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Autumn 91 - MACINTOSH HYBRID APPLICATIONS FOR A/UX

MACINTOSH HYBRID APPLICATIONS FOR A/UX

JOHN MORLEY

[IMAGE 064-078_Morley_html1.GIF]

Apple's A/UX operating system is unique among UNIX systems in that it merges the Macintosh user interface and application environment with the multitasking UNIX operating system. Developers can take advantage of this combination by creating a class of applications called hybrids. This article describes the techniques necessary to create Macintosh hybrid applications and demonstrates some of the benefits of these applications.

The UNIX® operating system began some 20 years ago as a personal project undertaken by a couple of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories. For a number of technical and business reasons, UNIX emerged as the leading software platform for a phenomenon called Open Systems. Although this buzzword is batted around in many different and confusing contexts, it basically refers to systems that adhere to multivendor industry standards, thus protecting their owner's investment in software, training, and so on.

At Apple we recognized the growing importance of the UNIX system in many segments of the marketplace, particularly for government, higher education, and large corporate customers. We also understood that the UNIX system's principal weakness was its lack of ease of use at both the system and application level. By grafting the Macintosh user interface onto a full-featured UNIX operating system, and supporting the bulk of popular Macintosh application software as well, we hoped to meet the requirements of the Open Systems marketplace and retain all the joys of working on a Macintosh.

Release 2.0 of the A/UX operating system was the realization of this effort. When using a Macintosh running A/UX, you can treat it purely as a Macintosh or dive into whatever level of sophistication with the UNIX system your expertise and/or bravado allow.

For the developer, A/UX opens up some new possibilities due to the presence of both the UNIX system and Macintosh programming paradigms. Macintosh developers can use A/UX as a gateway from their Macintosh application into the world of UNIX system services. UNIX system developers can use A/UX to deliver UNIX system applications that incorporate the benefits of the Macintosh user interface.

HYBRID APPLICATIONS

As the name implies, a hybrid application combines two distinct programming models within a single application program. In the case of the A/UX operating system, the two available programming models are the Macintosh Toolbox interface and the UNIX system call interface. In addition to the two programming models present in A/UX, there are two distinct executable file formats: the UNIX executable file format known as Common Object File Format (COFF) System V.2, and the Macintosh executable file format known as Object Module Format (OMF).

The term Macintosh hybrid application refers to an application that's represented in Macintosh OMF, primarily uses the Macintosh Toolbox interface, but also accesses the A/UX operating system via the UNIX system call interface.

Alternatively, the term UNIX hybrid application refers to an application that's represented in COFF, primarily uses the UNIX system call interface, but also accesses the functions provided by the A/UX Macintosh Toolbox.

A/UX MACINTOSH TOOLBOX
The Macintosh Toolbox as it is supported under A/UX is documented inInside Macintosh Volumes I- V and in A/UX Toolbox: Macintosh ROM Interface . The interface mechanism that's used to access the Macintosh Toolbox is the set of A-line trap instructions reserved for this purpose in the Motorola 680x0 architecture. The high-level languages supporting Macintosh programming contain features that allow the programmer to use traditional procedure call notation to access the Macintosh Toolbox. The compiler then translates those procedure calls into the actual A-line trap instructions to access the Toolbox.

A/UX SYSTEM CALLS
The UNIX system call interface is documented in the A/UX Programmer's Reference , Section 2. The interface mechanism that's used to access the UNIX system calls is a CPU trap instruction that causes a context switch between the application program, which runs in user mode, and the UNIX system kernel, which runs in supervisor mode. The A/UX C runtime library contains procedures to access each of the UNIX system calls supported by A/UX.

Macintosh applications running on A/UX may also access the UNIX system calls. An MPW library (libaux_sys.o) that contains procedures for each UNIX system call, analogous to the ones in the A/UX C runtime library, is included on the Developer CD Series disc for this issue. By calling routines from this library a Macintosh application becomes a Macintosh hybrid application with access to the capabilities provided by the UNIX system.

WHY CREATE MACINTOSH HYBRID APPLICATIONS?

