TweetFollow Us on Twitter

December 94 - Balance of Power: PowerPC Branch Prediction

Balance of Power: PowerPC Branch Prediction

Dave Evans

The PowerPC processors try to predict which way your code will execute. This sounds surprisingly astrological for a digital machine, but it becomes very useful for a pipelined processor and will often speed up your code. In this column I'll go over why and how this works, focusing especially on the new PowerPC 604 processor prediction techniques, and I'll answer the question "Can a Power Macintosh really tell the future?"

PSYCHIC DECISIONS

Typically about one-seventh of the instructions in your code are branches, either to call subroutines or to make logical decisions in your program. The PowerPC processor would ordinarily tend to stall at branches, since it tries to work on more than one instruction at a time and it's not always sure which code it should execute after a branch. It could either take the branch or fall through, and often the processor won't know which until a couple of cycles later.

So the PowerPC processors allow for speculative execution, meaning they'll guess at the most probable direction the branch will go and then will issue those instructions. But the processor doesn't let the instructions commit until it's sure the guess was correct. Usually it guesses right, and a few instructions are already completed when the branch is decided. If the guess was wrong, it throws out those results and starts over with the correct code.

This predictive skill helps keep the processor executing successfully without stalls, and better prediction techniques will yield better overall performance. The new PowerPC 604 processor improves on earlier prediction techniques; I'll discuss all of them in detail below.

But first, a relevant astrological note: The "birthday" of the 601 makes it a Taurus, whereas then 603 is a Libra. The 604 chip had a birthday in April, so it's an Aries.

TAURUS AND LIBRA ARE COMPATIBLE

The PowerPC 601 and 603 processors use basically the same techniques to predict branches. For simple unconditional branches, for example, they both process and remove the branch early in the instruction issue stage. This operation, called branch folding, keeps the instruction stream moving without having to wait for the branch to be processed. The branch is handled early, and the new instructions are fetched from the cache immediately.

For conditional branches, both processors first try to handle the branch early in the instruction issue stage. If the condition being tested has already been evaluated, the branch is folded out of the instruction stream. But if the condition being tested is still in the pipeline, the processor must guess at the branch direction.

Prediction of guessed branches are based on two things: the direction of the branch and a software "hint" bit. If the direction is negative -- backward in your code -- the branch is taken (because loops often iterate a few times backward before falling through, and this heuristic is more often true). All other branches fall through by default. The hint bit is a way for the compiler to reverse this heuristic: if the bit is set, the prediction will be reversed.

As far as I know there are no compilers that allow you to specify the hint bit in your code, although this could be a valuable feature. Also, profilers or similar tools could take statistics on your code flow and then set the bits for you from trial runs of your software.

THE TEMPERAMENT OF ARIES

The PowerPC 604 has much better branch prediction, which means better performance. Because branch statements most often repeat themselves, it remembers recent branch results to make its predictions:
  • It has a cache of the last 64 branches that it has taken, and any time it sees one of these branches again it will immediately predict to the same branch destination. This technique, called dynamic branch prediction, is used on the Pentium and other processors with great results.

  • It keeps a history of all other branches and predicts based on the recent directions that branch took.
The cache technique has the advantage of being very fast. When the 604 fetches an instruction, it also sends the instruction's address to the branch cache. If the instruction is a recently executed branch, the cache will return the address of where the branch last went. This is immediately used to fetch the next instruction. Because this all occurs during the fetch of the branch instruction itself, there's no delay in fetching the first predicted instruction.

For conditional branches that aren't in the branch cache, the 604 keeps a history of recent times it saw that instruction. It keeps 512 such histories, each two bits wide, to remember whether the branch was taken during the last few executions. The processor hashes the instruction address to keep the branch histories distinct, and hash collisions are very rare.

Each history is set to one of four states: strongly taken, taken, not taken, and strongly not taken. The current state determines the branch prediction as taken or not taken. After the branch commits, the state is updated. Each update adjusts the state one step toward strongly taken or strongly not taken. The two intermediate steps are a hedge so that it will usually take two mistakes before a prediction changes. Because branches tend to repeat, this algorithm generally results in the following prediction:

  • If the branch was taken during the last two executions, the 604 predicts it will again be taken.

