TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Forth Decompiler
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:2
Column Tag:Forth Forum

“A Forth Decompiler”

By Joerg Langowski

“A Forth Decompiler”

Everyone of you Mac Forth users is familiar enough with Forth to know that it is a ‘threaded interpretive’ language. A Forth definition (as you type it into your machine) consists of a string of other, previously defined Forth words, and is compiled as a string of addresses that point to the definitions of these other words.

This makes for a rather fast interpretation of the resulting code. However, some of the very primitive words and those words whose execution is time-critical may also be defined in machine language. MacForth has devised a very elegant way to distinguish between Forth words defined from within Forth and machine code.

Structure of a Forth Definition

The object code of any Forth word, as it is compiled into the object dictionary, starts with at least one 16-bit word that is a meaningful executable 68000 machine language instruction. When the Forth word is executed, the interpreter simply jumps to this address. Forth definitions (colon definitions, constants, variables) now start with one of the 68000 TRAP instructions ($4E4X, where X can be anything from $0 to $F). The corresponding trap vector points to a routine which e.g. in the case of a colon definition gets the next 16-bit word and interprets it as a Forth token (converts it to an address and executes it), or - in the case of a variable - puts the address of the variable on the stack.

If the word is defined completely in machine language, the code is executed until a special JMP instruction transfers control to the next higher level (I’ll describe that later).

At this point I have to confess that I would not have come even this far if it had not been for two excellent routines that I found on a CALL-A.P.P.L.E. public domain disk. One of those - a Forth decompiler - is included below so that you can enjoy hacking into the Forth engine, the other one - a disassembler - was too long to be printed here.

An Example

Admittedly, part of the above sounds a bit dry and theoretical. Lets look at a simple example.

Assume you had defined the word TEST as follows:


The Forth compiler will then create a list of 16-bit words that looks like:

 $4E4F  (trap for colon definition)
 $0498  (Forth token for DUP    )
 $074E  (   “          “     “   2*     )
 $049C  (   “          “     “   SWAP)
 $00EC  (   “          “     “   DROP )
 $0EBE  (   “          “     “    .     )
 $0060      (   “          “     “  EXIT  )

Interpretation always ends at the EXIT token.


What are those ‘tokens’? They are the starting addresses of the Forth definitions that are offset by a constant that is contained in register A4 (probably to make the object code relocatable). There is a word in MacForth that converts a token to an address, TOKEN>ADDR. The token of a word is extracted from the vocabulary by the Forth word, FIND. Therefore, you will get the starting address of the example above by executing


The address that you’ll see displayed, of course, depends on how much object code you have already in your system. Let’s call this number TESTADDR. Then define the following word:

 :  TEST.DISP  7 0 DO I 2* TESTADDR ( insert your # here) + W@ . LOOP 

and execute TEST.DISP; you will see the list of words above.

This way you can decompile any Forth word that you find in the system. The decompiler is somewhat more convenient, of course; if you use the procedure above, you still have to convert the tokens into Forth words. This is done (for one token on the stack) by executing


This converts the token (not the pfa, as the Forth 1.1 manual says) into the name field address (NFA) and then displays the name of the word (ID.).

Machine language definitions

What if the definition is direct machine language code? Again, let us look at an example, the word SWAP. FIND SWAP TOKEN>ADDR gives (in my system) $5B60. At this address, however, we find code that does not start with a trap statement; it is a routine that does what we expect:

 202F 0004MOVE.L 4(A7),D0    /move item below top -> D0
 2F57 0004MOVE.L (A7),4(A7) /move top item one down
 2E80   MOVE.L D0,(A7)       /move D0 -> top of stack
 4ED4   JMP (A4)                  
/get next token

We see that indeed the two top stack items are exchanged. The last statement is the end of any machine language Forth definition. This jump to the address in A4 is what I briefly mentioned above. A4 contains the address of a routine that gets and executes the next Forth token from the object code (which A3 points to):

 MOVE (A3)+,D0 
/next object token -> D0
 BMI L1 
/is it neg. get address from token table
 JMP (A4,D0.W) 
/jump to start of definition (token + A4)
L1 MOVE(A4,D0.W),D1
/get address from table
 JMP (A4,D1.W) 
/and jump to start of definition

