TweetFollow Us on Twitter

December 95 - Graphical Truffles: Making the Most of QuickDraw 3D

Graphical Truffles: Making the Most of QuickDraw 3D

Nick Thompson and Pablo Fernicola

For those of us on Apple's QuickDraw 3D team, the highlight of SIGGRAPH '95 (the annual conference of the ACM's computer graphics interest group) was having the chance to work with developers who were showing QuickDraw 3D products. Considering that we only started working with developers in December 1994, the number of applications already up and running is inspiring. By the time you read this column, 10 or 15 QuickDraw 3D products will be shipping, including modeling and animation software, 3D hardware accelerators, 3D model clip art, and games. More than 50 developers are actively working on products based on QuickDraw 3D, and those will ship in 1996.

If you're not yet a QuickDraw 3D developer and don't want to be left out, take a look at the develop articles "QuickDraw 3D: A New Dimension for Macintosh Graphics" in Issue 22 and "The Basics of QuickDraw 3D Geometries" in Issue 23. This column gives a hodgepodge of additional information.

IMPROVING ACCELERATOR PERFORMANCE

One of the things that has attracted developers to QuickDraw 3D is seamless access to hardware acceleration. In addition to Apple's PCI accelerator card, hardware acceleration cards have been announced by Matrox, Yarc, Radius, and Newer Technology. If you really want your application to fly, you need to make sure that you're using the fastest renderer possible and that if a hardware acceleration card is installed, you're using the card. If you use the QuickDraw 3D API, QuickDraw 3D will take care of this for you, but there's something else you can do that might improve your application's performance.

Certain cards, including Apple's accelerator card, will yield better frame rates in some situations if you use what we call double buffer bypass, an option enabled by a flag. Double buffering causes all objects to be drawn first into a back buffer; this entire buffer is then copied to the front buffer (the window). If the scene you're rendering is simple and thus takes very little time to redraw -- say, less than 1/10 of a second -- enabling double buffer bypass is faster because it avoids having to copy memory from the back buffer to the front buffer. On the other hand, if you use this option with a complex scene, tearing may occur. Therefore, you may want to time a frame (and take into account the complexity of your models) before using double buffer bypass. To time a frame, call the Toolbox routine Microseconds, draw the frame, call Q3Renderer_Sync to make sure the frame has been fully drawn, and then call Microseconds again and subtract the start time from the end time.

If you're using QuickDraw 3D's interactive software renderer, all the code you need to turn on double buffer bypass is shown in Listing 1.

Listing 1. Turning on double buffer bypass

// Create the renderer.
if ((myRenderer = Q3Renderer_NewFromType(kQ3RendererTypeInteractive))
       != nil) {
   if ((myStatus = Q3View_SetRenderer(myView, myRenderer))
          == kQ3Failure) {  // Handle the error.
      ...
   }   // Set bypass.
   Q3InteractiveRenderer_SetDoubleBufferBypass(myRenderer, kQ3True);
}

The interactive renderer can render using software only or using hardware acceleration. The interactive renderer is set by default to look for the best device possible, so if a hardware accelerator is installed, the accelerator will always be used. On occasion, though, you may want to switch from using hardware to using software (for demos or testing, for example). In this case you must explicitly request the software rasterizer, as follows:
Q3InteractiveRenderer_SetPreferences(myRenderer,
   kQAVendor_Apple, kQAEngine_AppleSW);

INTERACTING WITH INPUT DEVICES

QuickDraw 3D provides an input device abstraction layer that allows you to interact with different input devices without having to write special code for each of them. The sample application NewEra demonstrates interaction with tablets and other input devices; this application is available on the CD that comes with the book 3D Graphics Programming With QuickDraw 3D, and a newer version can be found on this issue's CD.

To take advantage of QuickDraw 3D's input device layer, you need to create a tracker object and associate it with a controller object (created by an input device driver), as Listing 2 does. Once you've set up your tracker, you can poll it to get its new position and orientation, as shown in Listing 3. To reflect the change in your scene, you apply the values returned by the tracker to a transform object, affecting either a particular geometry or group (if an object was selected and being manipulated) or the camera, depending on the interaction model for your application.

Listing 2. Creating a tracker object and attaching it to a controller object

theDocument->fPositionSN = 0;
theDocument->fRotationSN = 0;
theDocument->fTracker = Q3Tracker_New(NULL);
myStatus = Q3Controller_Next(NULL, &controllerRef);
while (controllerRef != NULL && myStatus == kQ3Success) {
   Q3Controller_SetTracker(controllerRef, theDocument->fTracker);
   myStatus = Q3Controller_Next(controllerRef, &controllerRef);
}
Listing 3. Updating position and orientation
// We received a null event; grab a new position and orientation
// for the model.
TQ3Boolean      positionChanged;
TQ3Boolean      rotationChanged;

Q3Tracker_GetPosition(doc.fTracker, &doc.fPosition, NULL,
    &positionChanged, &doc.fPositionSN);
Q3Tracker_GetOrientation(doc.fTracker, &doc.fRotation, NULL,
    &rotationChanged, &doc.fRotationSN);
QuickDraw 3D's input device abstraction layer also makes writing input device drivers easier. For example, it took us about three days to write a driver for the Magellan device from Logitech, Inc., a 3D input device with six degrees of freedom. As illustrated in Figure 1, this device enables movement along the x, y, and z axes, as well as rotation about the three axes.