There are several reasons why you might want to create a Macintosh hybrid application. Here are some examples:
  • to create a Macintosh style front-end interface for an existing character-based UNIX system application
  • to access UNIX system networking from a Macintosh application
  • to execute UNIX system applications and utilities from a Macintosh application

The class of applications that act as front ends to existing UNIX system programs is of particular interest. The UNIX operating system has been around for two decades and a large body of software exists that can be ported easily from one UNIX system to another. The problem with these applications is that they were designed to work with character-oriented display devices.

Most people who are familiar with the Macintosh user interface are reluctant to sacrifice the ease of use that applications designed for the Macintosh provide. One way to "dress up" these older UNIX system applications is to provide a Macintosh- style user interface via an application that acts as a front end to the existing character-based application. While not as elegant a solution as redesigning the application with the new user interface in mind, the front-end approach can usually be implemented in less time and at less expense.

MULTITASKING AND THE MACINTOSH

A developer creating a Macintosh hybrid application needs some understanding of Macintosh multitasking and how it's implemented by A/UX. If not properly designed, a Macintosh hybrid application can easily cause the Macintosh Toolbox environment within A/UX to become deadlocked. Following the guidelines given here can keep the number of catastrophic failures during development to a minimum.

The Macintosh was designed to be a personal computer. This resulted in emphasis on the interaction between a single user and the computer while performing a single task. With the advent of MultiFinder the Macintosh became capable of switching between two or more active applications as well as performing some limited processing in the background while the user interacts with any application.

To avoid major incompatibilities with the existing base of application software, MultiFinder was cleverly designed to implement multitasking on top of the existing Macintosh programming model. This style of multitasking is called cooperative multitasking. The name conveys the requirement that applications must provide the system with a cue indicating when it's reasonable to interrupt them.

The UNIX operating system, on the other hand, was designed to control minicomputers that normally support many users at once. These computers require the operating system to preemptively schedule tasks for execution using a well-defined scheduling algorithm. A/UX fully implements this style of preemptive multitasking for all UNIX processes.

To implement the MultiFinder method of cooperative multitasking within the preemptive multitasking model of the UNIX system, a special thread of control is defined for all processes that access the A/UX Macintosh Toolbox. The A/UX kernel associates one and only one process at a time with thetoken of control for the Macintosh Toolbox. The token of control is passed in the same way that applications are activated under MultiFinder.

THE PERILS OF MULTITASKING
An unsuspecting programmer creating a Macintosh hybrid application can easily be tripped up by lack of knowledge about the multitasking environment. Consider the following program:

#include <StdIO.h>
main()
{
    char buf[100];
    int len;
    
    write(1,"Type Something\n",15);
    len = read(0,buf,100);
    write(1,"You Typed: ",11);
    write(1,buf,len);
    write(1,"\n",1);
}

This rather primitive piece of code can be compiled with MPW C and linked to produce an MPW tool. When run, it writes a prompt to the active MPW window and waits for keyboard input terminated by the Enter key. The program then echoes the input to the window and terminates. During the time that the program is waiting for keyboard input, you can switch MultiFinder layers by clicking in a different application window or choosing from the Apple menu or MultiFinder application icon in the menu bar.

This same program can be compiled and linked with the A/UX C compiler (cc or c89) to produce a native COFF application. When run within a CommandShell window it exhibits the same behavior as when compiled with MPW C, including the ability to switch MultiFinder layers while waiting for input from the keyboard. The program can be modified so that when compiled with MPW it becomes a Macintosh hybrid application. (See "Compiling and Linking Macintosh Hybrid Applications" for some useful tips.) This is done by substituting calls to the A/UX system call routines in place of the standard MPW C runtime routines, as follows:

#include <StdIO.h>
#include <LibAUX.h>
#include </:usr:include:fcntl.h>
main()
{
    char buf[100];
    int len, fd;

    fd = auxopen("/dev/ttyC1",O_RDWR);
    (void) auxwrite(fd,"Type Something\r",15);
    len = auxread(fd,buf,100);
    (void) auxwrite(fd,"You Typed: ",11);
    (void) auxwrite(fd,buf,len);
    (void) auxwrite(fd,"\r",1);
    (void) auxclose(fd);
}

