TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Pascal Arrives
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:1
Column Tag:Pascal ARRIVES

Pascal ARRIVES

By Chris Derossi

Well, after waiting and waiting and waiting, Macintosh Pascal has finally arrived, and with its arrival, Mac users now have a serious high-level language for programming on the Macintosh. This column will help the users of Macintosh Pascal both to learn about Mac Pascal, and to learn how the wonderous abilities of the Mac ROM can tie into Mac Pascal for creating powerful and useful programs.

For this opening column, we’ll be taking a general look at Pascal, and we’ll see how you can get started right away learning how to use your Pascal to the fullest. Let us start out by examining the contents of your Pascal package.

The documentation is in three separate parts, with each section contained in its own little booklet. The first, and smallest book contains the standard instructions for using the normal Macintosh User Interfaces, to which Mac Pascal conforms. For experienced users of the Mac, this book will be of very little help; you already know all about clicking, dragging, and editing with the mouse. For the less experienced user, this book will teach you what you need to know in order to get started with Pascal right away.

The most important part of this book is the section which describes the use of the Observe and Instant windows. This is the only explanantion of these windows found in the documentation. As we get further into Pascal, the importance of these windows will grow.

The booklet titled “Pascal Reference Manual” is an important tool for beginners and experienced programmers alike. Although it is not a tutorial, it does contain the entire syntax specification for Mac Pascal. Its primary use is as a look-up reference. New Pascal programmers may wish to go through the manual to get a general feel for the language, but as I’ll discuss shortly, more can be learned by studying the example programs supplied with Mac Pascal.

The final book, “Macintosh Technical Appendix”, is probably the most useful manual included. This manual describes the differences between Mac Pascal and both Lisa Pascal and ANS Pascal. In addition, this book has detailed information on two important areas of Mac Pascal: QuickDraw and SANE. Both of these will be covered in detail in further issues of MacTech.

Unfortunately, none of the documentation included with your Mac Pascal goes into any depth in the area of the Mac ROM, except for the QuickDraw section which is really more concerned with mathematical concepts. To learn about the language, and find out its limitations and its capabilities, we will be exploring a large variety of topics in this column. To begin with, however, a good source of information can be found in the example programs contained on your Pascal disk.

The Pascal disk contains a number of interesting programs that demonstrate some features of Mac Pascal. As you’ll notice, most of the examples contain graphics, but some of them display the ability of Mac Pascal to do things like change window size, modify the cursor, interact with the mouse and the keyboard, and perform file I/O. Indeed, Mac Pascal has a wide range of abilities. Although many of the procedures and functions used in the examples are not clear, browsing though the included examples is a good way to get a feel for the power of Mac Pascal, and an idea of the range of functions available.

The other item that is included with your Mac Pascal disk is a second Mac Pascal disk. This is an exact copy for backup purposes. The backup disk is included because Mac Pascal is copy protected. The diskette cannot be copied, and the Pascal file cannot be moved to any other disks, including hard disk drives. The files, on the other hand, can be moved and should be copied.

Now that we’ve examined the things that are contained in your Mac Pascal package, let’s say just a little bit about the interpreter itself. Before Mac Pascal, Pascal programs were compiled. That is, the Pascal program was written into a text editor. Then, the Pascal compiler read the program text and converted it to a form that the computer could execute. The machine executable version was called object code, and the original text version was called source code.

If a program was to be modified, the text of the program had to be changed, and then the whole thing had to be compiled again. This could take lots of valuable time. On the other hand, the object code, since it was usually directly executable by the computer, ran very quickly. Macintosh Pascal, however, is not compiled; Mac Pascal is interpreted.

When we say that Mac Pascal is interpreted, we mean that the program is enterred into a text editor which is part of the language interpreter. When the program is run, the interpreter reads the program and converts each line to an executable format. The individual lines are converted and run each time they are needed, and the converted lines are not kept available. This means that interpreted programs generally run slower than compiled programs. If the program is to be changed, though, it can be re-run immediately after modification. This decreases the amout of development time required .

