TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Pascal Arrives
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:1
Column Tag:Pascal ARRIVES

Pascal ARRIVES

By Chris Derossi

Well, after waiting and waiting and waiting, Macintosh Pascal has finally arrived, and with its arrival, Mac users now have a serious high-level language for programming on the Macintosh. This column will help the users of Macintosh Pascal both to learn about Mac Pascal, and to learn how the wonderous abilities of the Mac ROM can tie into Mac Pascal for creating powerful and useful programs.

For this opening column, we’ll be taking a general look at Pascal, and we’ll see how you can get started right away learning how to use your Pascal to the fullest. Let us start out by examining the contents of your Pascal package.

The documentation is in three separate parts, with each section contained in its own little booklet. The first, and smallest book contains the standard instructions for using the normal Macintosh User Interfaces, to which Mac Pascal conforms. For experienced users of the Mac, this book will be of very little help; you already know all about clicking, dragging, and editing with the mouse. For the less experienced user, this book will teach you what you need to know in order to get started with Pascal right away.

The most important part of this book is the section which describes the use of the Observe and Instant windows. This is the only explanantion of these windows found in the documentation. As we get further into Pascal, the importance of these windows will grow.

The booklet titled “Pascal Reference Manual” is an important tool for beginners and experienced programmers alike. Although it is not a tutorial, it does contain the entire syntax specification for Mac Pascal. Its primary use is as a look-up reference. New Pascal programmers may wish to go through the manual to get a general feel for the language, but as I’ll discuss shortly, more can be learned by studying the example programs supplied with Mac Pascal.

The final book, “Macintosh Technical Appendix”, is probably the most useful manual included. This manual describes the differences between Mac Pascal and both Lisa Pascal and ANS Pascal. In addition, this book has detailed information on two important areas of Mac Pascal: QuickDraw and SANE. Both of these will be covered in detail in further issues of MacTech.

Unfortunately, none of the documentation included with your Mac Pascal goes into any depth in the area of the Mac ROM, except for the QuickDraw section which is really more concerned with mathematical concepts. To learn about the language, and find out its limitations and its capabilities, we will be exploring a large variety of topics in this column. To begin with, however, a good source of information can be found in the example programs contained on your Pascal disk.

The Pascal disk contains a number of interesting programs that demonstrate some features of Mac Pascal. As you’ll notice, most of the examples contain graphics, but some of them display the ability of Mac Pascal to do things like change window size, modify the cursor, interact with the mouse and the keyboard, and perform file I/O. Indeed, Mac Pascal has a wide range of abilities. Although many of the procedures and functions used in the examples are not clear, browsing though the included examples is a good way to get a feel for the power of Mac Pascal, and an idea of the range of functions available.

The other item that is included with your Mac Pascal disk is a second Mac Pascal disk. This is an exact copy for backup purposes. The backup disk is included because Mac Pascal is copy protected. The diskette cannot be copied, and the Pascal file cannot be moved to any other disks, including hard disk drives. The files, on the other hand, can be moved and should be copied.

Now that we’ve examined the things that are contained in your Mac Pascal package, let’s say just a little bit about the interpreter itself. Before Mac Pascal, Pascal programs were compiled. That is, the Pascal program was written into a text editor. Then, the Pascal compiler read the program text and converted it to a form that the computer could execute. The machine executable version was called object code, and the original text version was called source code.

If a program was to be modified, the text of the program had to be changed, and then the whole thing had to be compiled again. This could take lots of valuable time. On the other hand, the object code, since it was usually directly executable by the computer, ran very quickly. Macintosh Pascal, however, is not compiled; Mac Pascal is interpreted.

When we say that Mac Pascal is interpreted, we mean that the program is enterred into a text editor which is part of the language interpreter. When the program is run, the interpreter reads the program and converts each line to an executable format. The individual lines are converted and run each time they are needed, and the converted lines are not kept available. This means that interpreted programs generally run slower than compiled programs. If the program is to be changed, though, it can be re-run immediately after modification. This decreases the amout of development time required .

