TweetFollow Us on Twitter

The Perils Of PostScript--The Sequel

The Perils Of PostScript--The Sequel

SCOTT "ZZ" ZIMMERMAN


Developers are discovering the advantages of using PostScript ® dictionaries in applications, but along with the advantages come some perils. One peril awaits if you download a dictionary using PostScriptHandle. Another can trip you up after downloading a dictionary if you then download a font using the SetFont procedure I described in develop, Issue 1. How to avoid these perils? Read on to learn some tricks for dicts in picts.


More and more developers are beginning to use direct PostScript code in their applications. In my "Perils of PostScript" article in develop, Issue 1, I addressed a couple of problems that arise when you use PostScript code to print documents. In this sequel, we'll look at some problems you will encounter if you attempt to use PostScript dictionaries in your applications.

ABOUT POSTSCRIPT DICTIONARIES

A PostScript dictionary is a collection of predefined variables and/or procedures. Using a PostScript dictionary can significantly reduce the size of the PostScript code generated by your application and make it more efficient. For instance, consider a large PostScript file in which the operatorcurrentpoint is used frequently. You can define in your dictionary a PostScript procedure called cp that makes a call to the currentpoint operator. You can then replace currentpoint with cp throughout the file, thus reducing its size. Similarly, by defining a PostScript procedure to represent a series of operators, you can express a compound operation much more efficiently. And storing procedures in a dictionary that you create can also prevent you from inadvertently redefining something that has already been defined.

One great example of a PostScript dictionary is the one used by the LaserWriter ® driver, variously called LaserPrep (after the file it resides in, at least until System 7), AppleDict (the Apple name for it), and good ol' md (the PostScript name for it, and the one I prefer to use). The LaserWriter driver generally uses one or more md

routines to perform a particular QuickDraw operation. (See the sidebar on the next page for a review of how the LaserWriter driver works.) For example, a call to the QuickDraw CopyBits routine is translated by the driver into a call to the db or cdb operators stored in md. As another example, during font downloading the LaserWriter driver uses bn and bu , both stored in md, to call save and restore ( bn calls save and bu calls restore).If you want to record a piece of PostScript code that references procedures contained in a dictionary, you must also record the dictionary. I describe how to download a dictionary, and how to avoid the pitfalls involved, in the next section.

Once your dictionary has been downloaded, you should be able to continue to reference it until the end of the job. But alas, this is not so, at least until the new printing architecture ships sometime after System 7. Under the current architecture, font downloading interferes with PostScript dictionaries. I discuss this problem and how to get around it under "The Perils of Font Downloading."

THE PERILS OF DICTIONARY DOWNLOADING

One of the easiest methods for downloading a PostScript dictionary is by using the PostScriptHandle picture comment. You can use this comment to download directly to the LaserWriter a block of PostScript code stored in a handle. (See Technical Note #91, Optimizing for the LaserWriter--PicComments, for more information.) When you use the PostScriptHandle comment, you must insert the PostScriptBegin and PostScriptEndpicture comments around the block of PostScript code you are trying to download, like this:

PicComment(PostScriptBegin, 0, NIL);
(************************************************************)
(*** Your PostScript representation of document goes here.***)
(************************************************************)
PicComment(PostScriptHandle, size, handle);
(***********************************************************)
(*** Your QuickDraw representation of document goes here.***)
(***********************************************************)
PicComment(PostScriptEnd, 0, NIL);

As described in my first article, the PostScriptBegin/Endcomments are markers that ensure that the right piece of code will execute on the right device. When the LaserWriter driver sees PostScriptBegin, it ignores all QuickDraw drawing calls and just executes picture comments. When a PostScriptEndis received, the LaserWriter driver will once again interpret QuickDraw calls. So when printing to a LaserWriter printer, only the picture comments are executed, while the QuickDraw code between PostScriptBeginand PostScriptEnd is ignored. But PostScriptBegin and PostScriptEnd also save and restore at least part of the state of the device, which can cause problems for your dictionary. To avoid this, you should use the picture comment PostScriptBeginNoSave (comment kind = 196) to prevent the save and restore from occurring, like this:

(***************************************************)
(*** Your definition of the dictionary goes here.***)
(***************************************************)

PicComment(PostScriptBeginNoSave, 0, NIL);
PicComment(PostScriptHandle, dictsize, dicthandle);
PicComment(PostScriptEnd, 0, NIL);
(**********************************)
(*** Now you send the document. ***)
(**********************************)

PicComment(PostScriptBegin, 0 NIL);
(************************************************************)
(*** Your PostScript representation of document goes here.***)
(************************************************************)
PicComment(PostScriptHandle, size, handle);
(***********************************************************)
(*** Your QuickDraw representation of document goes here.***)
(***********************************************************)
PicComment(PostScriptEnd, 0, NIL);

If you don't need to export your dictionary into picture files, you can get the LaserWriter driver to auto-download your dictionary by keeping the dictionary code in a PREC(103) resource. After the LaserWriter has saved its state, it does a blind GetResource (that is, from any open resource file) on PREC(103). If one is found, it is downloaded to the printer after the md dictionary, and before the job. You can use this method of downloading for dictionaries that are used only to contain state information about the current job. (When a graphic is copied onto the clipboard, only the state information, not the entire dictionary, is required for the code to execute.)

