TweetFollow Us on Twitter

January 92 - Postcard from Windows Land - Is Windows object-oriented?

Postcard from Windows Land - Is Windows object-oriented?

James Plamondon

When the Microsoft gang started writing Windows back in the mid-eighties, they were all excited about object programming. They, like Apple, toured Xerox PARC and saw what Xerox was doing with bit-mapped displays, windows, mice, and so on. Microsoft, like Apple, thought this stuff was going to be the wave of the future-so they went home and started working on a cool object-oriented operating system.

Then reality hit. Their target platform, the standard IBM PC of their day, was totally unable to handle the strain of a truly object-oriented system. So, like Apple, Microsoft compromised, and wrote a procedural operating system with an object-oriented flavor.

For whatever reason, however, Windows was unsuccessful throughout its development-until around the time Microsoft's OS/2 deal with IBM fell through-whereas the Mac OS was the star at Apple from soon after its inception. So the Windows operating system is only now beginning to flower, as the Mac OS did about four years ago.

What's amazing to me is how fast Windows is moving. Whereas Apple took ages to bring out System 7, Microsoft is bringing out Windows 3.1 just 18 months (roughly) after 3.0 hit the shelves. And Windows 3.1 should really be called Windows 4; it is a really big improvement over Windows 3.0 (which has sold over five million copies in the last year, so it's no slouch, either).

But is Windows object-oriented? Absolutely not-if, by "object-oriented," you mean written in an object programming language. Given Windows' origins and history, it couldn't be. Smalltalk and Simula were the only decent object programming languages available at the product's inception, and neither would give adequate performance on their target system. So Microsoft did the best it could under the restraints it was under at the time. And in at least one way, Microsoft did a better job than Apple.

Windows, true to its name, has a real windowing system; the Mac does not. This should come as no surprise to MacApp programmers; one of the most important benefits MacApp provides to Mac programmers is-you guessed it-a windowing system, in the form of MacApp views. [A Windows "window" is equivalent to a MacApp "view;" a MacApp "window" is equivalent to a Windows "frame window."] It is considerably easier to write an application framework for Windows than for the Mac, because a Windows framework could use the native windowing system. Zillions of lines of code could be saved.

On the Mac, when you create a window, you get a pointer to a data structure. This data structure is completely dumb. There's no way to call its methods or send it messages. In Windows, on the other hand, one can define a window class, and associate with this class a number of attributes and-importantly-a window procedure (WinProc). When you create a window, you must specify the class of the window. The window reference you get back is a unique window identifier, but it's completely "blind." You can't use it as a pointer to get at its data directly. Instead, you have to "send the window a message" to act on it.

"Sending the window a message" works just like "sending a message" to a Mac CDEF, WDEF, or other code resource. You call a procedure with an integer argument that indicates which message you're sending, and a couple of other arguments that can hold additional data. (Before you snort in disdain at the notion of using integral message discriminators, think about MacApp's use of command numbers in TEvtHandler.DoMenuCommand().)

So, Windows does a better job of data abstraction and encapsulation, at least with regard to window data structures. But is this abstraction and encapsulation enough to make it object-oriented?

Well, maybe not-but there's more. Having defined a window class, one can "subclass" the window class. Now, before you get all excited, let me admit that it's not "real" subclassing, using the definition used by object programming languages. But it's not a bad simulation.

Let's say you want to write a variation of the standard Windows "edit" control-to validate its entries as dates, perhaps. You would need to get a copy of the "edit" class' class info (by calling GetClassInfo()), and modify the resulting copy to use your new class name ("edit_date"). Also, you would save off the class info's pointer to the "edit" class' WinProc, and store the "edit_date" class' WinProc pointer in its place (in the copy). Then, you would call RegisterClass() to tell Windows that the window class existed.

Having done this, you can then create a window of class "edit_date" by telling Windows to do so. It will respond by handing you back a unique window identifier. From then on, both Windows and your application will interact with the window by sending it messages. Messages are sent to the window by calling the Windows function SendMessage() with the window ID as the first argument, or by calling other Windows functions that eventually call SendMessage().

SendMessage()'s prototype is roughly as follows:

long SendMessage(HWND hWnd, short wMsg, short wParam, long lParam);

[This prototype has been simplified for ease of understanding by the MacApp audience. The correct prototype is "LONG FAR PASCAL MyWinProc(HWND hWnd, WORD wMsg, WORD wParam, LONG lParam)."]