In conclusion, Macintosh Pascal presents a useful and powerful programming environment for the Mac user. For the beginner, Pascal provides an excellent learning vessel, and for the experienced Mac user, Pascal provides a useable, structured interface to the internal magic of the Macintosh. This column will explore and enhance these qualities of Mac Pascal and will help you to better understand and take advantage of Mac Pascal.

program Benchmark;

{creative computing benchmark}

 type
  datetimerec = record
    year, month, day, hour, minute, second, dayofweek : integer
   end;

 var
  a, r, s : extended;
  i, n : integer;
  result1, result2 : extended;
  begintime : datetimerec;
  endtime : datetimerec;
  t1, t2 : longint;

begin   {of main program}

 gettime(begintime);
 for n := 1 to 100 do
  begin
    a := n;
   for i := 1 to 10 do
      begin
         a := sqrt(a);
         r := r + random
    end;
    for i := 1 to 10 do
      begin
        a := a * a;
         r := r + random
    end;
    s := s + a
  end;

 result1 := abs(1010 - s / 5);
 result2 := abs(1000 - r);
 gettime(endtime);
 t1 := begintime.hour * 3600 + begintime.minute * 60 +   begintime.second;
 t2 := endtime.hour * 3600 + endtime.minute * 60 +       endtime.second;
 writeln(‘time in seconds=’, t2 - t1);
 writeln(‘ accuracy=’, result1 : 20 : 18);
 writeln(‘ random=’, result2 : 20 : 18);

end.
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Logic Pro X 10.3 - Music creation and au...
Logic Pro X is the most advanced version of Logic ever. Sophisticated new tools for professional songwriting, editing, and mixing are built around a modern interface that's designed to get creative... Read more
iMazing 2.1.8 - Complete iOS device mana...
iMazing (was DiskAid) is the ultimate iOS device manager with capabilities far beyond what iTunes offers. With iMazing and your iOS device (iPhone, iPad, or iPod), you can: Copy music to and from... Read more
Civilization VI 1.0.2 - Next iteration o...
Sid Meier’s Civilization VI is the next entry in the popular Civilization franchise. Originally created by legendary game designer Sid Meier, Civilization is a strategy game in which you attempt to... Read more
TurboTax 2016 - Manage your 2016 U.S. ta...
TurboTax guides you through your tax return step by step, does all the calculations, and checks your return for errors and overlooked deductions. It lets you file your return electronically to get... Read more
Microsoft Office 2016 15.30 - Popular pr...
Microsoft Office 2016 - Unmistakably Office, designed for Mac. The new versions of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook and OneNote provide the best of both worlds for Mac users - the familiar Office... Read more
FotoMagico 5.3 - Powerful slideshow crea...
FotoMagico lets you create professional slideshows from your photos and music with just a few, simple mouse clicks. It sports a very clean and intuitive yet powerful user interface. High image... Read more
Acorn 5.6.1 - Bitmap image editor.
Acorn is a new image editor built with one goal in mind - simplicity. Fast, easy, and fluid, Acorn provides the options you'll need without any overhead. Acorn feels right, and won't drain your bank... Read more
Dash 3.4.3 - Instant search and offline...
Dash is an API documentation browser and code snippet manager. Dash helps you store snippets of code, as well as instantly search and browse documentation for almost any API you might use (for a full... Read more
Microsoft Remote Desktop 8.0.37 - Connec...
With Microsoft Remote Desktop, you can connect to a remote PC and your work resources from almost anywhere. Experience the power of Windows with RemoteFX in a Remote Desktop client designed to help... Read more
Macs Fan Control 1.4.7.0 - Monitor and c...
Macs Fan Control allows you to monitor and control almost any aspect of your computer's fans, with support for controlling fan speed, temperature sensors pane, menu-bar icon, and autostart with... Read more

