TweetFollow Us on Twitter

September 96 - Mac OS 8 Assistants in System 7 Applications

Mac OS 8 Assistants in System 7 Applications

Jose Arcellana and Arno Gourdol

Assistants are a key part of the Mac OS 8 help system. An assistant makes an application's features easier to use and more readily accessible. In anticipation of Mac OS 8, this article will show you how to build Mac OS 8-style assistants into your System 7 applications, from design to implementation. We illustrate this with a sample assistant developed for the Internet Configuration System.

Developers are constantly pursuing two goals that seem to be at cross-purposes: making applications more powerful and making them easier to use. All too often, power brings complexity, when in fact power can be used to simplify things for the user. Assistants can make the powerful features you're building into your applications easier to access and handle.

An assistant offers the user an alternate interface. It focuses on a specific activity that the average user is likely to want to do and frames the application's functionality to support that activity. The defining aspect of an assistant is the interview, in which the user is asked to supply information about preferences and typical activities accomplished with the application.

Although assistants can be implemented under System 7, they'll be able to do more using Mac OS 8 technologies. In this article, we talk about what Mac OS 8 assistants are and give some general guidelines for designing an interview. We also provide an example of how to implement an interview in System 7. Our sample assistant helps users with the Internet Configuration System (Internet Config), a utility for setting preferences for Internet applications. Internet Config is described in detail in the article "Implementing Shared Internet Preferences With Internet Config" in develop Issue 23. The source code for the Internet Setup Assistant is included on this issue's CD.

    The final name for assistants, which have also been called experts, has not been decided at the time of this writing. Whichever the final name, the interview-based interaction that forms the basis of assistants will be an integral part of the Mac OS 8 help system.*

INTRODUCING ASSISTANTS

An assistant is a small single-purpose application that can do any or all of the following:
  • frame computer-based tasks in terms of real-world activity

  • hide details from the user by filtering out options that aren't applicable

  • pull together elements from different parts of the user interface to support a single activity

  • manage tasks so that they're executed on demand or when a specific condition becomes true

  • help the user provide the information needed by conducting interviews

  • make reasonable assumptions, based on user context and user activity, that work for the vast majority of users
For example, a resume-formatting assistant would ask the user how formal or casual the resume should be. It would then make assumptions, hiding such details as typeface selection and paragraph formatting. An assistant for maintaining a computer would use task scheduling to check for viruses when it makes sense, optimize the hard disk when it needs to, and so on.

At first glance, assistants might seem to resemble Microsoft's wizards. Currently, however, there are differences between them. Wizards don't make reasonable assumptions based on user context and user activity. Instead of filtering out options that aren't applicable, they present all options. While assistants provide an alternate interface to an application or set of applications, wizards might be the only user interface to a task, and they aren't capable of pulling together elements from other places in the interface. Wizards also can't schedule tasks for later execution.

WHEN TO USE ASSISTANTS

Assistants are meant to augment and not replace the more direct ways to control your application. They shouldn't be used to cover up a flawed user interface design, such as dialog boxes or commands that are too difficult to figure out. Users should always be able to do directly in the program's primary interface whatever an assistant does for them indirectly, though it might take more steps to accomplish the task in the primary interface. How do you determine when a specific area of the user interface needs a redesign and when it could use an assistant? In general, an assistant is most effective when it supports an activity that many users want to perform with your application but that can only be accomplished if the user has a better-than-average familiarity with your application's feature set and user interface. For example, we developed an assistant for Internet Config because it takes several steps in different places of the interface to set up your Internet preferences for the first time.

THE INTERVIEW

An assistant conducts a brief interview, consisting of a series of simple questions, to get the information it needs from the user. The interview should be:
  • Short. Ask as few questions as possible. To minimize the number of questions, the assistant should make as many reasonable assumptions as possible.

  • Simple. Make the questions easy to answer. If a difficult question needs to be asked, the interview should provide information that helps the user answer the question.

  • Concise. No words should be wasted, even when providing information to help the user answer a question.

  • Neutral. The tone should be conversational and friendly, not too familiar or too cold.
Note that an interview isn't a dialog box, nor is it a dialog box taken apart and presented in a series of smaller dialog boxes. Adding "Assistant" to the name of a command that calls up a dialog box doesn't make the dialog box an interview or the command an assistant. Finally, the interview isn't a way to give the computer a personality.

