TweetFollow Us on Twitter

March 96 - Print Hints: QuickDraw GX Breaks the Space Hack

Print Hints: QuickDraw GX Breaks the Space Hack

Dave Polaschek

Before QuickDraw GX, when an application that generated its own PostScript(TM) code wanted to make sure the printer could print a particular font, it could send one space character in the needed font. The LaserWriter driver would check the printer to see if the font was available, and if not, the driver would send the font to the printer so that it would be available to print the space character -- and any other characters in that font that the application-generated PostScript code might require. The reason for using a space was simple: you didn't want to mark the page just to get a font to the printer, and a space wouldn't mark it. This technique, first described in "The Perils of PostScript" back in develop Issue 1, became known as the "space hack."

Unfortunately, the space hack doesn't work with QuickDraw GX. This column describes a new way for applications that generate their own PostScript code to send fonts to the printer. The code to do this is provided on this issue's CD.

QUICKDRAW GX CHANGES THE PICTURE

QuickDraw GX has a really cool imaging model, supports all kinds of whizzy features, and to top it off, introduces the long-awaited new printing architecture. But it has one snag: after all the years you've spent getting your PostScript printing tuned just the way you like it, QuickDraw GX breaks the space hack.

The space hack depends on a font's entire character set being sent to the printer in response to the need for a single character (the space character). But QuickDraw GX sends only the needed characters in a font to a printer, because it's trying to conserve memory on the printer and also because sending less data means faster transmission of that data. This isn't such a big issue with Roman fonts, where there are only 256 characters at most, but in the case of two-byte fonts such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean fonts, where there can be tens of thousands of characters and the font can be tens of megabytes in size, sending only the required characters makes a big difference in speed.

Incidentally, with QuickDraw GX you don't need a specialized printer to print two-byte fonts. It divides fonts with more than 256 characters into several smaller fonts with new encodings containing just the characters you need, so you can print characters from the font on any PostScript printer.

THE NEW WAY TO DOWNLOAD FONTS

So QuickDraw GX has lots of advantages over QuickDraw, but the space hack is broken. What's the poor programmer to do?

You can use a new font downloading method based on calling GXFlattenFont, a handy function introduced with QuickDraw GX, to convert the font to a form that's easily sent to the printer. GXFlattenFont is intended to convert any font present on your Macintosh into the output font format of your choice. (Conversion is limited by the capabilities of the scalers present, as explained in "QuickDraw GX Font Scalers.")

    QUICKDRAW GX FONT SCALERS

    The QuickDraw GX Open Font Architecture accepts drop-in font scalers. A font scaler is a bit of code that takes a font of a given type and converts it to bitmaps for display. It also converts fonts to outline format and can optionally convert a font to another font format. QuickDraw GX includes three default scalers:

    • the bitmap scaler, which is essentially the same as in QuickDraw
    • the TrueType GX scaler, which supports the TrueType GX format
    • the Type 1 scaler, which is part of Adobe(TM) Type Manager

    All of these default scalers are capable of generating bitmaps for screen display and PostScript fonts for printing. Only the TrueType GX scaler can generate downloadable TrueType fonts.

GXFlattenFont can produce Type 1 data that's ready to be sent to your PostScript printer with no problem.

Now let's turn to the code that replaces the old space hack. The rough idea is to call GXFlattenFont on a QuickDraw font reference and a set of characters (an encoding) that you need to print, and return the result in a form that's easy to send to the printer. For simplicity, if no encoding is present, we use the standard Macintosh encoding. Listing 1 shows a font-downloading routine, FontToPict, that uses this technique if QuickDraw GX is installed. (This is a somewhat simplified version; see the CD for the full code of FontToPict and its related utility functions.)

Listing 1. FontToPict

PicHandle FontToPict(short qdFont, short qdStyle)
{
   Rect         theRect = {0, 0, 1, 1};
   PicHandle      thePict = OpenPicture(&theRect);
   const   short   kPostScriptHandle = 192;

   // If QuickDraw GX is installed, use the new method.
   if (GXInstalled()) {
      Handle            piccommentHdl;
      unsigned   short   *myEncoding = nil;
      
      MakePSHandle(qdFont, qdStyle, myEncoding, &piccommentHdl);
      PicComment(kPostScriptHandle, GetHandleSize(piccommentHdl),
          piccommentHdl);
   } else {
     // If QuickDraw GX isn't installed, use the old method.
      Point   penPoint;