Figure 1. Magellan: a six-degrees-of-freedom input device (courtesy of Logitech)

SETTING THE CORRECT FILE TYPE

When saving QuickDraw 3D metafiles, you should set the file type as '3DMF', regardless of how the contents of the file are formatted (as plain-text or binary, or any combination of the different types of organization, such as database or stream). This will enable the file to be read or opened by other QuickDraw 3D applications. If you'd like your end users to read a file as text, add an Export As Text option to your application and then set the file type to 'TEXT'. This is helpful for debugging (and for sending questions or bugs to Developer Technical Support).

HAVING FUN WITH CUSTOM ATTRIBUTES

By taking advantage of QuickDraw 3D's custom attributes and extensible metafile format, you can have objects that encapsulate specialized data relevant to your application. For instance, to navigate through the World Wide Web in 3D, you can attach Web data (like URLs) to QuickDraw 3D objects as custom attributes. When those objects or scenes are read into one of the many viewers supporting the URL custom attribute, the viewer can communicate through Apple events with applications like Netscape (or your favorite Web browser) to produce 3D navigation. You'll find a sample application that shows how to do this on this issue's CD.

Custom attributes also enable you to associate sound and other data with objects in your 3D scene.

DEBUGGING

There are two really handy techniques that you can use to diagnose problems you may be having with your QuickDraw 3D application. For both of these approaches to debugging your software, you'll want to make sure that you have MacsBug installed on your machine and that you're using the debugging version of the QuickDraw 3D extension supplied with the QuickDraw 3D development software.

The first technique is to install error and warning handlers, described in our article in develop Issue 22. Error and warning handlers are particularly useful for telling you of potential problems with your use of the QuickDraw 3D library. If you don't install error and warning handlers, you won't know if you're doing something that the library identifies as erroneous. Although we stated this in our original article, many developers missed its significance and thus have experienced longer debugging times than necessary and a great deal of frustration.

The second technique is to use a software tool, the 3D debugger, included on this issue's CD. This application enables you to examine the QuickDraw 3D heap and look at the different objects, their attributes, and their reference count. Please note that you're looking under the hood, so you may encounter untyped blocks, and the reference count for objects may reflect references internal to the QuickDraw 3D system.

LOOKING AHEAD

We'll continue to release great new QuickDraw 3D features, so bring your applications along for the ride. By early 1996 we expect to have all major existing 3D applications on the Macintosh using QuickDraw 3D, along with applications that developers port from other platforms. Many 2D applications will be making use of the 3D Viewer as well.

Watch develop for further articles about other aspects of QuickDraw 3D. Meanwhile, you may want to check out the Addison-Wesley book 3D Graphics Programming With QuickDraw 3D (which includes the QuickDraw 3D development software) and see this issue's CD for the development software and the latest versions of the sample code and utility applications. And for the latest news on QuickDraw 3D, see our Web page at http://www.info.apple.com/qd3d.

NICK THOMPSON (eWorld NICKT), transplanted English soccer fan and member of Apple's Developer Technical Support team, thinks that this could be the year for the Arsenal Football Club. With the acquisition of Dutch star Dennis Bergkamp and England striker David Platt, things are looking up at Highbury. By the time you read this, the Premier League standings will tell if this is the dawning of a new era or more of the same "boring, boring, Arsenal," as those charming Spurs fans like to chant.

PABLO FERNICOLA (eWorld EscherDude), of Apple's Interactive Multimedia Group, is much more relaxed since shipping QuickDraw 3D 1.0. He now has time to eat his dad's great barbecue, dally with his lovely wife, and sleep -- although the latter entails the challenge of trying to get his golden retriever, aptly named Mac, to give up some of the space he takes up in the bed. Pablo's latest research project is to find out exactly what the purpose is for those orange balls that one finds on high power transmission lines.

For more information on making your application work with Magellan, contact Stephan Ilberg at Logitech by sending a message to stephan_ilberg@logitech.com.

Thanks to Robert Dierkes and Fábio Pettinati for reviewing this column, and a special thanks to Dan Venolia and David Vasquez for supplying some of the code and applications discussed.

 
AAPL
$111.78
Apple Inc.
-0.87
MSFT
$47.66
Microsoft Corpora
+0.14
GOOG
$516.35
Google Inc.
+5.25