  • If the branch wasn't taken during both of the last two executions, the 604 predicts it again won't be taken.
Also with the 604, branches on the count register base their prediction on the current count value. This will usually predict loops correctly and yield good performance, since loops count down for a number of iterations before the final iteration causes an incorrect prediction.

But these techniques also come with a tradeoff: the 604 has an extra pipeline stage to dispatch instructions. This means instructions take longer to get through the pipe, and mispredicted branches are more expensive.

ARIES RISING

The 604 is the fastest PowerPC processor yet, and I can't talk about it here without also going into why it's such a fast engine. Besides its advanced branch prediction hardware, it has significantly more integer and floating-point hardware, which yields improved overall performance. Given that it's produced with a more advanced silicon process than the original 601, it's clocked above 80 MHz and offers blazingly fast computation for your code.

As a backbone for the chip, the instruction issuing and control logic allow the 604 to issue up to four instructions per clock, compared to the 601's and 603's effective three. As mentioned above, however, its pipeline has one extra decode stage and branches are issued and handled in their own branch unit. To help it speculatively execute more instructions than the other chips, it also comes with twice the number of "rename" registers than the 603. Twelve extra general-purpose and eight extra floating-point registers are available to hold speculatively produced results until a branch commits. The 604 is also the first PowerPC processor that can speculatively execute two branches at once. This, combined with advanced branch prediction, should keep the processor screaming even through complex code flow.

What most people will notice, however, is the additional integer math performance on the 604. At any one time, the 604 can have two add-subtract instructions and one multiply-divide instruction completing in a cycle. IBM says that it therefore has three integer units, but the multiply-divide hardware is also used for logical and bit manipulation operations. The bottom line is much better integer performance than the Power Macintosh 8100/80. As an example of this, the following code should execute nearly twice as fast on the 604 than on the 601:

do {
   unsigned long   datapoint;
   datapoint = *(dataarray + datasize);
   if (datapoint > kThreshold) {
      if (datapoint > kMaxLong - accumulate)
         MyOverflowError();
      accumulate += datapoint;
      samplecount += 1;
      }
   } while (datasize--);
Looking at this code, we see a few integer operations that will be dual-issued on the 604. As long as the datapoint values aren't too erratic, the 604 will better predict the first if statement's branch: it will assume that the current datapoint is on the same side of the threshold as on the previous iteration, which in fact is where it will tend to be. And the second if statement, which checks for an overflow, will (barring an exception) get predicted correctly out of the loop. The 601 or 603 may predict it incorrectly. So even though one integer unit will be busy doing the math, the overflow checking will effectively occur without stalling the pipeline.

The floating-point hardware was also supercharged. On the 601 and 603 processors, a single-precision floating-point instruction can issue and complete each cycle, but double-precision numbers take twice as long. The 604 allows one full double-precision multiply-add instruction to be issued and one to complete each cycle. The chip is twice as fast as the 601 and 603 for these double-precision calculations.

THE FUTURE IS IN THE STARS

So can Power Macintosh tell your future? It certainly tries to with the prediction techniques described above, and in doing so yields better performance. With the simple methods of the 601 and 603, or the dynamic prediction of the 604, your Power Macintosh will speculatively execute your code with seemingly psychic results.

What about the future of the Power Macintosh? The PowerPC architecture allows excellent growth. When I saw the specifications for the first processor, the 601, I was very impressed. It's an excellent design and it has proven to be a potent engine for the Macintosh. When I saw the specifications for the follow-on chips, however, I was really blown away. The 603 and 604 offer incredible performance for the price, and prove that the PowerPC architecture scales well both into low-cost/low-energy solutions and to the cutting edge in performance. And the technology applied to the 604 can be expanded in future chips, adding more execution units and advanced caches at higher clock speeds. The latest IBM POWER2 processors can issue two load/store, two logic/branch, two floating-point, and two integer instructions per cycle. These processors point to the future of PowerPC performance.