THE INTERVIEW WINDOW

The assistant interview takes place in a fixed-size, movable window. Whether it's a regular (document) window, a modal window, or a floating window depends on the context from which you anticipate it being invoked. Assistants should be accessible from appropriate places in your user interface, such as through a menu item or a button in a dialog box. They should be accessible by name (so that the name of the menu item or button is the name of the assistant) or, if the context is clear, by the words "Assist Me." The interview window contains header, content, and navigation areas, as you can see in Figure 1.

Figure 1. A typical assistant interview window

  • If the interview window is a document window, the assistant's name appears in the title bar and the header area displays the interview phase that the user is in. If it's not a document window, the header area displays the assistant's name followed by a colon and the interview phase.

  • The content area contains text (usually a question and a brief explanation) and editable text fields and other controls that are used to answer questions and enter information.

  • The navigation area contains buttons that help the user move through the interview, such as left and right arrow buttons, which lead to the previous or next panel, and a Go Back button that takes the user back to the context from which the assistant was opened. A number between the left and right arrow buttons indicates how many panels the user has been through (see Figure 1).

DESIGNING AN ASSISTANT FOR INTERNET CONFIG

To demonstrate how to add an assistant to your application, the rest of this article describes how we designed and implemented an assistant for Internet Config, a popular shareware utility program.

With Internet Config, the user can create a single file that stores preferences and settings for all Internet services. As long as an e-mail program, Web browser, or other Internet application uses the Internet Config preferences file, the user doesn't have to reenter Internet preferences for each program.

Internet Config's central location for user interaction is the window shown in Figure 2. Clicking each button in the main window brings up a window in which the user enters information and sets preferences.

Figure 2. Internet Config's main window

Internet Config enables users to store a broad range of preferences, from e-mail addresses to file conversion formats. Most users never need to set many of these preferences, but the dedicated Internet habitue probably finds them all useful. Internet Config risks being overwhelming for the sake of completeness -- a perfect opportunity for an assistant. Our assistant makes Internet Config easier to use by helping the user create a preferences file that stores only the preferences that are most commonly set.

DECIDING WHAT THE ASSISTANT WILL DO

In designing an assistant, you need to determine what most of your users will want to do. In the case of Internet Config, recent market studies show that most people use the Internet for e-mail, browsing, and downloading files. Given that information, the Internet Config assistant's functionality should be limited to setting preferences in those areas. The power-surfer minority that wants, for example, to change the default text editor can still do so directly through Internet Config's interface.

Assistants should be made available from wherever they make sense. For the Internet Setup Assistant, it would be helpful to add an Assist Me button to the main Internet Config window and an Internet Setup Assistant command to the Help menu. Application programs that use Internet Config could have a similar button in logical places in their user interfaces. In addition, the Internet Setup Assistant could be automatically displayed the first time the user launches Internet Config.

THE INTERNET CONFIG INTERVIEW

  • Our interview will elicit the information we need in order to store a simplified set of preferences for the user. As shown in Figure 3, the interview begins with an introduction that tells the user in plain language the type of questions that will be asked and describes what the assistant will do (or not do) based on the user's answers.

Figure 3. The Internet Setup Assistant introduction

The next panel, titled "Personal Information," was shown earlier in Figure 1. This panel poses two questions that are easy to answer: it asks for the user's name (filling in a default supplied by the file sharing setup) and company or organization. This starts the interview off smoothly while still obtaining necessary information.

The remaining interview panels that ask questions are listed below (in the order they appear) and are shown in Figure 4. Note that for a few of the questions, the assistant provides some information because the questions might be too difficult for some users to answer. The goal is to keep the interview self-contained, so that the user doesn't need to go to Apple Guide or a manual to figure out what to do.

Figure 4. Internet Setup Assistant interview questions

  • Geographic Location -- This panel asks a question that doesn't directly relate to what the assistant does for the user. Many users might be confused if asked to select an FTP server; instead, the interview asks for the user's location and then the assistant uses the answer to make a reasonable guess as to what the user's default FTP servers are.

  • E-mail Address and Password -- The password appears as bullets when typed and is encrypted.

  • E-mail Account and Host Computer

  • Signature -- This panel asks for a "signature" to be appended to the user's e-mail messages. A line of hyphens is supplied as the default.

  • World Wide Web Home Page -- In Internet Config, setting the Web home page preference takes place in the Other Services window, listed among less commonly used preferences such as the WAIS gateway and the Whois host. Many users might be stumped by these options and not find what they're looking for. Since we've determined that most users are interested in setting their Web site, the interview covers setting this preference. The default Web site entered is taken from the Web browser program.