In conclusion, Macintosh Pascal presents a useful and powerful programming environment for the Mac user. For the beginner, Pascal provides an excellent learning vessel, and for the experienced Mac user, Pascal provides a useable, structured interface to the internal magic of the Macintosh. This column will explore and enhance these qualities of Mac Pascal and will help you to better understand and take advantage of Mac Pascal.

program Benchmark;

{creative computing benchmark}

 type
  datetimerec = record
    year, month, day, hour, minute, second, dayofweek : integer
   end;

 var
  a, r, s : extended;
  i, n : integer;
  result1, result2 : extended;
  begintime : datetimerec;
  endtime : datetimerec;
  t1, t2 : longint;

begin   {of main program}

 gettime(begintime);
 for n := 1 to 100 do
  begin
    a := n;
   for i := 1 to 10 do
      begin
         a := sqrt(a);
         r := r + random
    end;
    for i := 1 to 10 do
      begin
        a := a * a;
         r := r + random
    end;
    s := s + a
  end;

 result1 := abs(1010 - s / 5);
 result2 := abs(1000 - r);
 gettime(endtime);
 t1 := begintime.hour * 3600 + begintime.minute * 60 +   begintime.second;
 t2 := endtime.hour * 3600 + endtime.minute * 60 +       endtime.second;
 writeln(‘time in seconds=’, t2 - t1);
 writeln(‘ accuracy=’, result1 : 20 : 18);
 writeln(‘ random=’, result2 : 20 : 18);

end.
 
AAPL
$117.38
Apple Inc.
+0.91
MSFT
$47.69
Microsoft Corpora
-0.29
GOOG
$541.69
Google Inc.
+4.19

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Cobook 3.0.7 - Intelligent address book....
Cobook Contacts is an intuitive, engaging address book. Solve the problem of contact management with Cobook Contacts and its simple interface and powerful syncing and integration possibilities.... Read more
StatsBar 1.9 - Monitor system processes...
StatsBar gives you a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the following areas of your Mac: CPU usage Memory usage Disk usage Network and bandwidth usage Battery power and health (MacBooks only)... Read more
Cyberduck 4.6 - FTP and SFTP browser. (F...
Cyberduck is a robust FTP/FTP-TLS/SFTP browser for the Mac whose lack of visual clutter and cleverly intuitive features make it easy to use. Support for external editors and system technologies such... Read more
Maya 2015 - Professional 3D modeling and...
Maya is an award-winning software and powerful, integrated 3D modeling, animation, visual effects, and rendering solution. Because Maya is based on an open architecture, all your work can be scripted... Read more
Evernote 6.0.1 - Create searchable notes...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more
calibre 2.11 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital... Read more
Herald 5.0.1 - Notification plugin for M...
Note: Versions 2.1.3 (for OS X 10.7), 3.0.6 (for OS X 10.8), and 4.0.8 (for OS X 10.9) are no longer supported by the developer. Herald is a notification plugin for Mail.app, Apple's Mac OS X email... Read more
Firetask 3.7 - Innovative task managemen...
Firetask uniquely combines the advantages of classical priority-and-due-date-based task management with GTD. Stay focused and on top of your commitments - Firetask's "Today" view shows all relevant... Read more
TechTool Pro 7.0.6 - Hard drive and syst...
TechTool Pro is now 7, and this is the most advanced version of the acclaimed Macintosh troubleshooting utility created in its 20-year history. Micromat has redeveloped TechTool Pro 7 to be fully 64... Read more
PhotoDesk 3.0.1 - Instagram client for p...
PhotoDesk lets you view, like, comment, and download Instagram pictures/videos! (NO Uploads! / Image Posting! Instagram forbids that! AND you *need* an *existing* Instagram account). But you can do... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

