Read more »
Fruit Ninja Will be Reborn With a Massiv...
Fruit Ninja Will be Reborn With a Massive Update and Origins Animation Series Posted by Jessica Fisher on September 22nd, 2014 [ permalink ] Halfbrick Studios is rebuilding | Read more »
CloudMagic Updated for iOS 8 – Adds Inte...
CloudMagic Updated for iOS 8 – Adds Interactive Notifications, Share Extension, and More Posted by Jessica Fisher on September 22nd, 2014 [ | Read more »
Starbase Annex (Games)
Starbase Annex 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: "it’s really very clever... a little bit of Hearthstone and a dash of Eclipse" - PocketTactics.com From the creator of Starbase... | Read more »
Star Nomad Review
Star Nomad Review By Jordan Minor on September 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: BUMPY RIDEiPad Only App - Designed for the iPad Star Nomad will only appeal to the most hardcore space explorers.   | Read more »
Partyrs Review
Partyrs Review By Jordan Minor on September 22nd, 2014 Our Rating: :: LIFE OF THE PARTYUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad Partyrs makes party planning as fun as partying itself.   | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple restocks some refurbished 2014 MacBook...
The Apple Store has restocked some Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 MacBook Airs, with prices starting at $769. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free. These... Read more
13-inch 128GB MacBook Air on sale for $949, s...
B&H Photo has the new 2014 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $949.99 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP. B&H will also include free copies of... Read more
Apple offering free $25 iTunes Gift Card with...
The Apple Store is offering a free $25 iTunes Gift Card with the purchase of a $99 Apple TV for a limited time. Shipping is free. Read more
Apple refurbished iPod touch available for up...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 5th generation iPod touches available starting at $149. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free. Most colors are... Read more
iFixIt Tears Down iPhone 6; Awards Respectabl...
iFixit notes that even the smaller 4.7″ iPhone 6 is a giant among iPhones; so big that Apple couldn’t fit it into the familiar iPhone form factor. In a welcome reversal of a recent trend to more or... Read more
Phone 6 Guide – Tips Book For Both iPhone 6...
iOS Guides has announced its latest eBook: iPhone 6 Guide. Brought to you by the expert team at iOS Guides, and written by best-selling technology author Tom Rudderham, iPhone 6 Guide is packed with... Read more
How to Upgrade iPhone iPad to iOS 8 without D...
PhoneClean, a iPhone cleaner utility offered by iMobie Inc., reveals a solution for upgrading iPhone and iPad to iOS 8 without deleting photos, apps, the new U2 album or anything. Thanks to more than... Read more
Inpaint 6 – Photo Retouching Tool Gets Faster...
TeoreX has announced Inpaint 6, a simple retouching tool for end users that helps remove scratches, watermarks, and timestamps as well as more complex objects like strangers, unwanted elements and... Read more
Worldwide PC Monitor Market Sees Growth in To...
Worldwide PC monitor shipments totaled 32.5 million units in the second quarter of 2014 (2Q14), a year-over-year decline of -2.9%, according to the International Data Corporation (IDC) Worldwide... Read more
Updated Price Trackers
We’ve updated our Mac Price Trackers with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers: - 15″ MacBook Pros - 13″ MacBook... Read more

Jobs Board

Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
…customers purchase our products, you're the one who helps them get more out of their new Apple technology. Your day in the Apple Store is filled with a range of Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** At the Apple Store, you connect business professionals and entrepreneurs with the tools they need in order to put Apple solutions to work in their Read more
Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** The Apple Store is a retail environment like no other - uniquely focused on delivering amazing customer experiences. As an Expert, you introduce people Read more
Position Opening at *Apple* - Apple (United...
**Job Summary** As businesses discover the power of Apple computers and mobile devices, it's your job - as a Solutions Engineer - to show them how to introduce these Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.