  • Newsgroup Host Computer
When a user types an answer that's clearly wrong (such as an e-mail address that doesn't include the @ character), we recommend that you integrate the error trapping into the flow of the interview questions, rather than presenting an alert box. For example, when the user clicks the right arrow button and there are invalid values in the current panel, the next panel should point out the error and restate the question. The goal is to preserve the question-and-answer, conversational characteristics of the interview.

Finally, when the assistant has asked all the questions, it presents the conclusion panel (Figure 5). The user can see more details by clicking the Show Details button (which then changes to Hide Details); the assistant shows the information it will use in creating the Internet preferences file (name, organization, e-mail address, and so on), summarizing the user's interview responses.

Figure 5. The Internet Setup Assistant conclusion

That's it: ten questions in seven panels, plus an introduction and a conclusion.

IMPLEMENTING THE INTERVIEW

You can use your favorite application framework to develop an assistant, or write it from scratch as a small application. On this issue's CD, we provide sample code for developing an assistant. We don't recommend using Apple Guide to conduct the interviews. Assistants and Apple Guide are different components of the help system; they should look related but still different from each other. Also, Apple Guide is a less-than-efficient tool for implementing assistant interviews. The programming techniques used in this example are specific to System 7 but will continue to work under Mac OS 8. As long as you avoid using undocumented features or directly accessing data structures that have an accessor routine, your code should work fine under Mac OS 8. In addition, if you insulate your code from specifics of the Macintosh Toolbox, it will be easier to add Mac OS 8 features later on. For some details about Mac OS 8 compatibility, see the article "Planning for Mac OS 8 Compatibility" in develop Issue 26.

Our assistant is based on a simple framework that provides a lightweight object-oriented coating on top of the Macinosh Toolbox. For example, we have classes that provide an object-oriented layer on top of Point (CPoint), Rect (CRect), WindowPtr (CWindow), DialogPtr (CDialog), and so on. We also have a simple application shell, TApplication. Those files are grouped in the framework folder.

The classes aren't dependent on each other, so you can use them easily in your existing application. You can create an assistant dialog by using an object of a TAssistant subclass and sending it the appropriate events. Your usual framework can still be used for handling your event loop and your application's windows. To implement the appearance of assistants using your own framework, check out the TAssistant class to see how we've done it.

The interview is presented in a dialog by a TAssistant object. The class TAssistant is a subclass of CMultiDialog, which allows you to have subdialogs that can be switched in and out as needed. You could use a similar technique to switch among multiple panels in a preferences dialog. Our implementation uses the ShortenDITL and AppendDITL routines, as shown in Listing 1. For another way to change panels, see the article "Multipane Dialogs" in develop Issue 23.



Listing 1. Changing panels in the assistant's interview
void CMultiDialog::SetSubDialog(SInt16 subDialogID)
{
   if (GetWindowRef() == NULL)
      CreateWindow();
   
   if (GetSubDialog() != subDialogID) {
      // Save parameters in current panel.
      for (int i = 0; i < kDialogParametersCount; i++) {
         if (fParameters[i].dialogItem != 0)
            GetItemText(fParameters[i].dialogItem,
                fParameters[i].value);
      }

      // Remove items from current dialog.
      if (fSubDialogID > 0)
         ShortenDITL(GetDialogRef(), 
                     CountDITL(GetDialogRef()) - fCommonItems);
      
      fSubDialogID = subDialogID;

      {
         // Add new dialog items to the dialog.
         Handle items = GetResource('DITL', GetSubDialog());
         assert(items != NULL);
         AppendDITL(GetDialogRef(), items, overlayDITL);
         ReleaseResource(items);
      }

      // Prepare the items in the dialog.
      DoPrepareDialog();
   }
}


When dialogs are displayed in assistants, you often need to capture the information the user enters so that you can put it back if the user goes back to that panel. You need to be able to do this until the user clicks the Go Ahead button in the last panel. To simplify this task, we substitute a key string, which is stored in the DITL of the dialog, for a string that can change dynamically. The substitution is done each time the dialog is displayed. Listing 2 shows how to substitute parameters in the dialog by replacing any instance of a key that appears in a static or editable text dialog item with a corresponding value. In addition, if an editable text item contains only a key, the value entered in the dialog will be associated with the key. This is an extended version of the ^0 parameter substitution done by the Dialog Manager.