The Hunted Review
The Hunted Review By Jordan Minor on November 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: A GROAN IN THE DARKUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad The Hunted’s multiplayer thrills are overshadowed by bland visuals and average gameplay.   | Read more »
Need for Speed No Limits has Been Unveil...
Need for Speed No Limits has Been Unveiled for iOS Posted by Ellis Spice on November 24th, 2014 [ permalink ] EA and Firemonkeys have announced Need for Speed No Limits, the next mobile installment | Read more »
Space Expedition Review
Space Expedition Review By Jordan Minor on November 24th, 2014 Our Rating: :: ONE SMALL STEPUniversal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad The only thing boring about Space Expedition’s lonely journey is its title.   | Read more »
Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to E...
Ubisoft Gives Everyone Two New Ways to Earn In-Game Stuff for Far Cry 4 Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Golfinity – Tips, Tricks, Strategies, an...
Dig this: Would you like to know what we thought of being an infinite golfer? Check out our Golfinity review! Golfinity offers unlimited ways to test your skills at golf. Here are a few ways to make sure your score doesn’t get too high and your... | Read more »
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Meli...
Dark Hearts, The Sequel to Haunting Melissa, is Available Now Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Meowza! Toyze Brings Talking Tom to Life...
Meowza! | Read more »
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG f...
Square Enix Announces New Tactical RPG for Mobile, Heavenstrike Rivals. Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] With their epic stories and gorgeous graphics, | Read more »
Quest for Revenge (Games)
Quest for Revenge 1.0.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.0 (iTunes) Description: The great Kingdom of the west has fallen. The gods ignore the prayers of the desperate. A dark warlord has extinguished... | Read more »
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for Y...
Threadz is a New Writing Adventure for You and Your Friends Posted by Jessica Fisher on November 21st, 2014 [ permalink ] In the tradition of round-robin storytelling, | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Jumptuit Launches One-Tap Windows 8.1 iTunes...
Jumptuit has launched Windows 8.1 support for One-Tap iTunes Sync. with which Windows 8.1 users can now easily sync their iTunes libraries with Microsoft OneDrive. Jumptuit provides easy access from... Read more
CEA Study Finds More People Recycling Electro...
A new study by the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) finds that electronics recycling receives the continued and growing support of consumers. According to the CEA,s Recycling and Reuse Study,... Read more
15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for $17...
 B&H Photo has the 2014 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale today for $1749. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only. B&H will also include free copies of Parallels Desktop... Read more
27-inch 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on...
 B&H Photo has the new 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac in stock today and on sale for $2299 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available... Read more
21-inch 1.4GHz iMac on sale for $979, save $1...
B&H Photo has the new 21″ 1.4GHz iMac on sale for $979.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $120 off MSRP. B&H will also include free copies of Parallels Desktop... Read more
13-inch 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air on sale for...
B&H Photo has lowered their price on the 13″ 1.4GHz/256GB MacBook Air to $1059.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $140 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for this... Read more
Save up to $400 with Apple refurbished 2014 1...
The Apple Store has restocked Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 15″ Retina MacBook Pros for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping... Read more
New 13-inch 1.4GHz MacBook Air on sale for $8...
 Adorama has the 2014 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook Air on sale for $899.99 including free shipping plus NY & NJ tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. B&H Photo has the 13″ 1.4GHz/128GB MacBook... Read more
Apple Expected to Reverse Nine-Month Tablet S...
Apple and Samsung combined accounted for 62 percent of the nearly 36 million branded tablets shipped in 3Q 2014, according to early vendor shipment share estimates from market intelligence firm ABI... Read more
Stratos: 30 Percent of US Smartphone Owners t...
Stratos, Inc., creator of the Bluetooth Connected Card Platform, has announced results from its 2014 Holiday Mobile Payments Survey. The consumer survey found that nearly one out of three (30 percent... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC) - Apple (...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant (ASC)- Retail S...
**Job Summary** The ASC is an Apple employee who serves as an Apple brand ambassador and influencer in a Reseller's store. The ASC's role is to grow Apple Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Store Leader Program - College Gradu...
Job Description: Job Summary As an Apple Store Leader Program agent, you can continue your education as you major in the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.