TweetFollow Us on Twitter

April 91 - Approaching MacApp 3.0

Approaching MacApp 3.0

Chris Knepper, Apple Computer

MacApp 3.0 boasts many enhancements over version 2.0. This article surveys these enhancements, and highlights those areas of interest to the developer. This article assumes familiarity with MacApp 2.0.

System 7 Support

Enhancements for System 7 are the principle features of MacApp 3.0, including full support for the AppleEvents, Edition, Help, and Alias Managers. MacApp provides a powerful object-oriented interface to these Managers, in most cases eliminating the need for developers to access these Managers directly. For example, MacApp 3.0 enables applications to fully support System 7's Edition Manager without ever making a call to any Edition Manager routines.

MacApp 3.0 also supports the new services provided in System 7 by the Gestalt, TextEdit, Resource, and Window Managers. Implementing support for these System 7 managers helped to illuminate many areas where MacApp was deficient. The framework was extended to support the new managers, and it was also improved in many places to address the newly illuminated deficiencies.

AppleEvents

MacApp 3.0 supports the required AppleEvents, and provides a framework for applications to support additional AppleEvents. To do this, MacApp 3.0 includes several new classes, TAppleEvent and TAppleCommand, as well as extensions to TEvtHandler.

MacApp internally represents an AppleEvent as an instance of the TAppleEvent class. The class helps to encapsulate AppleEvent behavior, such as writing to and reading from the AppleEvent message data structure, and retrieving AppleEvent attributes, such as the AppleEvent address and priority.

When MacApp receives an AppleEvent, it creates an instance of TAppleEvent, asks TAppleEvent to internalize the AppleEvent, and then creates a TAppleCommand to serve as a courier of the TAppleEvent. MacApp then propagates the TAppleCommand down the MacApp command handling chain by way of TEvtHandler's DoAppleCommand method.

Edition Manager

To support the Edition Manager, MacApp 3.0 includes various specialized classes for supporting the Edition Manager's menu items: section events (which are Edition Manager AppleEvents) and editions. The TEditionDocument class, a subclass of TFileBasedDocument (described below), encapsulates most of this support. If you subclass your application's document class from TEditionDocument, you'll get support for the Edition Manager menu items, and management of your document's publishers and subscribers.

Although MacApp's support of the Edition Manager required only a few specialized new classes, it illuminated the need for several more-a generalized view adornment for supporting Edition Manager borders, and a mechanism for specifying subranges of data. Also, MacApp now unifies the protocol to support the Edition Manager and the Scrap Manager by way of a flexible stream interface (see below).

A MacApp 3.0 application dispatches Edition Manager AppleEvents, called section events, using its AppleEvent dispatching scheme described above. The TSectionMgr class, a subclass of TEvtHandler, encapsulates handling of the section events. An instance of TSectionMgr is installed at the end of the target chain when an application initializes MacApp's Edition Manager support. TSectionMgr implements a poor-man's AppleEvents Object Model mechanism for targeting the section events to the appropriate section object.

Publishers and Subscribers

To support publishers and subscribers, MacApp 3.0 includes TSection, an abstract class that encapsulates common publisher and subscriber behavior. TSection objects can save themselves to and create themselves from resources which are saved with the document. Each TSection owns a TDesignator (described below) so that each section is associated with a portion of the document. Each section's TDesignator is saved with the section. TPublisher is a specialized subclass of TSection that can create and delete its edition container file (see Inside Macintosh volume VI, chapter 4), write to the container file, and maintain the modification date of the data that is published. TSubscriber is a specialized subclass of TSection that can read its data from an edition container file, and go to its publisher.

View adornment

MacApp 3.0 includes a powerful framework for view adornment that is used to image edition borders. Since adorners influence a view's appearance, edition adorners frame a portion of a view to indicate that the portion is a published or subscribed section. Creating the borders is the responsibility of the document that "owns" the publisher or subscriber, working in cooperation with the view in which the section is imaged.

The generalized view adornment in MacApp 3.0 takes the form of the TAdorner class hierarchy. Adorners, a flexible way of modifying how a view renders, were initially motivated by the need to implement borders, which are required to provide user feedback on editions. Adorners are also used for other purposes, such as adorning controls (as determined by the fAdornment field of TControl), drawing a window's resize icon, and for drawing print feedback.