So without any additional tuning on your part, PowerPC will continue to improve your performance in the future. I also feel compelled to reiterate this advice from my previous columns: tune your critical code. Tuning often trades performance for code readability and maintainability, so carefully choose which code to tune and use code profilers (and the stars?) to guide your way.

DAVE EVANS (Aquarius, January 20-February 18) Look for opportunities to communicate. You are bound to have fun. Love is in the air; don't work too much or you'll miss it. Apple continues to hold promise for you. Compatible with Sagittarius.

Thanks to Phil Sohn, Peter Steinauer, and Eric Traut for reviewing this column.

This page was last modified on Sunday, April 06 1997 04:24
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

VOX 2.8.30 - Music player that supports...
VOX just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all audio formats you should ever need.... Read more
Default Folder X 5.1.6b3 - Enhances Open...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more
CleanMyMac 3.8.6 - $39.95
CleanMyMac makes space for the things you love. Sporting a range of ingenious new features, CleanMyMac lets you safely and intelligently scan and clean your entire system, delete large, unused files... Read more
Postbox 5.0.17 - Powerful and flexible e...
Postbox is a new email application that helps you organize your work life and get stuff done. It has all the elegance and simplicity of Apple Mail, but with more power and flexibility to manage even... Read more
Amazon Chime 4.6.5852 - Amazon-based com...
Amazon Chime is a communications service that transforms online meetings with a secure, easy-to-use application that you can trust. Amazon Chime works seamlessly across your devices so that you can... Read more
coconutBattery 3.6.3 - Displays info abo...
With coconutBattery you're always aware of your current battery health. It shows you live information about your battery such as how often it was charged and how is the current maximum capacity in... Read more
VueScan 9.5.82 - Scanner software with a...
VueScan is a scanning program that works with most high-quality flatbed and film scanners to produce scans that have excellent color fidelity and color balance. VueScan is easy to use, and has... Read more
Thunderbird 52.3.0 - Email client from M...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
Little Snitch 4.0.2 - Alerts you about o...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activity As soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
Thunderbird 52.3.0 - Email client from M...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more

