TweetFollow Us on Twitter

March 96 - Print Hints: QuickDraw GX Breaks the Space Hack

Print Hints: QuickDraw GX Breaks the Space Hack

Dave Polaschek

Before QuickDraw GX, when an application that generated its own PostScript(TM) code wanted to make sure the printer could print a particular font, it could send one space character in the needed font. The LaserWriter driver would check the printer to see if the font was available, and if not, the driver would send the font to the printer so that it would be available to print the space character -- and any other characters in that font that the application-generated PostScript code might require. The reason for using a space was simple: you didn't want to mark the page just to get a font to the printer, and a space wouldn't mark it. This technique, first described in "The Perils of PostScript" back in develop Issue 1, became known as the "space hack."

Unfortunately, the space hack doesn't work with QuickDraw GX. This column describes a new way for applications that generate their own PostScript code to send fonts to the printer. The code to do this is provided on this issue's CD.

QUICKDRAW GX CHANGES THE PICTURE

QuickDraw GX has a really cool imaging model, supports all kinds of whizzy features, and to top it off, introduces the long-awaited new printing architecture. But it has one snag: after all the years you've spent getting your PostScript printing tuned just the way you like it, QuickDraw GX breaks the space hack.

The space hack depends on a font's entire character set being sent to the printer in response to the need for a single character (the space character). But QuickDraw GX sends only the needed characters in a font to a printer, because it's trying to conserve memory on the printer and also because sending less data means faster transmission of that data. This isn't such a big issue with Roman fonts, where there are only 256 characters at most, but in the case of two-byte fonts such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean fonts, where there can be tens of thousands of characters and the font can be tens of megabytes in size, sending only the required characters makes a big difference in speed.

Incidentally, with QuickDraw GX you don't need a specialized printer to print two-byte fonts. It divides fonts with more than 256 characters into several smaller fonts with new encodings containing just the characters you need, so you can print characters from the font on any PostScript printer.

THE NEW WAY TO DOWNLOAD FONTS

So QuickDraw GX has lots of advantages over QuickDraw, but the space hack is broken. What's the poor programmer to do?

You can use a new font downloading method based on calling GXFlattenFont, a handy function introduced with QuickDraw GX, to convert the font to a form that's easily sent to the printer. GXFlattenFont is intended to convert any font present on your Macintosh into the output font format of your choice. (Conversion is limited by the capabilities of the scalers present, as explained in "QuickDraw GX Font Scalers.")

    QUICKDRAW GX FONT SCALERS

    The QuickDraw GX Open Font Architecture accepts drop-in font scalers. A font scaler is a bit of code that takes a font of a given type and converts it to bitmaps for display. It also converts fonts to outline format and can optionally convert a font to another font format. QuickDraw GX includes three default scalers:

    • the bitmap scaler, which is essentially the same as in QuickDraw
    • the TrueType GX scaler, which supports the TrueType GX format
    • the Type 1 scaler, which is part of Adobe(TM) Type Manager

    All of these default scalers are capable of generating bitmaps for screen display and PostScript fonts for printing. Only the TrueType GX scaler can generate downloadable TrueType fonts.

GXFlattenFont can produce Type 1 data that's ready to be sent to your PostScript printer with no problem.

Now let's turn to the code that replaces the old space hack. The rough idea is to call GXFlattenFont on a QuickDraw font reference and a set of characters (an encoding) that you need to print, and return the result in a form that's easy to send to the printer. For simplicity, if no encoding is present, we use the standard Macintosh encoding. Listing 1 shows a font-downloading routine, FontToPict, that uses this technique if QuickDraw GX is installed. (This is a somewhat simplified version; see the CD for the full code of FontToPict and its related utility functions.)