TView owns a list of TAdorner objects over which the view iterates while rendering. Adorners get a crack at imaging either before or after the view's Draw method is called, depending on the adorner's priority (which is assigned when the adorner is initialized). When adorners get called to Draw, they can assume that their view is focused. This means that there is little overhead to support imaging of adorners since no extra focus is required.

Adorners can be used to augment a view's appearance in a number of ways: giving it a drop shadow, framing it, or (in the case of the Edition Manager) imaging a border for publishers and subscribers imaged in the view.

Interestingly, adding adorners addressed a criticism of MacApp 2.0. They eliminated the need for a Focus call in DrawContents after drawing a view's subviews. This was necessary in MacApp 2.0 to call the view's HighlightSelection method. MacApp 3.0 includes a specialized adorner that simply calls its view's HighlightSelection method. Any view that requires its HighlightSelection method to be called (e.g., TGridView) must attach this adorner. Thus, the overhead for focusing after drawing only occurs if the view has any adorners over which it must iterate. For the common case in which a view has no adorners, the view won't need to focus after drawing.

Designators

MacApp's Edition Manager support leverages heavily off a new feature of MacApp 3.0-designators. It is important to understand and implement support for designators before attempting to implement Edition Manager support. Designators are implemented as a TDesignator class hierarchy.

TDesignator provides support for user selection and sub-range specification in the document. Instances of this class designate a "chunk" of the data managed by the document. For example, a subclass of TDesignator, TLinearDesignator, might represent a linear selection in a word processing document, consisting of a beginning and ending offset into the text. Designators help MacApp implement a simple protocol for talking about the user selection. This is necessary to support the Edition Manager in its mapping of a publisher or subscriber to a chunk of the document.

Help Manager

Extensions to TView to support the Help Manager are another way in which MacApp 3.0 has been enhanced to support System 7. TView now has an instance variable called fHelpID that contains the ID of the help resource for that view. Whenever the mouse is over a view and "Show Balloons" is on, the Help Manager displays a balloon containing the text in the help resource that corresponds to the view's help id.

The sleep region that is computed for the call to WaitNextEvent takes into account any view that handles help. This ensures that if the mouse strays outside the view that handles help, MultiFinder will wake up the application so that MacApp can hide that Help Balloon.

Great New Features

There are several new features in MacApp 3.0 that weren't primarily motivated by the need to support System 7.

Change notification

MacApp 3.0 includes a powerful change notification architecture. This architecture is tightly integrated with TObject, so that any object can register itself as a dependent of any other object and receive update notification when any of its dependents are changed.

The heart of this change notification architecture is the UDependency unit, which implements the TDependencies class (a TSortedDynamicArray), and maintains the dependencies between various objects. For example, you might use this change notification architecture if your application has multiple views on the same data. You would set the views to be dependent on the data objects managed by the application. Whenever any one of the data objects changes, all the views get automatic notification and can render using the new data.

In general, whenever an object changes, a three-phase process occurs:

  • The first phase marks all dependents of the changed object.
  • The second phase updates all dependents by calling HandleUpdate on each dependent. HandleUpdate will do nothing if the object is unmarked. If the object is marked as needing updating, HandleUpdate then calls all the object's notifiers to update themselves if they are in need of updating. HandleUpdate then calls DoUpdate to update the object. Last, HandleUpdate unmarks the object, and asks all dependents to update themselves.
  • The third phase unmarks all dependents.

Using this change notification architecture increased the recalculation speed of the MacApp example spreadsheet, Calc, by several orders of magnitude for a complex spreadsheet.

Behaviors

Another new feature in MacApp 3.0 is TBehavior, which can be attached to any TEvtHandler or subclass to modify the behavior of the TEvtHandler. TBehavior objects get a crack at any user action before the TEvtHandler to which they are attached.

TViewBehavior, a specialized TBehavior, modifies the behavior of views. A subclass of TViewBehavior might intercept a mouse-down on a view to implement selection and dragging of the view. Attaching this behavior to any view would enable the user to drag any view without the view itself having any knowledge of the dragging behavior.