Listing 2. Substituting parameter values in dialogs
void CDialog::SubstituteParameters(void)
{
   LazyHandle   substitutionText, itemText;

   // Reset the association between parameters and dialog items.
   for (int i = 0; i < kDialogParametersCount; i++)
      fParameters[i].dialogItem = 0;

   // Loop through all dialog items.
   for (int item = 1, itemCount = CountDITL(GetDialogRef());
        item <= itemCount; item++) {
      SInt16 itemType = GetItemType(item);

      // If it's a static or editable text item...
      if (itemType == kEditTextDialogItem || 
          itemType == kStaticTextDialogItem) {
         Boolean itemTextChanged = false;
         
         // Copy the text to a handle.
         Str255 itemTextString;
         GetItemText(item, itemTextString);
         itemText.Set(&itemTextString[1], itemTextString[0]);
         
         // Loop through the parameters.
         for (int j = 0; j < kDialogParametersCount; j++) {
            // If the parameter is used as a nonempty key...
            if (fParameters[j].key[0] != 0) {
               if (itemType == kEditTextDialogItem &&
                   ::IdenticalString (itemTextString, 
                        fParameters[j].key, NULL) == 0) {
                  // If the edit field contains only the key,
                  // associate the item index with the parameter. The
                  // parameter value is updated when the text
                  // changes.
                  fParameters[j].dialogItem = item;
               }
               {
                  // Replace the key with the parameter value, using
                  // the Script Manager.
                  substitutionText.Set(&fParameters[j].value[1],
                      fParameters[j].value[0]);
                  if (::ReplaceText(itemText, substitutionText,
                          fParameters[j].key) > 0)
                     itemTextChanged = true;
               }
            }
         }
         if (itemTextChanged) {
            // The item text has changed. Put the modified text back
            // in the dialog item.
            Str255 s;
            s[0] = itemText.GetSize();
            BlockMoveData(*itemText, &s[1], s[0]);
            SetItemText(item, s);
         }
      }
   }
}


When the assistant starts up, we try to capture as much information as possible about the user's environment. For example, we use Internet Config information that the user has previously entered.

When the user has entered all the information we ask for and clicked the Go Ahead button, we again use Internet Config, this time to set the user's preferences. The CInternetConfig class provides a C++ wrapper to the Internet Config API. See the details in the source code.

THE POWER OF ASSISTANCE

As you can see, the Internet Setup Assistant doesn't try to do everything for all users. Instead, it helps complete tasks in a way that a majority of users will find useful and valuable.

This sample assistant, though a relatively unambitious demonstration, should start you thinking about how to design and develop assistants for your own applications. Nothing is quite as powerful as simplicity.


    RELATED READING

    • "Implementing Shared Internet Preferences With Internet Config" by Quinn "The Eskimo!", develop Issue 23.

    • "Multipane Dialogs" by Norman Franke, develop Issue 23.

    • "Planning for Mac OS 8 Compatibility" by Steve Falkenburg, develop Issue 26.

    • Mac OS 8 Revealed by Tony Francis (Addison-Wesley, 1996), Chapter 13, "Assistance Services."


JOSE ARCELLANA (arcellan@apple.com) is a human interface designer working on Mac OS 8 assistants, Apple Guide, and related technologies. He lives a rich analog life with his wife, their four-year-old child, and a yellow Labrador retriever in an 86-year-old Craftsman bungalow in Oakland. The house has lots of books, four guitars, and no television.*

ARNO GOURDOL (arno@apple.com) has been spotted on top of various San Francisco Bay Area chthonic protrusions with a merry group of Moof hikers in a futile attempt to cure his acrophobia. He has recently been engrossed by the Epic of Gilgamesh and would love to find someone with a good copy of the twelve tablets. In his spare time, Arno is the technical lead of the Mac OS 8 assistance and related technologies team.*

Thanks to our technical reviewers Deeje Cooley, Winston Hendrickson, Rick Mann, Jim Palmer, and Jim Rodden.*

 
AAPL
$111.78
Apple Inc.
-0.87
MSFT
$47.66
Microsoft Corpora
+0.14
GOOG
$516.35
Google Inc.
+5.25