"hWnd" is the unique window ID. When SendMessage() is called on a given window, the window's WinProc is called. The WinProc's prototype is almost the same as that of SendMessage(); calling SendMessage() can be viewed as a polymorphic call to a window's message procedure.

The WinProc typically contains a huge switch statement (in Pascal, case statement) that forwards the message to the appropriate message handler (much like TApplication.DispatchEvent()). And, since you carefully saved off the standard Windows "edit" window class' WinProc pointer before calling RegisterClass(), you can call it from within your "edit_date" window class' WinProc-much like calling the inherited implementation of a method in an OOP language. It ain't pretty, but it works.

So, maybe Windows is object-oriented, and maybe it's not. Maybe, as a friend of mine said recently, object-orientation is not a binary, yes-or-no quality, but rather a continuum. If so, then Windows is certainly "more object-oriented" than the Mac OS, while being "less object-oriented" than MacApp.

The answer to the question may be irrelevant. It is relevant, though, that your MacApp experience will put you way ahead of the game in Windows programming. MacApp software development tools are on the cutting edge, while those for Windows are still blunt instruments, suitable only for beating code into submission.

But the bottom line remains the same: Windows is selling at an incredible rate, and will be a significant force in the microcomputer industry for years to come. By learning to program in Windows, you will be assuring your financial security for at least the next decade.

As the old saying goes, in the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is King; and with Windows selling at an incredible rate, the Land of the Blind is expanding rapidly. We MacAppers know how to wring the most out of an even vaguely-object-oriented system; you can see the opportunity this presents to us, even with one eye shut.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

TunnelBear 3.0.1 - Subscription-based pr...
TunnelBear is a subscription-based virtual private network (VPN) service and companion app, enabling you to browse the internet privately and securely. Features Browse privately - Secure your data... Read more
ExpanDrive 5.4.0 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
Opera 40.0.2308.62 - High-performance We...
Opera is a fast and secure browser trusted by millions of users. With the intuitive interface, Speed Dial and visual bookmarks for organizing favorite sites, news feature with fresh, relevant content... Read more
Apple iOS 10.0.2 - The latest version of...
iOS 10 is the biggest release of iOS ever. A massive update to Messages brings the power of the App Store to your conversations and makes messaging more personal than ever. Find your route with... Read more
Herald 7.0 - Notification plugin for Mai...
Note: Versions 2.1.3 (for OS X 10.7), 3.0.6 (for OS X 10.8), 4.0.8 (for OS X 10.9), 5.0.2 (for OS X 10.10), and 6.0.3 (for OS X 10.11) are no longer supported by the developer. Herald is a... Read more
Postbox 5.0.2 - Powerful and flexible em...
Postbox is a new email application that helps you organize your work life and get stuff done. It has all the elegance and simplicity of Apple Mail, but with more power and flexibility to manage even... Read more
Yummy FTP Pro 1.11.10 - $29.99
Yummy FTP Pro is an advanced Mac file transfer app which provides a full-featured professional toolkit combined with blazing speeds and impeccable reliability, so whether you want to transfer a few... Read more
Tidy Up 4.1.17 - $29.99
Tidy Up is a full-featured duplicate finder and disk-tidiness utility. Features With Tidy Up you can search for duplicate files and packages by the owner application, content, type, creator,... Read more
Logitech Control Center 3.9.5 - Keyboard...
Logitech Control Center (LCC) is designed to support OS X and allows you to take full advantage of your Logitech keyboard, mouse, or trackball. With the LCC you can: Browse the Internet using... Read more
Macgo Blu-ray Player 2.16.17 - Blu-ray p...
Macgo Blu-ray Player can bring you the most unforgettable Blu-ray experience on your Mac. Overview Macgo Mac Blu-ray Player can satisfy just about every need you could possibly have in a Blu-ray... Read more