For example, in MacApp 3.0 TPrintHandler descends from TViewBehavior. This allows printing to be thought of as a specialized behavior added to views to augment view behavior with printing capabilities.

Streams

After many years of gestation in the lab, MacApp finally includes a stream unit, thanks to Larry Rosenstein. There is even protocol at the TObject level for writing an object to and reading an object from a stream. At this point, streams are implemented for reading and writing files, editions, and the scrap. Enhancements

New library organization

The most immediately obvious change in MacApp 3.0 may be the new library organization. Each major class now has its own unit. In contrast to MacApp 2.0, which has a public interface consisting of 19 units, 65 classes, and 1404 methods and global routines, MacApp 3.0's public interface currently consists of 59 units, 137 classes, and 2383 methods and global routines. Yet, in spite of this increase to the MacApp libraries, the size of applications that use MacApp 3.0 should not grow by more than a small percentage over the size of comparable 2.0 applications. (The operative word here is "comparable.")

The libraries were reorganized in order to add significant new features to MacApp (such as System 7 support and a flexible change notification mechanism), to incorporate many building blocks (e.g., UTearOffMenu, UFloatWindow, USynchScroller), and to break out classes into their own units (to speed up build times and maintenance).

The result of this new organization is better modularity, allowing classes and methods to be more specialized. It also allows faster access to classes of interest, and reduces build times. For example, a change to TView's DrawContents method simply requires a quick recompile of the UView unit. In MacApp 2.0, a similar change caused a lengthy recompile of the entire UMacApp unit. This change is primarily a benefit to the MacApp team in the development of MacApp, since most developers rarely-if ever-change MacApp source. (Yeah, right.)

Totally revamped TDocument

For those of you who have grown tired of working around TDocument's file-based nature, there is good news. TDocument in MacApp 3.0 is little more than a view manager. TFileBasedDocument, a subclass of TDocument, now contains most of the file-based nature of TDocument. In fact, a new class called TFile encapsulates the knowledge of how to write to and read from disk-based files.

TFileBasedDocument interacts with TFile by means of a new class called TFileHandler. TFileHandler manages the process by which a document writes to or reads from a file. TFileHandler decides which of several algorithms to use when saving the file, and defers to the document when it comes to actually reading a data stream from the file. So, subclasses of TFileBasedDocument can map their data to one or more files by means of several TFileHandler instances, each of which interacts with a given file. This new document architecture has allowed each of these classes to be specialized for their particular task, and for TDocument to be as lean as possible.

TEvent

A new class, TEvent, now encapsulates common behavior for all kinds of events. This unifies all types of events, whether commands posted to the system-such as subclasses of TCommand-or toolbox events, now encapsulated in a new class TDeviceEvent. TCommand has been split into TCommand and TTracker, a descendant of TCommand. This division clarifies the purpose of TCommand.

Any subclass of TCommand that requires mouse tracking should now descend from TTracker. TTracker contains all knowledge of mouse tracking, thus cleaning up TCommand significantly and ensuring that simple subclasses of TCommand don't need to carry around the knowledge of mouse tracking.

TView and floating windows

The change to TView's focusing is a major change that provides significant performance benefits to MacApp 3.0 applications. Essentially, where in MacApp 2.0 views were required to focus before performing any geometric operations (e.g., ViewToQDPt, ValidVRect), MacApp 3.0 views can perform these geometric operations without focusing.

This was accomplished by splitting up TView's Focus into two methods, UpdateCoordinates and Focus. The former is called whenever a view's geometry changes, such as when a view is moved, resized, or added as a subview of another view. The latter is called when a view renders. Consequently, the work required to Focus is reduced, as is the need to focus for a variety of common operations.

Floating windows are now fully integrated.

Attention to detail

Detailed improvements throughout MacApp include: allocators now signal failure, all classes implement Initialize, and many classes implement deep-cloning.

Since allocators now signal failure, it's possible to remove many calls to FailNIL from your code. For example, you no longer have to call FailNIL after creating an instance of a class; the allocator routine that created the instance of that class calls FailNIL for you. This should help to reduce code size.

Since Initialize is now called from the object allocator routine, and all classes implement Initialize, it's now possible to put a newly created object into a known state. This helps significantly in failure handling, so that a newly created object can immediately be freed if a failure occurs. Since the Initialize method isn't allowed to allocate memory, its use is somewhat restricted. However, it is generally useful to modularize initialization of instance variables.