The program now opens the device associated with the window CommandShell 1 and performs the I/O to that window. However, this program contains a serious flaw--the call to auxread will result in a deadlock situation, because as yet there is no data available to be read from the file descriptor associated with the CommandShell window, and the A/UX read system call blocks when data is not available. As a result, the entire MultiFinder environment running on A/UX is suspended. This makes it impossible to switch to CommandShell 1 and enter data via the keyboard.

In this example it's not too difficult to solve the problem of blocking. The A/UX system call interface allows you to perform I/O that's nonblocking, otherwise referred to asasynchronous I/O . You can use the A/UX system call fcntl to change the blocking status of a UNIX system file descriptor. Here's how to modify the previous example so that the deadlock situation is avoided:

#include <StdIO.h>
#include <CursorCtl.h>
#include <LibAUX.h>
#include </:usr:include:fcntl.h>
main()
{
    char buf[100];
    int len, fd, flags;

    /* Open the device associated with CommandShell 1's window.*/
    fd = auxopen("/dev/ttyC1",O_RDWR);
    /* Get the current flags for this file descriptor.*/
    flags = auxfcntl(fd,F_GETFL,0);
    /* Add the O_NDELAY flag to the flags that are already set.*/
    (void) auxfcntl(fd,F_SETFL,flags | O_NDELAY);
    (void)auxwrite(fd,"Type Something\r",15);
    while ( (len = auxread(fd,buf,100)) < 1)
        SpinCursor(1);
    (void)auxwrite(fd,"You Typed: ",11);
    (void)auxwrite(fd,buf,len);
    (void)auxwrite(fd,"\r",1);
    /* Reset the flags to their original state.*/
    (void)auxfcntl(fd,F_SETFL,flags);   
    (void)auxclose(fd);
}
The A/UX system call fcntl is used first to get the file descriptor flags associated with the CommandShell window and then to set the O_NDELAY bit in the flags word. The O_NDELAY bit determines whether reads from the file descriptor will block if data is not available. With this bit set, when data is not available the value returned by the read system call is 0. The call to the MPW library routine SpinCursor creates idle time for the layer switch to occur. The last call to auxfcntl resets the flags to their original state.

If you want to try this example hybrid application, open a CommandShell window under A/UX, type "sleep 1000" in the window, and then run the example from the MPW shell.

HELPFUL UTILITY FUNCTIONS

For many types of potential Macintosh hybrid applications, particularly the front-end variety, the only UNIX system functionality necessary is the ability to execute a UNIX process and communicate with it. Toward this end I've included in the system call library several utility routines that are at a higher level than the basic system calls. A description of these utility routines follows.

AUXFORK_PIPE
The auxfork_pipe function executes several system calls to create a new UNIX process. In UNIX system parlance, the new process is the child and the process that created it is the parent. The definition for this function is

Handle auxfork_pipe(int toparent, int tochild, void (*childtask)(),
void *childarg);

The parameters toparent and tochild are flags that indicate whether or not to establish a communication pipe in either direction between the parent and child processes. A zero value signifies that no pipe should be created and a nonzero value signifies that a pipe should be created.

The parameter childtask is a function pointer used to identify a function to be called by the child process when the child process is first created. The parameter childarg is a generic pointer passed to the function pointed to by childtask so that you can vary the behavior of that function. Typically, the function pointed to by childtask executes one of the variants of the exec system call and uses the childarg pointer to identify the filename of the program to be executed.

The value returned by this function is either a handle to a structure that holds some global information about the child process or a null pointer if the call was unsuccessful. The definition for this structure is as follows:

struct childinfo {
    /* file descriptor for parent->child communication pipe */
    int tochild;
    /* file descriptor for child->parent communication pipe */
    int toparent;
    /* process ID of the child process */
    int pid;
};

The file descriptor for the toparent communication pipe has the O_NDELAY bit set in its flags word so that reading from this file descriptor won't cause a block when data is not available.