Hidden definitions

When you decompile (with the program below) the word SELECT.WINDOW, you’ll see something funny. It seems to be a regular Forth colon definition; however, the tokens displayed seem to have no name. Only ??? and the token numbers are displayed. These are tokens whose names have been deleted from the vocabulary, but their corresponding addresses (A4+token) point to valid definitions. The reason why CSI did this is probably to keep the vocabulary short and to make words inaccessible to users whose misuse could have a disasterous effect on the system. Anyway, the word SUBLEVEL in the definitions below will decompile and display any such ‘hidden’ code, if it is a colon definition. It will display nothing for machine code definitions, you have to disassemble them.

SELECT.WINDOW, with this tool, then becomes very clear. Its first level definition looks like:

: SELECT.WINDOW {2142} {1B0E}  ;

where the braces indicate those ‘no-name’ tokens. {2142} merely checks if the pointer on the stack is a valid window pointer, to keep the toolbox routine from crashing; decompile it with SUBLEVEL to see what it does exactly. {1B0E} is a 2-word machine code routine:

/toolbox trap for SELECT.WINDOW
 JMP (A4) 
/and get next word. That’s all!

Listing 1: Forth decompiler
( DECOMPILER Blocks File -- Version 1.00 )        ( ADG - modif. 110384 
jl ) 
 DECOMP  ( -- )                                                 
Decompiles the definition of the next word in the input stream.  A line 
is displayed for each word in the definition. Each line begins with its 
relative code address in hex.  Next is the name of the word.  Finally, 
if the word has an in-line parameter, it is shown.  If the word is a 
branching word, the value is the target address.  If the parameter is 
a token, its name is shown.  If it is a string, the string is shown in 
double-quotes.  If it is a word or double-word, its hex value is followed 
by its decimal value.                            
#DECOMP in block 8 can also be loaded by those who wish to write a routine 
to pass tokens on the stack to be decompiled. For valid tokens, its output 
is identical to that of DECOMP .
 Written: 07/21/84   By: Alan D. Galumbeck  [70220,200]         

        : .DIGITS  ( n1\n2 --  | Types the low-order n2 digits of n1 
)  0 <# DO # LOOP #> TYPE ;          : SPACE.TO  ( n -- | Spaces to column 
n or 2 spaces if past n ) COL @ - 2 MAX SPACES ;               : DISP.WORD 
   ( pfa -- pfa+2 | Display a 16-bit parameter)     
: DISP.DBL     ( pfa -- pfa+4 | Display a 32-bit parameter )    
: DISP.STRING  ( pfa -- pfa+len | Display a string parameter )  
  34 EMIT COUNT 2DUP TYPE 34 EMIT + =CELLS ;                    
: DISP.TARGET  ( base.pfa\pfa -- base.pfa\pfa+2 )               
  ( Display a branch target and save if it’s the highest )      
  2DUP SWAP - OVER <W@ + . 2+ ;                                 
: DISP.TOKEN   ( pfa -- pfa+2 | Display a token parameter)      
  DUP W@ NFA ?DUP  IF ID.  ELSE DUP W@ 4 .DIGITS  THEN  2+ ;    
: DISP.ADDR  ( pfa -- pfa+4 | Display an address parameter )    
: SPECIAL.TOKENS ( base.pfa\pfa\token -- [base.pfa\next.pfa] or 
                                         [base.pfa\next.pfa\0] )
  ( Handle in-line parameters and terminating words )           
  CASE  TOKEN.FOR  EXIT       OF        0                  ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  (;CODE@)   OF        DISP.TOKEN 0       ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  COMPILE    OF        DISP.TOKEN         ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  0BRANCH    OF        DISP.TARGET        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  BRANCH     OF        DISP.TARGET        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  (OF)       OF        DISP.TARGET        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  (LOOP)     OF        DISP.TARGET        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  (+LOOP)    OF        DISP.TARGET        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  ALIT       OF        DISP.ADDR          ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  WLIT       OF        DISP.WORD          ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  LIT        OF        DISP.DBL           ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  (.”)       OF        DISP.STRING        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  ($LIT)     OF        DISP.STRING        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  (ERROR”)   OF        DISP.STRING        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  (ABORT”)   OF        DISP.STRING        ENDOF
        TOKEN.FOR  $ADDR      OF        DISP.STRING        ENDOF
        ( Insert the ones I’ve missed here. )                   
        0                     OF        2 - DISP.TOKEN     ENDOF