Finally, many classes implement deep-cloning in their Clone method. Deep-cloning is essentially a shallow clone plus special treatment of references to owned objects-in a deep clone, owned objects are also cloned. An object's reference to another object is considered an "owned" reference if the object will be freed in the class' Free method, or if it was created during the class' initialization.

Implementation in C++

MacApp 3.0 is implemented in C++, but will continue to provide complete access from Object Pascal by a set of interfaces. However, C++ users will benefit from powerful new capabilities that use features only available in the C++ language. These capabilities include list iterators and full-blown classes for Rect, Point, VRect, VPoint, and String.

For example, the Rect class contains methods to perform Rect addition, equality tests, and intersections. The String class contains methods to perform string concatenation and character access.

In general, using these classes improves code readability and performance. Where possible, the methods in these classes are declared inline, which eliminates the overhead required for a subroutine call.

Summary

At press time, MacApp 3.0 is in its early alpha stage. All the features and enhancements documented in this article have been implemented. The principle feature in MacApp 3.0 is System 7 support. The other added features were either motivated by developer requests (such as the change to TDocument), or by the need to make up for deficiencies that were illuminated during the implementation of System 7 support.

We hope that MacApp 3.0 will provide developers with a solid basis for development of ever more powerful and attractive applications.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

macOS Server 5.3 - Quickly and easily tu...
macOS Server, designed for macOS and iOS devices, makes it easy to share files, schedule meetings, synchronize contacts, develop software, host your own website, publish wikis, configure Mac, iPhone... Read more
Merlin Project 4.2.0 - Project managemen...
Merlin Project is the leading professional project management software for OS X. If you plan complex projects on your Mac, you won’t get far with a simple list of tasks. Good planning raises... Read more
Skim 1.4.28 - PDF reader and note-taker...
Skim is a PDF reader and note-taker for OS X. It is designed to help you read and annotate scientific papers in PDF, but is also great for viewing any PDF file. Skim includes many features and has a... Read more
RapidWeaver 7.3.2 - Create template-base...
RapidWeaver is a next-generation Web design application to help you easily create professional-looking Web sites in minutes. No knowledge of complex code is required, RapidWeaver will take care of... Read more
Together 3.8.1 - Store and organize all...
Together helps you organize your Mac, giving you the ability to store, edit and preview your files in a single clean, uncluttered interface. Features Smart storage. With simple drag-and-drop... Read more
Apple MainStage 3.3 - Live performance t...
Apple MainStage makes it easy to bring to the stage all the same instruments and effects that you love in your recording. Everything from the Sound Library and Smart Controls you're familiar with... Read more
Apple iOS 10.3 - The latest version of A...
iOS 10 is the biggest release of iOS ever. A massive update to Messages brings the power of the App Store to your conversations and makes messaging more personal than ever. Find your route with... Read more
Postbox 5.0.12 - Powerful and flexible e...
Postbox is a new email application that helps you organize your work life and get stuff done. It has all the elegance and simplicity of Apple Mail, but with more power and flexibility to manage even... Read more
Apple Keynote 7.1 - Apple's present...
Easily create gorgeous presentations with the all-new Keynote, featuring powerful yet easy-to-use tools and dazzling effects that will make you a very hard act to follow. The Theme Chooser lets you... Read more
Apple Pages 6.1 - Apple's word proc...
Apple Pages is a powerful word processor that gives you everything you need to create documents that look beautiful. And read beautifully. It lets you work seamlessly between Mac and iOS devices, and... Read more