AUXCLEANUP_FORK_PIPE
An additional utility function is used to clean up after the child process terminates--the auxcleanup_fork_pipe function. Its definition is

int auxcleanup_fork_pipe(Handle globals);
It takes one parameter, which is the handle returned previously by the auxfork_pipe function. You must be sure that the child process has terminated or is about to terminate before calling auxcleanup_fork_pipe. If you're not sure that the child process will terminate, you can call auxkill to send the child process a termination signal.

AUXFGETS
The auxfgets function uses the read system call to read a string of characters from an open UNIX system file descriptor. The definition for this function is

char *auxfgets(char *buf, int count, int file, int timeout);

The buf parameter is a pointer to space in which to store the characters read. The count parameter specifies the maximum number of characters to read. The file parameter is the UNIX system file descriptor from which to read. (The auxfgets function described here differs from the standard fgets function in that it uses a file descriptor rather than a stream pointer.) The timeout parameter indicates the maximum number of times to retry the read system call when data is not available.

This function reads characters until one of the following conditions occurs:

  • A newline character (0x10) is read.
  • The number of characters specified in the count is reached (reserving room for a null character to mark the end of the string).
  • The retry count specified in the timeout parameter is reached without any new data being available to read. If the value of timeout is 0, auxfgets retries indefinitely.

The newline character, if any, is stored at the end of the character string. In any case, a null character is appended after the last character stored to mark the end of the string.

AUXSYSTEM
The auxsystem function works much like the UNIX library routine namedsystem. To use this function in a Macintosh hybrid application, the application must either be linked as an MPW tool or linked with the Simple Input/Output Window (SIOW) package, which implements standard I/O streams for Macintosh applications. The definition for this function is

int auxsystem(char *command);

The parameter is a pointer to a character string that contains a valid UNIX system shell command (Bourne shell syntax). This function executes the given command and redirects any output that the command produces on the standard output or standard error streams to the SIOW standard output and standard error streams.

The MPW tool Unixcmd included on theDeveloper CD Series disc is an example of a tool that uses the auxsystem function. This tool executes the UNIX command given on the command line for Unixcmd. The standard output and standard error streams produced by the UNIX command are sent to the MPW window from which Unixcmd was executed, or they can be individually redirected using the MPW shell's redirection syntax. The Unixcmd tool also sets the MPW variable {Status} to the exit status of the UNIX command, so that MPW scripts can test the exit status.

THE UNIX MAIL READER

To demonstrate some of the techniques used to create Macintosh hybrid applications, we'll look at an example front-end application for the Berkeley UNIX system mail reading program, mailx. The application is implemented using a HyperCard stack with HyperTalk® scripts that access HyperCard XFCNs. The interface for the mail reader consists of two cards in a HyperCard stack. The first card is calledheaders and is used to display a list of header lines identifying the available mail messages. The second card is calledmessage and is used to display the content of a selected message.

The UNIX Mail Reader example is provided solely to illustrate the technical issues involved in creating an A/UX Macintosh hybrid application. It isnot an example of good user interface design, since it was written by a UNIX hacker (yours truly) with little knowledge of Macintosh user interface guidelines (a little knowledge is a dangerous thing).

HYPERCARD XFCNS
A HyperCard XFCN is a code segment that the HyperCard application calls to perform a function that can't be accomplished with the standard HyperCard commands. By providing HyperCard with XFCNs to access UNIX system calls, you can create Macintosh hybrid applications that are implemented by HyperTalk scripts. Five different XFCNs are used by the UNIX Mail Reader to create a HyperCard front end to the UNIX mail reading program. The XFCNs used are as follows:

  • forkpipexfcn, which calls the auxfork_pipe utility function
  • fgetsxfcn, which calls the auxfgets utility function
  • fgetfxfcn, which makes multiple calls to the auxfgets utility function
  • writexfcn, which calls the auxwrite utility function
  • cleanupxfcn, which calls the auxcleanup_fork_pipe utility function

The source code for these XFCNs is included on theDeveloper CD Series disc to serve as a model for other XFCNs you may create.