The best games we played this week - Aug...
Another busy week has come to a close. We played a lot of excellent games this week and now it's time to look back and reflect on some our favorites. Here are our picks for the week of August 18. [Read more] | Read more »
War Wings beginner's guide - how to...
War Wings is the newest project from well-established game maker Miniclip. It's a World War II aerial dogfighting game with loads of different airplane models to unlock and battle. The game offers plenty of single player and multiplayer action. We... | Read more »
How to win every 2v2 battle in Clash Roy...
2v2 is coming back to Clash Royale in a big way. Although it's only been available for temporary periods of time, 2v2 has seen a hugely positive fan response, with players clamoring for more team-based gameplay. Soon we'll get yet another taste of... | Read more »
Roll to Win with Game of Dice’s new upda...
Joycity’s hit Game of Dice gets a big new update this week, introducing new maps, mechanics, and even costumes. The update sets players loose on an exciting new map, The Cursed Tower, that allows folks to use special Runes mid-match. If you feel... | Read more »
Bottom of the 9th (Games)
Bottom of the 9th 1.0.1 Device: iOS iPhone Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: Play the most exciting moment of baseball in this fast-paced dice and card game! | Read more »
The best apps for viewing the solar ecli...
If you somehow missed the news, many parts of the United States will be witness to a total solar eclipse on August 21 for the first time in over 90 years. It'll be possible to see the eclipse in at least some capacity throughout the continental U... | Read more »
The 5 best mobile survival games
Games like ARK: Survival Evolved and Conan Exiles have taken the world of gaming by storm. The market is now flooded with hardcore survival games that send players off into the game's world with nothing but maybe the clothes on their back. Never... | Read more »
Portal Walk (Games)
Portal Walk 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Portal Walk is adventure and relaxing platform game about Eugene. Eugene stuck between worlds and trying to find way back home.... | Read more »
Technobabylon (Games)
Technobabylon 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: City of Newton, 2087. Genetic engineering is the norm, the addictive Trance has replaced almost any need for human interaction,... | Read more »
5 reasons why 2v2 is the best mode in Cl...
Supercell has been teasing fans with 2v2 windows that allow players to team up for limited periods of time. The Summer of 2v2 was just this past July, but players are already clamoring for more of that sweet, sweet team-based action. The fans have... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Back To School With The Edge Desk All-in-one...
Back to school is just around the corner, and the ergonomically correct Edge Desk all-in-one portable kneeling desk is ideal for students living in dorms and small apartments, Edge Desk features:... Read more
Norton Core Secure Wi-Fi Router Now Available...
First introduced at the 2017 Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Norton Core, a secure, high-performance Wi-Fi router, fundamentally changed the concept of Wi-Fi routers by making security the primary... Read more
ViewSonic Adds New 27-inch 4K UHD Monitor to...
ViewSonic Corp. has introduced the VP2785-4K, a 27-inch 4K UHD (3840×2160) monitor that delivers precise and consistent color representation and performance to ensure incredible image quality. Built... Read more
Apple now offering Certified Refurbished 2017...
Apple is now offering Certified Refurbished 2017 27″ iMacs for up to $350 off original MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free. The following models are available: – 27″ 3.... Read more
13-inch 2.3GHz MacBook Pros on sale for $100...
Amazon has the new 2017 13″ 2.3GHz MacBook Pros on sale today for $100 off MSRP, each including free shipping: – 13″ 2.3GHz/128GB Space Gray MacBook Pro (MPXQ2LL/A): $1199.99 $100 off MSRP – 13″ 2.... Read more
Clearance 2016 13-inch MacBook Airs available...
B&H Photo has clearance 2016 13″ MacBook Airs available for up to $200 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY & NJ sales tax only: – 13″ 1.6GHz/128GB MacBook Air (MMGF2LL... Read more
Clearance 21-inch and 27-inch iMacs available...
B&H Photo has clearance 21″ and 27″ Apple iMacs available for up to $500 off original MSRP, each including free shipping plus NY & NJ sales tax only: – 27″ 3.3GHz iMac 5K: $1799 $500 off... Read more
New iOS 11 Productivity Features Welcome But...
The iOS community is in late summer holding mode awaiting the September arrival of the iPhone 8 and iOS 11. iOS 11 public betas have been available for months — number six was released this week —... Read more
Samsung Electronics Launches New Portable SSD...
Samsung Electronics America, Inc. has announced the launch of Samsung Portable SSD T5 – its newest portable solid state drive (PSSD) that raises the bar for the performance of external memory... Read more
TrendForce Reports YoY Gain of 3.6% for 2Q17...
Market research firm TrendForce reports that the global notebook shipments for this second quarter registered a sequential quarterly increase of 5.7% and a year-on-year increase of 3.6%, totaling 39.... Read more

Jobs Board

Development Operations and Site Reliability E...
Development Operations and Site Reliability Engineer, Apple Payment Gateway Job Number: 57572631 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jul. 27, 2017 Read more
Frameworks Engineering Manager, *Apple* Wat...
Frameworks Engineering Manager, Apple Watch Job Number: 41632321 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jun. 15, 2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Summary Read more
Development Operations and Site Reliability E...
Development Operations and Site Reliability Engineer, Apple Payment Gateway Job Number: 57572631 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jul. 27, 2017 Read more
Frameworks Engineering Manager, *Apple* Wat...
Frameworks Engineering Manager, Apple Watch Job Number: 41632321 Santa Clara Valley, California, United States Posted: Jun. 15, 2017 Weekly Hours: 40.00 Job Summary Read more
Business Development Manager - *Apple* Medi...
Job Summary Apple Music is a single, intuitive app that...- all in one place. You can stream any Apple Music song, playlist or album, and download it Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.