      // We would normally set the clip here, but since we're just
      // drawing a space there's no need.
      GetPen(&penPoint);             // Save the pen location.
      TextFont(qdFont);
      TextFace(qdStyle);
      DrawChar(' ');
      MoveTo(penPoint.h, penPoint.v);    // Restore the pen location.
   }
   ClosePicture();
   return (thePict);
)
FontToPict starts by checking to see if QuickDraw GX is installed. If not, it uses the old hack of printing a space; otherwise, it calls MakePSHandle (Listing 2), which calls the utility function ConvertQDFontToGXFont to convert the QuickDraw font reference into a QuickDraw GX font reference. MakePSHandle then checks to see if an encoding has been passed in; if not, it builds the standard Macintosh encoding. Next it calls FontToHandle, which is just a wrapper for GXFlattenFont. GXFlattenFont converts the specified font to the Type 1 format. Error-handling and cleanup code is last. Simplicity itself! The result, whether QuickDraw GX is present or not, is a PICT that you can send to the printer by calling DrawPicture once the printer port has been opened.

When calling MakePSHandle, you should specify an encoding array that contains the characters you intend to actually print. This prevents QuickDraw GX from sending the entire font to the printer and becomes very important when you make your application WorldScript aware. There's an #ifdef in the code on the CD that generates only the encoding array you need in order to use a portion of the font. As mentioned earlier, with Chinese, Japanese, and Korean fonts, sending only the characters you need can make the difference between sending a few kilobytes or many megabytes of data to the printer. If you don't use the entire font, remember to encode the characters that you want to draw, using the same encoding that you passed in to the MakePSHandle function.

Listing 2. MakePSHandle

OSErr MakePSHandle(short qdFont, char qdStyle,
    unsigned short *encodingArray, Handle *outputHandle)
{
   OSErr            status = noErr;
   gxFont            theFont;
   unsigned short   *myEncoding;
   Boolean         madeEncoding = false;

   // Convert to a QuickDraw GX font reference.
   theFont = ConvertQDFontToGXFont(qdFont, qdStyle);

   // If no encoding, create the standard Macintosh encoding.
   if (!encodingArray) {
      long   returnLength;

      myEncoding =
          (unsigned short *)NewPtrClear(256 * sizeof(short));
      returnLength = MakeMac8BitEncoding(theFont, myEncoding);
      if (returnLength != 256) {
         DebugStr("\pHmm. We didn't get a full encoding.");
         return (returnLength);      // Pass the error along.
      }
      madeEncoding = true;
   } else {
      myEncoding = encodingArray;
   }

   *outputHandle = FontToHandle(theFont, myEncoding);
   if (madeEncoding) DisposePtr((Ptr)myEncoding);

   status = MemError();
   if (status == noErr) {
      status = GXGetGraphicsError(nil);
      if (status != noErr) {
         DisposeHandle(*outputHandle);
         *outputHandle = nil;
      }
   }
   return (status);
}
You may want to have HandleSpoolProc (which is called by GXFlattenFont and included on the CD) spool directly to the printer via picture comments. This way you won't need memory available to hold the font data at the intermediate steps.

DOWNLOADING HAPPINESS

The new font downloading method takes a little more work but produces better results in your printer font handling. You can easily send needed fonts to the printer, either the whole font or only the characters you'll be using. As a side benefit, you get support for two-byte font systems without having to write custom code for handling the large fonts or, worse yet, having to depend on the fonts being installed on the printer in a specific manner. Even if you're not ready to add QuickDraw GX imaging to your application today, adding QuickDraw GX compatibility improves the printing experience for your customers.

DAVE POLASCHEK recently relocated to California to join Apple's Developer Technical Support group. He's been told that supporting printing leads to hair loss and insanity. Dave previously lived in beautiful sunny Minnesota, and wonders if he'll get used to the harsh San Francisco Bay Area winters before he's bald and crazy, or if it's already too late.*

Thanks to Dan Lipton for providing the idea and core code illustrating the new font downloading method, and to Pete "Luke" Alexander, Dave Hersey, and Dan Lipton for reviewing this column.*