THE ENTRY SCRIPT
When the UNIX Mail Reader stack is opened, the HyperTalk script associated with the headers card is executed.

on openStack
    global global_handle, linecount
    put empty into cd field one
    put empty into global_handle
    put forkpipexfcn("/usr/bin/mailx") into global_handle
    - - A real application would give an error message here.
    if global_handle is empty then go to home
    - - Call fgetsxfcn to read first line of mailx output.
    put fgetsxfcn(global_handle,2500) into buf
    - - Check if any mail is available.
    if word 1 of buf is "No" then
        - - Inform user there's no mail.
        put cleanupxfcn(global_handle) into status
        put empty into global_handle
        Beep 1
        answer "Sorry, no mail"
        go to home
    else
        - - Inform user there's mail.
        play "mail.sound"
        - - Discard 2nd line of mailx output.
        put fgetsxfcn(global_handle,2500) into buf
        - - Read available mail headers.
        repeat with linecount = 1 to 9999
            put fgetsxfcn(global_handle,250) into buf
            - - Check if done.
            if length(buf) = 0 then exit repeat
            put buf into line linecount of cd field one
        end repeat
        - - Calculate number of messages.
        subtract 1 from linecount
    end if
end openStack

After some initialization, the XFCN forkpipexfcn is called to start execution of the Berkeley UNIX system mail reader located in the file /usr/ucb/mailx. Then, the XFCN fgetsxfcn is called to read the first line of output from the mailx program into the HyperTalk variable buf.

Notice that the second parameter to fgetsxfcn is the value 2500. This parameter is the timeout count described in the definition of auxfgets. The value 2500 was derived by observing the longest time it normally takes for the mail program to begin execution and produce the first line of output.

The script tests the string that was just read to see if it's the special message that indicates no mail messages. If it is, the script notifies the user and exits.

If the first message is other than the no-mail message, the script reads the header for each message and places it sequentially in the message headers field on the headers card. The message headers begin with the third line of output from the mailx program, so the script reads and discards the second line of output from the mailx program. After the final message is read, the global HyperTalk variable linecount is set to the total number of messages. The final message header is identified by checking to see if the last fgetsxfcn call returned no data, indicating a timeout.

Figure 1 shows the headers card of the UNIX Mail Reader example.

[IMAGE 064-078_Morley_html2.GIF]

Figure 1Headers Card With Sample Mail Headers


THE EXIT SCRIPT
When the user clicks the Home button, the UNIX Mail Reader stack exits and the following script associated with the headers card executes:

on closeStack
    global global_handle
    if global_handle is not empty then
        answer "Update Message Queue?" with "Yes" or "No"
        if It is "No" then
            put writexfcn(global_handle,("x" & lineFeed))
                into writecount
        else
            play "empty trash (flush)"
            put writexfcn(global_handle,("q" & lineFeed))
                into writecount
        end if
        put cleanupxfcn(global_handle) into status
        put empty into global_handle
    end if
    put empty into cd field one
    play "bye.sound"
end closeStack

This script asks if the user wants to update the message queue, which permanently deletes any messages marked for deletion. Depending on the user's response, the script sends either the exit command (indicated by the letterx) or the quit command (indicated by the letterq) to the mailx program to terminate the session. The commands are sent to the mailx program by writing to the communication pipe with the XFCN writexfcn. The special character lineFeed is appended to the command to simulate the user pressing the Return key.

The script then calls cleanupxfcn to perform the termination processing. This is safe now, since the mailx program will be terminating as a result of the exit or quit command just sent.