MacTech Search:
Community Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Monolingual 1.6.2 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. It requires a 64-bit capable Intel-based Mac and at least... Read more
NetShade 6.1 - Browse privately using an...
NetShade is an Internet security tool that conceals your IP address on the web. NetShade routes your Web connection through either a public anonymous proxy server, or one of NetShade's own dedicated... Read more
calibre 2.13 - Complete e-library manage...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Mellel 3.3.7 - Powerful word processor w...
Mellel is the leading word processor for OS X and has been widely considered the industry standard since its inception. Mellel focuses on writers and scholars for technical writing and multilingual... Read more
ScreenFlow 5.0.1 - Create screen recordi...
Save 10% with the exclusive MacUpdate coupon code: AFMacUpdate10 Buy now! ScreenFlow is powerful, easy-to-use screencasting software for the Mac. With ScreenFlow you can record the contents of your... Read more
Simon 4.0 - Monitor changes and crashes...
Simon monitors websites and alerts you of crashes and changes. Select pages to monitor, choose your alert options, and customize your settings. Simon does the rest. Keep a watchful eye on your... Read more
BBEdit 11.0.2 - Powerful text and HTML e...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more
ExpanDrive 4.2.1 - Access cloud storage...
ExpanDrive builds cloud storage in every application, acts just like a USB drive plugged into your Mac. With ExpanDrive, you can securely access any remote file server directly from the Finder or... Read more
Adobe After Effects CC 2014 13.2 - Creat...
After Effects CC 2014 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $19.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous After Effects customer). After Effects CS6 is still available... Read more
Evernote 6.0.5 - Create searchable notes...
Evernote allows you to easily capture information in any environment using whatever device or platform you find most convenient, and makes this information accessible and searchable at anytime, from... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Make your own Tribez Figures (and More)...
Make your own Tribez Figures (and More) with Toyze Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
So Many Holiday iOS Sales Oh My Goodness...
The holiday season is in full-swing, which means a whole lot of iOS apps and games are going on sale. A bunch already have, in fact. Naturally this means we’re putting together a hand-picked list of the best discounts and sales we can find in order... | Read more »
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode f...
It’s Bird vs. Bird in the New PvP Mode for Angry Birds Epic Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minec...
Telltale Games and Mojang Announce Minecraft: Story Mode – A Telltale Games Series Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their...
WarChest and Splash Damage Annouce Their New Game: Tempo Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] WarChest Ltd and Splash Damage Ltd are teaming up again to work | Read more »
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary...
BulkyPix Celebrates its 6th Anniversary with a Bunch of Free Games Posted by Jessica Fisher on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] BulkyPix has | Read more »
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking F...
Indulge in Japanese cuisine in Cooking Fever’s new sushi-themed update Posted by Simon Reed on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Lithuanian developer Nordcurrent has yet again updated its restaurant simulat | Read more »
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to C...
Badland Daydream Level Pack Arrives to Celebrate 20 Million Downloads Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] | Read more »
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Desti...
Far Cry 4, Assassin’s Creed Unity, Destiny, and Beyond – AppSpy Takes a Look at AAA Companion Apps Posted by Rob Rich on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] These day | Read more »
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Fre...
A Bunch of Halfbrick Games Are Going Free for the Holidays Posted by Ellis Spice on December 19th, 2014 [ permalink ] Universal App - Designed for iPhone and iPad | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

The Apple Store offering free next-day shippi...
The Apple Store is now offering free next-day shipping on all in stock items if ordered before 12/23/14 at 10:00am PT. Local store pickup is also available within an hour of ordering for any in stock... Read more
It’s 1992 Again At Sony Pictures, Except For...
Techcrunch’s John Biggs interviewed a Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) employee, who quite understandably wished to remain anonymous, regarding post-hack conditions in SPE’s L.A office, explaining “... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Pros for...
 B&H Photo has new MacBook Pros on sale for up to $300 off MSRP as part of their Holiday pricing. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 15″ 2.2GHz Retina MacBook Pro: $1699... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: MacBook Airs for...
B&H Photo has 2014 MacBook Airs on sale for up to $120 off MSRP, for a limited time, for the Thanksgiving/Christmas Holiday shopping season. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: iMacs for up to $...
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ iMacs on sale for up to $200 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. B&H will also include a free copy of Parallels Desktop software: - 21″ 1.4GHz... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: Mac minis availab...
B&H Photo has new 2014 Mac minis on sale for up to $80 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY sales tax only: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $459 $40 off MSRP - 2.6GHz Mac mini: $629 $70 off MSRP... Read more
Holiday sales this weekend: Mac Pros for up t...
B&H Photo has Mac Pros on sale for up to $500 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 3.7GHz 4-core Mac Pro: $2599, $400 off MSRP - 3.5GHz 6-core Mac Pro: $3499, $... Read more
Save up to $400 on MacBooks with Apple Certif...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 2014 MacBook Pros and MacBook Airs available for up to $400 off the cost of new models. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and... Read more
Save up to $300 on Macs, $30 on iPads with Ap...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad at The Apple Store for Education and take up to $300 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution qualify for the discount. Shipping is free,... Read more
iOS and Android OS Targeted by Man-in-the-Mid...
Cloud services security provider Akamai Technologies, Inc. has released, through the company’s Prolexic Security Engineering & Research Team (PLXsert), a new cybersecurity threat advisory. The... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Store Leader Program (US) - Apple, I...
…Summary Learn and grow as you explore the art of leadership at the Apple Store. You'll master our retail business inside and out through training, hands-on experience, Read more
Project Manager, *Apple* Financial Services...
**Job Summary** Apple Financial Services (AFS) offers consumers, businesses and educational institutions ways to finance Apple purchases. We work with national and Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Job Description: Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.