Turbo League Guide: How to tame the cont...
| Read more »
Fire Emblem: Heroes coming to Google Pla...
Nintendo gave us our first look at Fire Emblem: Heroes, the upcoming mobile Fire Emblem game the company hinted at last year. Revealed at the Fire Emblem Direct event held today, the game will condense the series' tactical RPG combat into bite-... | Read more »
ReSlice (Music)
ReSlice 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Music Price: $9.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Audio Slice Machine Slice your audio samples with ReSlice and create flexible musical atoms which can be triggered by MIDI notes or... | Read more »
Stickman Surfer rides in with the tide t...
Stickson is back and this time he's taken up yet another extreme sport - surfing. Stickman Surfer is out this Thursday on both iOS and Android, so if you've been following the other Stickman adventures, you might be interested in picking this one... | Read more »
Z-Exemplar (Games)
Z-Exemplar 1.4 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.4 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
5 dastardly difficult roguelikes like th...
Edmund McMillen's popular roguelike creation The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth has finally crawled onto mobile devices. It's a grotesque dual-stick shooter that tosses you into an endless, procedurally generated basement as you, the pitiable Isaac,... | Read more »
Last week on PocketGamer
Welcome to a weekly feature looking back on the past seven days of coverage on our sister website, PocketGamer. It’s taken a while for 2017 to really get going, at least when it comes to the world of portable gaming. Thank goodness, then, for... | Read more »
ROME: Total War - Barbarian Invasion set...
To the delight of mobile strategy fans, Feral Interactive released ROME: Total War just a few months ago. Now the game's expansion, Barbarian Invasion is marching onto iPads as a standalone release. [Read more] | Read more »
Yuri (Games)
Yuri 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: It's night. Yuri opens his eyes. He wakes up in a strange forest.The small, courageous explorer rides on his bed on casters in this... | Read more »
Space schmup Xenoraid launches on the Ap...
10Tons Xenoraid is out today on the App Store, bringing some high-speed space action to your mobile gadgets just in time for the weekend. The company's last premium title, another sci-fi game titled Neon Chrome, did quite well for itself, so... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Laptop Market – Flight To Quality? – The ‘Boo...
Preliminary quarterly PC shipments data released by Gartner Inc. last week reveal an interesting disparity between sales performance of major name PC vendors as opposed to that of less well-known... Read more
IBM and Bell Transform Canadian Enterprise Mo...
IBM and Bell Canada have announced they are joining forces to offer IBM MobileFirst for iOS market-ready enterprise applications for iPad, iPhone or Apple Watch. Bell, Canada’s largest communications... Read more
Otter Products is Closing… For a Day of Givin...
On Thursday, Feb. 9, Otter Products is closing doors to open hearts. In partnership with the OtterCares Foundation, the company is pausing operations for a day so all employees can volunteer with... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
Amazon has 2015 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pros (MJLQ2LL/A) available for $1799.99 including free shipping. Apple charges $1999 for this model, so Amazon’s price is represents a $200 savings. Read more
Back in stock: Apple refurbished 13-inch Reti...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $360 off original MSRP, starting at $1099. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is... Read more
CalcTape for macOS 1.2 Adding Machine App for...
schoettler Software has announced CalcTape 1.2, an update to their desktop calculator for macOS. When it comes to adding long columns of numbers, doing complex calculations or playing around with... Read more
New MacBooks And MacBook Pros WIth Kaby Lake...
Digitimes’ Joseph Tsai cites a Chinese-language Economic Daily News (EDN) report that unnamed market watchers are predicting Apple MacBook shipments to grow 10 percent in 2017, and projecting 15... Read more
New 2016 13-inch MacBook Pros on sale for up...
B&H Photo has the new 2016 13″ MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 13″ 2.9GHz/512GB Touch Bar MacBook Pro... Read more
New 15-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock a...
B&H Photo has the new 2016 15″ Apple Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar... Read more
Opera Announces Neon Concept Browser For Mac
Opera is inviting users to get a glimpse of what Opera for computers could become with its Opera Neon browser concept. Each Opera Neon feature is described as “an alternate reality” for the Opera... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (Multi-L...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
*Apple* & PC Desktop Support Technician...
Apple & PC Desktop Support Technician job in Stamford, CT We have immediate job openings for several Desktop Support Technicians with one of our most well-known Read more
*Apple* macOS Systems Integration Administra...
…most exceptional support available in the industry. SCI is seeking an Junior Apple macOS systems integration administrator that will be responsible for providing Read more
*Apple* Premier Retailer - Service Technicia...
DescriptionSimply Mac is the largest premier retailer for Apple products and solutions. At Simply Mac we are all Apple , all the time. Same products. Same prices. Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.