Listing 1. FontToPict

PicHandle FontToPict(short qdFont, short qdStyle)
{
   Rect         theRect = {0, 0, 1, 1};
   PicHandle      thePict = OpenPicture(&theRect);
   const   short   kPostScriptHandle = 192;

   // If QuickDraw GX is installed, use the new method.
   if (GXInstalled()) {
      Handle            piccommentHdl;
      unsigned   short   *myEncoding = nil;
      
      MakePSHandle(qdFont, qdStyle, myEncoding, &piccommentHdl);
      PicComment(kPostScriptHandle, GetHandleSize(piccommentHdl),
          piccommentHdl);
   } else {
     // If QuickDraw GX isn't installed, use the old method.
      Point   penPoint;

      // We would normally set the clip here, but since we're just
      // drawing a space there's no need.
      GetPen(&penPoint);             // Save the pen location.
      TextFont(qdFont);
      TextFace(qdStyle);
      DrawChar(' ');
      MoveTo(penPoint.h, penPoint.v);    // Restore the pen location.
   }
   ClosePicture();
   return (thePict);
)
FontToPict starts by checking to see if QuickDraw GX is installed. If not, it uses the old hack of printing a space; otherwise, it calls MakePSHandle (Listing 2), which calls the utility function ConvertQDFontToGXFont to convert the QuickDraw font reference into a QuickDraw GX font reference. MakePSHandle then checks to see if an encoding has been passed in; if not, it builds the standard Macintosh encoding. Next it calls FontToHandle, which is just a wrapper for GXFlattenFont. GXFlattenFont converts the specified font to the Type 1 format. Error-handling and cleanup code is last. Simplicity itself! The result, whether QuickDraw GX is present or not, is a PICT that you can send to the printer by calling DrawPicture once the printer port has been opened.

When calling MakePSHandle, you should specify an encoding array that contains the characters you intend to actually print. This prevents QuickDraw GX from sending the entire font to the printer and becomes very important when you make your application WorldScript aware. There's an #ifdef in the code on the CD that generates only the encoding array you need in order to use a portion of the font. As mentioned earlier, with Chinese, Japanese, and Korean fonts, sending only the characters you need can make the difference between sending a few kilobytes or many megabytes of data to the printer. If you don't use the entire font, remember to encode the characters that you want to draw, using the same encoding that you passed in to the MakePSHandle function.

Listing 2. MakePSHandle

OSErr MakePSHandle(short qdFont, char qdStyle,
    unsigned short *encodingArray, Handle *outputHandle)
{
   OSErr            status = noErr;
   gxFont            theFont;
   unsigned short   *myEncoding;
   Boolean         madeEncoding = false;

   // Convert to a QuickDraw GX font reference.
   theFont = ConvertQDFontToGXFont(qdFont, qdStyle);

   // If no encoding, create the standard Macintosh encoding.
   if (!encodingArray) {
      long   returnLength;

      myEncoding =
          (unsigned short *)NewPtrClear(256 * sizeof(short));
      returnLength = MakeMac8BitEncoding(theFont, myEncoding);
      if (returnLength != 256) {
         DebugStr("\pHmm. We didn't get a full encoding.");
         return (returnLength);      // Pass the error along.
      }
      madeEncoding = true;
   } else {
      myEncoding = encodingArray;
   }

   *outputHandle = FontToHandle(theFont, myEncoding);
   if (madeEncoding) DisposePtr((Ptr)myEncoding);

   status = MemError();
   if (status == noErr) {
      status = GXGetGraphicsError(nil);
      if (status != noErr) {
         DisposeHandle(*outputHandle);
         *outputHandle = nil;
      }
   }
   return (status);
}
You may want to have HandleSpoolProc (which is called by GXFlattenFont and included on the CD) spool directly to the printer via picture comments. This way you won't need memory available to hold the font data at the intermediate steps.

DOWNLOADING HAPPINESS

The new font downloading method takes a little more work but produces better results in your printer font handling. You can easily send needed fonts to the printer, either the whole font or only the characters you'll be using. As a side benefit, you get support for two-byte font systems without having to write custom code for handling the large fonts or, worse yet, having to depend on the fonts being installed on the printer in a specific manner. Even if you're not ready to add QuickDraw GX imaging to your application today, adding QuickDraw GX compatibility improves the printing experience for your customers.