THE SELECTION SCRIPT
When the user clicks one of the message headers displayed in the first card of the stack, the following script is executed to display the selected message in the second card of the stack. Figure 2 shows a message card with a sample message.

on mouseUp
    global global_handle, linecount, vline
    put (item 2 of the clickLoc) + (the scroll of cd field one)
        into vline
    divide vline by the textHeight of cd field one
    put trunc(vline+.6) into vline
    if vline <= linecount then
        select line vline of cd field one
        if the textStyle of the selectedLine is italic then
            beep 1
        else
            put writexfcn(global_handle,(vline & lineFeed))
                into writecount
            play "ZoomUp"
            go to card 2
            put fgetfxfcn(global_handle,250) into cd field msgx
        end if
    else
        beep 1
    end if
    select empty
end mouseUp

This script computes the line number of the selected message, checks to see that it's a valid message number, and then sends this value to the mailx program, causing that message to be displayed. The call to fgetfxfcn reads multiple lines of output into a field with one XFCN call. This is much faster than calling fgetsxfcn several times and inserting each line into the field. [IMAGE 064-078_Morley_html3.GIF]

Figure 2Message Card With a Sample Message

THE DELETE BUTTON SCRIPT
Users viewing the content of a message in the second card of the stack have the option of marking the message for deletion by clicking the Delete button. That causes the following script to be executed:

on mouseUp
    global global_handle, vline
    play "Cash Register"
    put writexfcn(global_handle,("d" & lineFeed))
        into writecount
    put empty into cd field msgx
    go to card 1
    select line vline of cd field one
    set textStyle of the selectedLine to italic
end mouseUp

This script sends the delete command (the letterd) to the mailx program, clears the message field on the second card, and then changes the text style of the header for that message to italic. This is an indication to the user that the message has been marked for deletion. The text style is checked in the selection script to prevent access to a deleted message.

PARTING THOUGHTS

I hope this article has given you some insight into the possible uses of programming Macintosh hybrid applications for A/UX, as well as some helpful techniques for doing this on your own. Although HyperCard was used to quickly implement the UNIX Mail Reader, the same techniques apply to using UNIX system calls from a Macintosh application written without HyperCard.

The A/UX Developer's Tools set of CD-ROM discs (APDA #B0596LL/A) contains more tools for dealing with both UNIX and Macintosh hybrid applications on A/UX. Developers interested in exploring this programming technique in depth may want to acquire that product to supplement the library and examples from this article.

COMPILING AND LINKING MACINTOSH HYBRID APPLICATIONS

There are a few things you should know in order to compile and link a Macintosh hybrid application:

  • Use the include file LibAUX.h to define the system calls and their prototypes (especially if you're using C++). For example:
    #include <LibAUX.h>
  • You may need to include A/UX system header files for some of the system calls. These must be specified using the complete pathname in the Macintosh file system format. You must include LibAUX.h before including any A/UX system header files. For example:
    #include <LibAUX.h>
    #include </:usr:include:fcntl.h>
    For information on when to include header files refer to A/UX Programmer's Reference, Section 2, and A/UX Development Tools, Chapter 2.
  • The meanings of the special characters \n and \r are reversed between MPW C and A/UX C. In general, use \r within strings that are passed to A/UX system calls.
  • It's a good idea to have the application test to see that A/UX--not the Macintosh operating system--is running. To do this, call function AUXisRunning, which returns a nonzero value if A/UX is running or a zero value if it's not.
  • You must link with the library libaux_sys.o to access the system call routines. The default filename for this library is
     {MPW}Libraries:AUX System Calls: libaux_sys.o
    This library name should be included in addition to any other library names and options you usually include with your Link command.


REFERENCES

  • A/UX Programmer's Reference, Section 2, Apple Computer, 1990.
  • A/UX Development Tools, Chapter 2, Apple Computer, 1991.
  • A/UX Toolbox: Macintosh ROM Interface, Apple Computer, 1990.
  • Apple HyperCard Script Language Guide: The HyperTalk Language, Addison-Wesley, 1988.
  • Inside Macintosh, Volumes I-V, Addison-Wesley, 1986.