How to build and care for your team in D...
Before you hit the trail and become a dog sledding legend, there’s actually a fair bit of prep work to be done. In Dog Sled Saga, you’re not only racing, you’re also building and caring for a team of furry friends. There’s a lot to consider—... | Read more »
How to win every race in Dog Sled Saga
If I had to guess, I’d say Dog Sled Saga is the most adorable racing game on the App Store right now. It’s a dog sled racing sim full of adorable, loyal puppies. Just look at those fluffy little tails wagging. Behind that cute, pixelated facade is... | Read more »
Let the war games commence in Gunship Ba...
Buzz Lightyear famously said, “This isn’t flying, this is falling – with style!” In the case of Gunship Battle: Second War, though, this really is flying - with style! The flight simulator app from Joycity puts you in control of 20 faithfully... | Read more »
How to get a high score in Fired Up
Fired Up is Noodlecake Games’ high score chasing, firefighting adventure. You take control of a wayward firefighter who propels himself up the side of a highrise with blasts of water. Sound silly? It is. It’s also pretty difficult. You can’t... | Read more »
NBA 2K17 (Games)
NBA 2K17 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $7.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Following the record-breaking launch of NBA 2K16, the NBA 2K franchise continues to stake its claim as the most authentic sports video... | Read more »
Dog Sled Saga (Games)
Dog Sled Saga 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: A game by Dan + Lisa As a rookie musher, foster a dogsledding team whose skills will grow if they're treated right. Week by... | Read more »
60 Seconds! Atomic Adventure (Games)
60 Seconds! Atomic Adventure 1.2 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.2 (iTunes) Description: 60 Seconds! is a dark comedy atomic adventure of scavenge and survival. Collect supplies and rescue your family... | Read more »
Tons of Bullets! (Games)
Tons of Bullets! 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Tons of BulletsA retro 2D pixel platformer infused with tons of bullets and tons of features!Fight as Kenji the Ninja and... | Read more »
Sorcery! 4 (Games)
Sorcery! 4 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: *** PLEASE NOTE: Sorcery! 4 requires a minimum of iPad 3 or iPhone 4 *** An epic adventure through a cursed citadel of monsters,... | Read more »
Building the perfect Animation Throwdown...
Animation Throwdown is a casual card game full of plenty of inside jokes from some of your favorite cartoons. It’s accessible as far as card games go, but that’s not to say that it hands your victories to you easily. There’s quite a bit that goes... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Duplicate Sweeper Free On Mac App Store For O...
To celebrate the launch of Apple’s latest macOS Sierra, Stafford, United Kingdom based Wide Angle Software has announced that its duplicate file finder software, Duplicate Sweeper, is now available... Read more
13-inch Retina MacBook Pros on sale for up to...
B&H Photo has 13″ Retina Apple MacBook Pros on sale for up to $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro: $1174.99 $125 off MSRP - 13... Read more
Evidence Surfaces Pointing To New A10X Chip F...
Citing a job description for a Project Lead position at Apple’s Austin, Texas engineering labs, Motley Fool’s Ashraf Eassa deduces that development is progressing well on Apple’s next-generation in-... Read more
Check Print’R for macOS Allows Anyone to Easi...
Delaware-based Match Software has announced the release and immediate availability of Check Print’R 3.21, an important update to their easy-to-use check printing application for macOS. Check Print’R... Read more
Apple refurbished 11-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 11″ MacBook Airs (the latest models), available for up to $170 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is... Read more
Apple refurbished 15-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 15″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $380 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 15″ 2... Read more
Major Version 5 Release Of Free myTuner Radio...
AppGeneration Software has announced the release of myTuner Radio 5.0.1, an important update to their live radio app for iOS and Android platforms. With myTuner Radio, you can listen to more than 30,... Read more
TheAppStore Searches And Filters iOS And macO...
Boston based InchWest has announced the official launch of TheAppStore, a free web based service that lets users search iOS and Mac apps on the web without iTunes or the App store. TheAppStore... Read more
2TB Time Capsule on sale for $199, save $100
Amazon has 2TB Apple Time Capsules on sale for $199 including free shipping. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Choose Amazon as the seller when making your purchase, rather than a third party seller. Read more
12-inch 1.2GHz Rose Gold Retina MacBook on sa...
Amazon.com has the 2016 12″ 1.2GHz Rose Gold Retina MacBook on sale for $1254.02 including free shipping. Their price is $345 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model from any... Read more

Jobs Board

Senior *Apple* Administrator - Pratt Instit...
POSITION SUMMARY: Directs the coordination and standardization of campus-wide Apple systems, including planning, analysis and implementation of Apple -related Read more
Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions- Napervi...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
US- *Apple* Store Leader Program - Apple (Un...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.