Hearthstone celebrates the upcoming Jour...
Hearthstone gets a new expansion, Journey to Un'Goro, in a little over a week, and they'll be welcoming the Year of the Mammoth, the next season, at the same time. There's a lot to be excited about, so Blizzard is celebrating in kind. Players will... | Read more »
4 smart and stylish puzzle games like Ty...
TypeShift launched a little over a week ago, offering some puzzling new challenges for word nerds equipped with an iOS device. Created by Zach Gage, the mind behind Spelltower, TypeShift boasts, like its predecessor, a sleak design and some very... | Read more »
The best deals on the App Store this wee...
Deals, deals, deals. We're all about a good bargain here on 148Apps, and luckily this was another fine week in App Store discounts. There's a big board game sale happening right now, and a few fine indies are still discounted through the weekend.... | Read more »
The best new games we played this week
It's been quite the week, but now that all of that business is out of the way, it's time to hunker down with some of the excellent games that were released over the past few days. There's a fair few to help you relax in your down time or if you're... | Read more »
Orphan Black: The Game (Games)
Orphan Black: The Game 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Dive into a dark and twisted puzzle-adventure that retells the pivotal events of Orphan Black. | Read more »
The Elder Scrolls: Legends is now availa...
| Read more »
Ticket to Earth beginner's guide: H...
Robot Circus launched Ticket to Earth as part of the App Store's indie games event last week. If you're not quite digging the space operatics Mass Effect: Andromeda is serving up, you'll be pleased to know that there's a surprising alternative on... | Read more »
Leap to victory in Nexx Studios new plat...
You’re always a hop, skip, and a jump away from a fiery death in Temple Jump, a new platformer-cum-endless runner from Nexx Studio. It’s out now on both iOS and Android if you’re an adventurer seeking treasure in a crumbling, pixel-laden temple. | Read more »
Failbetter Games details changes coming...
Sunless Sea, Failbetter Games' dark and gloomy sea explorer, sets sail for the iPad tomorrow. Ahead of the game's launch, Failbetter took to Twitter to discuss what will be different in the mobile version of the game. Many of the changes make... | Read more »
Splish, splash! The Pokémon GO Water Fes...
Niantic is back with a new festival for dedicated Pokémon GO collectors. The Water Festival officially kicks off today at 1 P.M. PDT and runs through March 29. Magikarp, Squirtle, Totodile, and their assorted evolved forms will be appearing at... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

13-inch MacBook Airs, Apple refurbished, in s...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at $849. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is free: - 13″ 1.6GHz/8GB/128GB MacBook Air: $... Read more
12-inch Retina MacBooks on sale for $1199, sa...
B&H has 12″ 1.1GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1199 $100 off MSRP - 12″ 1.1GHz... Read more
Save up to $260 with Apple refurbished 12-inc...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 12″ Retina MacBooks available for $200-$260 off MSRP. Apple will include a standard one-year warranty with each MacBook, and shipping is free. The following... Read more
13-inch 2.7GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 2015 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina Apple MacBook Pro on sale for $170 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro (MF839LL/A): $... Read more
15-inch 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 2015 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro (MJLQ2LL/A) on sale for $1799.99 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP. Read more
Save up to $160 with Apple refurbished 9-inch...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 9″ and 12″ Apple iPad Pros available for up to $160 off the cost of new iPads. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 32GB 9″... Read more
Apple Chip Foundry TSMC To Begin A11 System-o...
Digitimes’ Steve Shen is reporting today that according to the Chinese-language Economic Daily News (EDN), chipmaker and major Apple supplier foundery Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC... Read more
MacX MediaTrans 3.5 iOS Data Transfer Spring...
MacXDVD Software has announced general availability of the latest MacX MedTrans 3.5, featuring a new user interface (UI). MacX MediaTrans is ann iPhone manager that enables free data transfer between... Read more
Regular Price $19.95 DupeZap 4 Finder For OS...
Hyperbolic Software has announced the release of DupeZap 4.0.2, their modern duplicate finder developed exclusively for macOS. DupeZap 4 is an utility for Mac owners seeking to reclaim disk space... Read more
B-Eng Releases SSD Health Check for MVNe for...
Fehraltorf, Switzerland based B-Eng has announced the release and immediate availability of SSD Health Check for MVNe for MacBook Pro, their app that delivers important data and insights for MVNe... Read more

Jobs Board

Fulltime aan de slag als shopmanager in een h...
Ben jij helemaal gek van Apple -producten en vind je het helemaal super om fulltime shopmanager te zijn in een jonge en hippe elektronicazaak? Wil jij werken in Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**492889BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Location Number:** 000886-Norwalk-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master do?** Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**492472BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Location Number:** 000470-Seattle-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master do?** Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**492562BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Location Number:** 000853-Jackson-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master do?** Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.