DAVE POLASCHEK recently relocated to California to join Apple's Developer Technical Support group. He's been told that supporting printing leads to hair loss and insanity. Dave previously lived in beautiful sunny Minnesota, and wonders if he'll get used to the harsh San Francisco Bay Area winters before he's bald and crazy, or if it's already too late.*

Thanks to Dan Lipton for providing the idea and core code illustrating the new font downloading method, and to Pete "Luke" Alexander, Dave Hersey, and Dan Lipton for reviewing this column.*

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

TrailRunner 3.8.834 - Route planning for...
TrailRunner is the perfect companion for runners, bikers, hikers, and all people wandering under the sky. Plan routes on a geographical map. Import GPS or workout recordings and journalize your... Read more
iFFmpeg 6.2.5 - Convert multimedia files...
iFFmpeg is a comprehensive media tool to convert movie, audio and media files between formats. The FFmpeg command line instructions can be very hard to master/understand, so iFFmpeg does all the hard... Read more
DaisyDisk 4.4 - $9.99
DaisyDisk allows you to visualize your disk usage and free up disk space by quickly finding and deleting big unused files. The program scans your disk and displays its content as a sector diagram... Read more
iFFmpeg 6.2.5 - Convert multimedia files...
iFFmpeg is a comprehensive media tool to convert movie, audio and media files between formats. The FFmpeg command line instructions can be very hard to master/understand, so iFFmpeg does all the hard... Read more
DaisyDisk 4.4 - $9.99
DaisyDisk allows you to visualize your disk usage and free up disk space by quickly finding and deleting big unused files. The program scans your disk and displays its content as a sector diagram... Read more
BetterTouchTool 2.07 - Customize Multi-T...
BetterTouchTool adds many new, fully customizable gestures to the Magic Mouse, Multi-Touch MacBook trackpad, and Magic Trackpad. These gestures are customizable: Magic Mouse: Pinch in / out (zoom... Read more
BetterTouchTool 2.071 - Customize Multi-...
BetterTouchTool adds many new, fully customizable gestures to the Magic Mouse, Multi-Touch MacBook trackpad, and Magic Trackpad. These gestures are customizable: Magic Mouse: Pinch in / out (zoom... Read more
BetterTouchTool 2.07 - Customize Multi-T...
BetterTouchTool adds many new, fully customizable gestures to the Magic Mouse, Multi-Touch MacBook trackpad, and Magic Trackpad. These gestures are customizable: Magic Mouse: Pinch in / out (zoom... Read more
PDFpen 8.3.2 - $74.95
PDFpen allows users to easily edit PDF's. Add text, images and signatures. Fill out PDF forms. Merge or split PDF documents. Reorder and delete pages. Even correct text and edit graphics! Features... Read more
DiskCatalogMaker 6.5.20 - Catalog your d...
DiskCatalogMaker is a simple disk management tool which catalogs disks. Simple, light-weight, and fast Finder-like intuitive look and feel Super-fast search algorithm Can compress catalog data for... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Pokémon GO Generation 2 evolution guide
At long last, Niantic Labs finally unleashed the Generation 2 Pokémon into the wild. Pokémon GO trainers are scrambling to grab up this new set of 80 Pokémon. There are some special new tricks required to catch all of these new beasties, though.... | Read more »
The best new games we played this week
It feels as though the New Year got off to a creaking start as far as mobile games go, but that's changed over the past few weeks. The last few days alone have seen the debut of a number of wonderful games, so we thought we'd take the time to... | Read more »
Recruit more scallywags and discover new...
Get ready to show off your sea legs all over again in Oceans & Empires’ new grand update, which aims to make the act of rising to the role of seven seas ruler even more fresh and appealing, thanks to a richness of new content on both iOS and... | Read more »
Mage the Ascension: Refuge (Games)
Mage the Ascension: Refuge 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The groundbreaking roleplaying game Mage: The Ascension manifests in our turbulent present with Refuge, an... | Read more »
Vampire: Prelude (Games)
Vampire: Prelude 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: The classic roleplaying game Vampire: The Masquerade returns to digital games with a Prelude of things to come. Experience a... | Read more »
Digby Forever Guide: How to dig to the d...
Digby Forever is a sparkling homage to arcade classics, and while you may be tiring of the number of arcade games being thrown at you, this endless digger finds many ways to stand out from the rest of the pack. The game manages to be challenging... | Read more »
The best sales on the App Store this wee...
It's been quite the week in mobile games, but if the latest releases(there were some pretty darn good ones, in case you missed out) aren't really doing the trick, perhaps some of these discounted games will. Many of these premium games had their... | Read more »
Why the new Fire Emblem Heroes update sh...
It’s exciting to see Nintendo delving into the mobile sphere, regardless of whether it’s to give fans another platform to enjoy their fans or simply a sound business venture. Two of the company's announced mobile games have finally come to... | Read more »
New Fire Emblem Heroes update adds new h...
Fire Emblem Heroes received a sizeable update first thing this morning. The update features a batch of fresh content along with a few updates to the game's systems. [Read more] | Read more »
The Deep Paths (Games)
The Deep Paths 1.0 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $3.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: 25% off launch sale!!! The Deep Paths: Labyrinth Of Andokost is a first-person, dungeon crawling RPG, with traditional grid-based... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