JOHN MORLEY is the manager for development tools in Apple's A/UX engineering group. John has been hacking code for so long (20 years) that he remembers the "good old days" when the mark of a good programmer was being able to sight- read punched paper tape. When asked about the future of software engineering, he is quick to praise the virtues of object-oriented programming and his work on the design of a new language called "Add 1 to COBOL giving Object COBOL." In his spare time John loves to ride his Harley-Davidson motorcycle, plan trips to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, and visit with the fish underwater. John's dream is to work at an Apple engineering facility on Kauai so that the blurry line dividing work and play will finally be dissolved altogether. *

The MPW library libaux_sys.o is also on the A/UX Developer's Tools set of CD-ROM discs (APDA #B0596LL/A). *

In Macintosh System 7, MultiFinder is integrated into the system as the Process Manager. This article refers to MultiFinder, since A/UX is currently based on Macintosh System 6 software. *

Blocking is the suspension of a process pending completion of some external event--for example, data becoming available.*For details on the read system call see A/UX Programmer's Reference, Section 2. *

For more information about HyperTalk and XCMDs refer to the Apple HyperCard Script Language Guide: The HyperTalk Language. *

THANKS TO OUR TECHNICAL REVIEWERS Kent Sandvik, Joe Sokol, John Sovereign, Kristin Webster *

 

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Indie software developer Felix Lisczyk has announced the release and immediate availability of SnipNotes 2.0, the next major version of his productivity app for iOS devices and Apple Watch.... Read more
Pitch Clock – The Entrepreneur’s Wingman Laun...
Grand Rapids, Michigan based Skunk Tank has announced the release and immediate availability of Pitch Clock – The Entrepreneur’s Wingman 1.1, the company’s new business app available exclusively on... Read more
13-inch 2.9GHz Retina MacBook Pro on sale for...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.9GHz Retina MacBook Pro (model #MF841LL/A) on sale for $1599 including free shipping plus NY tax only. Their price is $200 off MSRP. Amazon also has the 13″ 3.9GHz Retina... Read more
Apple price trackers, updated continuously
Scan our Apple Price Trackers for the latest information on sales, bundles, and availability on systems from Apple’s authorized internet/catalog resellers. We update the trackers continuously: - 15″... Read more
Clearance 12-inch Retina MacBooks available s...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on leftover 2015 12″ Retina MacBooks with models now available starting at $999. Shipping is free, and B&H charges NY tax only: - 12″ 1.1GHz Gray Retina MacBook... Read more
Check Apple prices on any device with the iTr...
MacPrices is proud to offer readers a free iOS app (iPhones, iPads, & iPod touch) and Android app (Google Play and Amazon App Store) called iTracx, which allows you to glance at today’s lowest... Read more
New 2016 13-inch 256GB MacBook Air on sale fo...
B&H Photo has the new 13″ 1.6GHz/256GB MacBook Air (model MMGG2LL/A) on sale for $1149 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $50 off MSRP. Amazon has the 13″ 1.6GHz/256GB... Read more
Apple refurbished iPad Air 2s available start...
Apple has Certified Refurbished iPad Air 2 available starting at $339. Apple’s one-year warranty is included with each model, and shipping is free: - 128GB Wi-Fi iPad Air 2: $499 - 64GB Wi-Fi iPad... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Nissan Service Technicians - Apple A...
Apple Automotive is one of the fastest growing dealer...and it shows. Consider making the switch to the Apple Automotive Group today! At Apple Automotive , Read more
ISCS *Apple* ID Site Support Engineer - APP...
…position, we are looking for an individual who has experience supporting customers with Apple ID issues and enjoys this area of support. This person should be Read more
Automotive Sales Consultant - Apple Ford Linc...
…you. The best candidates are smart, technologically savvy and are customer focused. Apple Ford Lincoln Apple Valley is different, because: $30,000 annual salary Read more
*Apple* Support Technician II - Worldventure...
…global, fast growing member based travel company, is currently sourcing for an Apple Support Technician II to be based in our Plano headquarters. WorldVentures is Read more
Restaurant Manager (Neighborhood Captain) - A...
…in every aspect of daily operation. WHY YOU'LL LIKE IT: You'll be the Big Apple . You'll solve problems. You'll get to show your ability to handle the stress and Read more
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