: DECODE.TOKENS  ( pfa --  | Display the words starting at pfa )
  DUP HIGH.PFA ! DUP                                            
      IF    ID.    ELSE .” ???” drop 0  THEN                         
      20 SPACE.TO SPECIAL.TOKENS ?DUP                           
      IF    FALSE  ELSE  DUP HIGH.PFA @ > THEN                       
  2DROP ;                                                       

: .VALUE  ( n1\n2 --  | Display constants and UA variables )    
  HEX .DIGITS .”  hex  “ DECIMAL . .” decimal )”  ;             
: DECODE.VECTOR  ( pfa\vector -- | Display definition type )    
    11 OF .” User Area variable ( Offset = “ W@ DUP 4  .VALUE  ENDOF
    12 OF .” 16 bit constant ( Value = “ <W@ DUP 4 .VALUE  ENDOF
    13 OF .” 32 bit constant ( Value = “ @ DUP 8 .VALUE   ENDOF
    14 OF .” Variable, array, or string” DROP              ENDOF
    15 OF .” Colon definition” DECODE.TOKENS               ENDOF
    .” Unknown code type ( Vector = “ 2 .VALUE .” )”            
  ENDCASE ;                                                     
: CHK.CODE.TYPE  ( token -- [pfa\vector\true] or [false] |      
   Returns false for machine code definitions, true for others )
   TOKEN>ADDR DUP 2+ SWAP W@ DUP 16/ 1252 = 
   IF 15 AND TRUE ELSE 2DROP FALSE THEN ;                     
 ( Note: 1252 is the machine code for a 68000 TRAP instruction  
         divided by 16.  Vector is the low-order four bits of   
         the TRAP instruction. )                                
: sublevel chk.code.type if drop decode.tokens then ;           
: DECOMP  ( --  | Decompile the next word in the input stream ) 
  +FIND CR POCKET COUNT TYPE .”  -- “                           
        IF .” IMMEDIATE “ THEN                                  
        CHK.CODE.TYPE IF DECODE.VECTOR ELSE .” Machine code definition” 
     ELSE .” Not in dictionary” THEN                            
  BASE !  TEXTSIZE  LINE.HEIGHT  CR ;                           
: #DECOMP ( token --  | Decompile word whose token is supplied )
  9 TEXTSIZE  10 LINE.HEIGHT NFA ?DUP CR                        
     IF DUP ID.  .” -- “ C@ 128 AND                              
        IF .” IMMEDIATE “ THEN                                  
        CHK.CODE.TYPE  IF DECODE.VECTOR  ELSE .” Machine code definition” 
     ELSE HEX 4 .DIGITS .” -- Not a valid token” THEN           
  TEXTSIZE  LINE.HEIGHT  BASE !  DROP  CR ;                     


Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Facility 47 (Games)
Facility 47 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: You wake up alone and freezing in an icy cell. You try the cell door but it’s locked, it seems that you are stuck with no... | Read more »
The best Photoshop alternative on iPad
Instagram and Lightroom are great and all, but sometimes people need to get extra creative with their image editing.Like, Photoshop creative. If you're one of these people, take a look at our pick for the best mobile Photoshop experience on iPad... | Read more »
The Walking Dead: No Man’s Land guide -...
A new update for The Walking Dead: No Man’s Land was released last week, making it the perfect time for you to head back to your base and take out some walkers. Here’s the lowdown on what’s new to the game, and how to take advantage. [Read more] | Read more »
Goat Rider guide - Tips and tricks to st...
We've all been there. One second, we're riding high on a crazed goat, and the next, we've been tossed off it like someone who's no good at goat ridin'. [Read more] | Read more »
Real Boxing 2 CREED: How to become a gre...
Just in time for Rocky fans who can’t wait to see CREED, the latest movie, we have the official tie-in game,Real Boxing 2 CREED. It builds on the success of its predecessor and there’s lots to take in so we at 148apps thought we’d run you through... | Read more »
CoinOp Heroes 2 guide - How to build an...
CoinOp Heroes 2 justlaunched and, like all clickers, it's dangerously addictive stuff. You have to furiously tap your screen to defeat wave after wave of foes and earn an insane amount of cash to spend on character upgrades and an army of minions... | Read more »
Dr. Panda Firefighters (Education)
Dr. Panda Firefighters 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Education Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: FIGHT FIRES AND SAVE THE DAY!Work together with Dr. Panda and his firefighting team to rescue his trapped... | Read more »
Puddle + (Games)
Puddle + 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Puddle is back in a new "+" edition featuring enhanced graphics, new videos and Apple TV support ! No IAP and No Ads. Dive into Puddle... | Read more »
Football Manager Mobile 2016 (Games)
Football Manager Mobile 2016 7.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $8.99, Version: 7.0.0 (iTunes) Description: Football Manager Mobile 2016 is designed to be played on the move and is the quickest way to manage your... | Read more »
Kill Shot Bravo guide - How to become an...
Kill Shot Bravo is a disturbing amount of fun. No matter how many times I play a game that encourages me to snipe people in the head, I feel a little uneasy at how satisfying it is. Here are some useful tips to get you started on your path to... | Read more »

Price Scanner via

Al Jazeera Launches New iOS And Android Mobil...
Doha, Qatar based Al Jazeera has launched new mobile and tablet apps on the iOS and Android systems bringing the latest Al Jazeera news and programmes live together with on-demand personalisation.... Read more
B&H Photo Holiday Sale: Up to $250 off Ma...
B&H Photo has all new Macs on sale for up to $500 off MSRP as part of their Holiday sale including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1799 $200 off - 15″ 2.... Read more
Free Aura ‘Ultimate’ Mac App For Gmail Update...
Miami, Florida based Crosscoded has announced Aura 1.2.0, an update to the Mac app for Gmail. Aura mixes the power of a native client with the flexibility of the Gmail web app with support for up to... Read more
Apple Will Edge Closer to Samsung in Smartpho...
Total smartphone shipments for 2015 are projected to decline by 9.7% to 1.286 billion units, according to the latest report from global market research firm TrendForce. Though Chinese vendors have... Read more
12-inch MacBooks in stock for up to $120 off,...
Adorama has 12″ Retina MacBooks in stock for up to $120 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only. For a limited time, Adorama will include a free Apple USB-C to USB Adapter,... Read more
Save 15% with Apple refurbished Mac Pros
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished Mac Pros available for up to $600 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each Mac Pro, and shipping is free. The... Read more
iPod touch (6th Gen) on sale for $40-$60 off...
Save $40 to $60 on a 6th generation iPod touch at Target with free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale prices for online orders only, in-store prices may vary: - 16GB iPod touch... Read more
13-inch 1.6GHz MacBook Air on sale for $849,...
Best Buy has the 2015 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $849.99 on their online store. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale price for online orders only, in-... Read more
Apple refurbished 15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBo...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2014 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pros available for $1609, $390 off original MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is included, and shipping is free. Read more
Weekend sale: 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros for...
Save up to $100 on the purchase of a new 2015 13″ Retina MacBook Pro at the following resellers. Shipping is free with each model: 2.7GHz/128GB MSRP $1299 2.7GHz/256GB... Read more

Jobs Board

Merchant Operations Manager: *Apple* Pay -...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more than Read more
*Apple* Pay QA Manager - Apple Inc. (United...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more than Read more
Sr Software Engineer *Apple* Pay - Apple In...
Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple . If you love innovation, here's your chance to make a career of it. You'll work hard. But the job comes with more than Read more
Hardware Systems Architect - *Apple* Watch...
# Hardware Systems Architect - Apple Watch Job Number: 38449977 Santa Clara Valley, Califo ia, United States Posted: Apr. 16, 2015 Weekly Hours: **Job Summary** The Read more
Software Engineer, *Apple* Watch - Apple (U...
# Software Engineer, Apple Watch Job Number: 38181776 Santa Clara Valley, Califo ia, United States Posted: Nov. 2, 2015 Weekly Hours: 40.00 **Job Summary** The Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.