15-inch Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for up...
Amazon has 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $150 off MSRP including free shipping: - 15″ 2.7GHz Touch Bar MacBook Pro Space Gray: $2720.38 $79 off MSRP - 15″ 2.7GHz... Read more
Apple’s Education discount saves up to $300 o...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad using Apple’s Education Store and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free: -... Read more
13-inch 1.6GHz/256GB MacBook Air on sale for...
Newegg has the 13″ 1.6GHz/256GB MacBook Air (MMGG2LL/A) on sale for $1029.99 including free shipping. Their price is $170 off MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for this model. Choose Newegg... Read more
Save up to $600 with Apple refurbished Mac Pr...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Mac Pros available for up to $600 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each Mac Pro, and shipping is free. The following... Read more
12-inch 1.1GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $1...
B&H has 12″ 1.1GHz Retina MacBooks on sale for $150 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Space Gray Retina MacBook: $1149 $150 off MSRP - 12″ 1.1GHz... Read more
InTouch Health Expands iOS And Windows Produc...
Specialty telehealth enterprise provider InTouch Health has announced an expanded range of FDA Class I listed medical devices and software solutions for ambulatory, non-acute and non-emergent... Read more
iMobie Airs World’s 1st iCloud Manager with M...
iMobie Inc., an Apple-related software company, announced their newly-updated iPhone manager AnyTrans with exclusive feature to sync and manage contents across multiple iCloud accounts. With it,... Read more
New Proactive Apple Support Professional Cert...
Watchman Monitoring has announced Proactive Support Professional Certification at MacTech Pro. Watchman Monitoring is a premier Proactive Support Software as a Service (SaaS) tool for IT... Read more
13-inch 2.7GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 2015 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina Apple MacBook Pro on sale for $100 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 13″ 2.7GHz/128GB Retina MacBook Pro (MF839LL/A): $... Read more
Back in stock: Apple refurbished 13-inch Reti...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2015 13″ Retina MacBook Pros available for up to $360 off original MSRP, starting at $1099. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Technician - nfrastructure (United S...
Let’s Work Together Apple Technician This position is based in Portland, ME Life at nfrastructure At nfrastructure, we understand that our success results from our Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
Manager *Apple* Systems Administration - Pu...
Req ID 3315BR Position Title Manager, Apple Systems Administration Job Description The Manager of Apple Systems Administration oversees the administration and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions - Apple,...
SalesSpecialist - Retail Customer Service and SalesTransform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* macOS Systems Integration Administra...
…most exceptional support available in the industry. SCI is seeking an Junior Apple macOS systems integration administrator that will be responsible for providing Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.