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

LibreOffice 4.3.5.2 - Free Open Source o...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
CleanApp 5.0.0 Beta 5 - Application dein...
CleanApp is an application deinstaller and archiver.... Your hard drive gets fuller day by day, but do you know why? CleanApp 5 provides you with insights how to reclaim disk space. There are... Read more
Monolingual 1.6.2 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. It requires a 64-bit capable Intel-based Mac and at least... Read more
NetShade 6.1 - Browse privately using an...
NetShade is an Internet security tool that conceals your IP address on the web. NetShade routes your Web connection through either a public anonymous proxy server, or one of NetShade's own dedicated... Read more
calibre 2.13 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Mellel 3.3.7 - Powerful word processor w...
Mellel is the leading word processor for OS X and has been widely considered the industry standard since its inception. Mellel focuses on writers and scholars for technical writing and multilingual... Read more
ScreenFlow 5.0.1 - Create screen recordi...
Save 10% with the exclusive MacUpdate coupon code: AFMacUpdate10 Buy now! ScreenFlow is powerful, easy-to-use screencasting software for the Mac. With ScreenFlow you can record the contents of your... Read more
Simon 4.0 - Monitor changes and crashes...
Simon monitors websites and alerts you of crashes and changes. Select pages to monitor, choose your alert options, and customize your settings. Simon does the rest. Keep a watchful eye on your... Read more
BBEdit 11.0.2 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
ExpanDrive 4.2.1 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Make your own Tribez Figures (and More)...
Make your own Tribez Figures (and More) with Toyze Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
So Many Holiday iOS Sales Oh My Goodness...
The holiday season is in full-swing, which means a whole lot of iOS apps and games are going on sale. A bunch already have, in fact. Naturally this means we’re putting together a hand-picked list of the best discounts and sales we can find in order... | Read more »
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode f...
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode for Angry Birds Epic Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minec...
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minecraft: Story Mode – A Telltale Games Series Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their...
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their New Game: Tempo Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] WarChest Ltd and Splash Damage Ltd are teaming up again to work | Read more »
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary...
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary with a Bunch of Free Games Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] BulkyPix has | Read more »
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking F...
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking Fever’s new sushi-themed update Posted by Simon Reed on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Lithuanian developer Nordcurrent has yet again updated its restaurant simulat | Read more »
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to C...
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to Celebrate 20 Million Downloads Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Desti...
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Destiny, and Beyond – AppSpy Takes a Look at AAA Companion Apps Posted by Rob Rich on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] These day | Read more »
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Fre...
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Free for the Holidays Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Kodak Returns to CES With New Consumer Produ...
Former photography colossus Kodak is returning to CES for the first time in three years where the Kodak booth (#21818 South Hall 1) will showcase a wide range of innovative, imaging-related products... Read more
Invaluable Launches New Eponymously -Named A...
Invaluable, the world’s largest online live auction marketplace, hhas announced the official launch of the Invaluable app for iPad, now available for download in the iTunes App Store. Invaluable... Read more
IDC Reveals Worldwide Mobile Enterprise Appli...
International Data Corporation (IDC) last week hosted the IDC FutureScape: Worldwide Mobile Enterprise Applications and Solutions 2015 Predictions Web conference. The session provided organizations... Read more
Hello Vino Wine App Launches “Safe Ride Home”...
Hello Vino has announced addition of a new “Get a Safe Ride Home” feature in its Food & Drink app with a direct connection to Uber, the technology platform that connects users with rides. The... Read more
DEVON-technologies Releases DEVONthink To Go...
Coeur d’Alene, Idaho based DEVON-technologies, LLC has updated DEVONthink To Go, its mobile companion to DEVONthink, to version 1.5. The update includes an iOS 8 extension, compatibility with the... Read more
The Apple Store offering free next-day shippi...
The Apple Store is now offering free next-day shipping on all in stock items if ordered before 12/23/14 at 10:00am PT. Local store pickup is also available within an hour of ordering for any in stock... Read more
It’s 1992 Again At Sony Pictures, Except For...
Techcrunch’s John Biggs interviewed a Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) employee, who quite understandably wished to remain anonymous, regarding post-hack conditions in SPE’s L.A office, explaining “... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Pros for...
 B&H Photo has new MacBook Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP as part of their Holiday pricing. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1699... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Airs for...
B&H Photo has 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP, for a limited time, for the Thanksgiving/Christmas Holiday shopping season. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: iMacs for up to $...
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. B&H will also include a free copy of Parallels Desktop software: - 21″ 1.4GHz... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Store Leader Program (US) - Apple, I...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on experience, Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.