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

How to evolve Eevee in Pokemon GO
By now, almost everyone should be hip to how to evolve Pokemon in Pokemon GO (and if not, there's a guide for that). Just gather enough candy of the appropriate type, feed them all to the Pokemon, and evolution happens. It's a miracle that would... | Read more »
CSR Racing 2: Guide to all game modes
It might not seem like there are all that many ways to go fast in a straight line, but CSR Racing 2 begs to differ. [Read more] | Read more »
Bulb Boy (Games)
Bulb Boy 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Multi-award winning 2D point & click horror adventure about a boy with a glowing head. | Read more »
5 top free emoji keyboard apps
If we're not at peak emoji yet as a society, it feels like we definitely should be. The emoji concept has gone far beyond what anyone in Japan could have envisioned when the people there unleashed it on an unsuspecting world, but the West has... | Read more »
How to unlock more characters in Disney...
One of the big charms of Disney Emoji Blitz is seeing a wide variety of beloved Disney and Pixar characters transformed into smiling emojis. Even someone like the sneaky Randall from Monsters Inc., who probably never cracked a smile on film, is... | Read more »
Cubway (Games)
Cubway 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Cubway is a journey with an abstract story of lifecycle of rebirth, called Samsara. Guide the cube through the long way full of dangers... | Read more »
Colorcube (Games)
Colorcube 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Turn pieces and blend colours in this minimal yet visually stunning puzzler.Over 200 handcrafted and challenging levels. Features... | Read more »
Doodle God Griddlers (Games)
Doodle God Griddlers 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »
Crusader Kings: Chronicles (Games)
Crusader Kings: Chronicles 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Crusader Kings: Chronicles is an interactive text based game that puts you in the shoes of Guy de Rose as you make... | Read more »
Roads of Rome: New Generation (Games)
Roads of Rome: New Generation 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $5.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Charitybuzz Set to Auction Unique Apple-1 Com...
Offering an opportunity to own the computer that sparked a revolution, on Monday, July 25, leading online charity auction platform Charitybuzz will auction what is claimed to be the world’s most... Read more
MacBook Airs on sale for up to $150 off MSRP
Amazon has 11″ and 13″ MacBook Airs on sale for up to $150 off MSRP for a limited time. Shipping is free: - 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air (sku MMGF2LL/A): $899.99 $100 off MSRP - 13″ 1.6GHz/256GB... Read more
Apple refurbished 13-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $270 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.7GHz... Read more
Apple refurbished 11-inch MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 11″ MacBook Airs (the latest models), available for up to $170 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each MacBook, and shipping is... Read more
Apple iPad Pro Sales Far Outpacing Microsoft...
A report on Appleinsider notes that despite Microsoft Surface tablet PC sales growing by 9 percent year over year, revenues remained below $1 billion, and are down sequentially from the $1.1 billion... Read more
DEVONthink 2.9 Features Ultra-fast, Robust, A...
DEVONthink 2.9 allows users to keep databases synchronized using many means of transport. It transmits them between Macs on the local network or stores them in a syncable form on removable hard... Read more
12-inch WiFi Apple iPad Pros on sale for up t...
B&H Photo has 12″ WiFi iPad Pros on sale for up to $100 off MSRP, each including free shipping. B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 12″ Space Gray 32GB WiFi iPad Pro: $749 $50 off MSRP - 12″... Read more
Apple refurbished 15-inch Retina MacBook Pros...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 15″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $380 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 15″ 2... Read more
Apple refurbished Mac minis available for up...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Mac minis available starting at $419. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each mini, and shipping is free: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $419 $80 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac... Read more
Apple Mac Sales Finally Colliding With ‘Innov...
After successfully swimming against a tide of diminishing PC sales through 2014 and 2015, it appears that Apple has finally stopped defying gravity and is running up against the unwritten “innovate... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Solutions Consultant - APPLE (United...
Job Summary As an Apple Solutions Consultant, you'll be the link between our future customers and our products. You'll showcase your entrepreneurial spirit as you Read more
*Apple* Professional Learning Specialist - A...
Job Summary The Apple Professional Learning Specialist is a full-time position for one year with Apple in the Phoenix, AZ area. This position requires a high Read more
*Apple* Picker - Apple Hill Orchard (United...
Apple Hill Orchard, Co. Rte. 21,Whitehall, NY 9/7/16-10/228/16. Pick fresh market or processing apples Productivity of 60 boxes and 80 boxes processing fruit per Read more
*Apple* Solutions Consultant - APPLE (United...
Job Summary As an Apple Solutions Consultant, you'll be the link between our future customers and our products. You'll showcase your entrepreneurial spirit as you Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description:SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.