However, use of the PREC(103) resource does have some limitations. It only works at print time, and there can be only one. That is, the LaserWriter driver does not attempt to download all the PREC(103) resources in all the open resource files. The first one it finds wins. (This method of downloading dictionaries is documented in Technical Note #192, Surprises in LaserWriter 5.2 and Newer.)

THE PERILS OF FONT DOWNLOADING

In my "Perils of PostScript" article in Issue 1 of develop, I showed a small procedure called SetFont that downloaded a font using QuickDraw, while maintaining the ability to reference that font using PostScript. The problem with that method is that the process of font downloading executes the PostScript restore operator. This operator restores the state of the printer to a state that was saved before your dictionary was defined. Because of this, any reference to your dictionary is lost.

Another way to understand what happens in this case is to look at what the LaserWriter driver does during printing. At the start of a print job, the LaserWriter driver configures the LaserWriter's graphics state to look more like QuickDraw. This includes moving the origin (0,0) from the bottom left (PostScript style) to the top left (QuickDraw style), and setting the default resolution to 72 dpi. After the driver has configured the printer, it performs a save, which saves the complete state of the device. The driver then begins downloading the rest of the job, containing the PostScript code generated by the LaserWriter as well as any additional PostScript code sent by the application.

The LaserWriter driver fully restores the state of the device, by executing the PostScript restore operator, before downloading a font. During font downloading, the characters of the font are actually defined, sometimes using normal PostScript drawing operators. Because of this, the LaserWriter driver restores the state of the printer before defining the characters. Once the characters have been defined, the state is saved again. This way, the LaserWriter driver can assume it knows the state of the device. Since the state saved by the LaserWriter driver does not contain any of the symbols defined by the application, all of them are lost after any attempt to download a font.

WHICH WAY OUT?
Now that we understand the problem, let's discuss potential solutions. The restore operator affects everything that has changed except two areas: some of the PostScript stacks (specifically the operand, dict, and execution stacks), and the contents of PostScript strings. This suggests that to save small units of information, you can simply push them onto the stack, or convert them and store them as PostScript strings.

Unfortunately, it's not quite that easy.

PostScript makes a distinction between simple and composite objects. Simple objects (like numerical values and booleans) contain their value within the object. Composite objects (like strings, procedures, and dictionaries) contain only a pointer to the real data, which is stored elsewhere in PostScript Virtual Memory. Simple objects on the stack are indeed preserved across a restore, but if there are composite objects on the stack that are new (that is, newer than the state being restored), an invalidrestore error is generated. If your dictionary only contains simple objects, then you can indeed push each of the variables defined in the dictionary onto the stack separately and rebuild the dictionary after the restore. The overhead here is obviously enormous, though, and most useful dictionaries contain procedures and/or strings, rendering this technique useless.

In the case of strings being preserved across a restore, let me quote from the PostScript Language Reference Manual , p. 44: "In the current PostScript design, restore actually does not undo changes made to the elements of strings. We consider this behavior to be a defect, and do not recommend that PostScript programs take advantage of it." Beyond this easily ignored admonishment, though, is another problem. The strings in question must be preexisting: strings you create just before the restore will, of course, be destroyed by the restore, or, if they are on the stack, will cause an error. You could probably find some scratch strings in one of the standard dictionaries to use, but this is not recommended, for obvious reasons.

AN END TO BN AND BU
Another way to solve the problem would be to redefine save and restore to not do anything. This way, font downloading would not cause the state to be restored. This would make the application developer responsible for preserving the state, which is easily done using other PostScript operators. But unfortunately, the definitions of save and restore cannot be changed without exiting the server loop. That is, you cannot override their definitions from within a job. Because of this, you have to fall back on plan B: override the operators that call save and restore. In the case of font downloading, these operators are bn and bu, as mentioned earlier.

This method is the most widely used solution to our problem, has the fewest limitations, and is the method recommended here. Please note, however, that tinkering with md operators outside of this specific use is strongly discouraged. (See the sidebar on the next page.)

The main job of bu and bn is to preserve the state of the PostScript device. As long as your PostScript code preserves the state, these calls aren't even required. In the fragment that follows, we first create our own dictionary, called mydict, with room for ten symbols, although we don't define them all. Next we define killbu. killbu is responsible for first saving the old definition of the buroutine, and then setting its value to the empty procedure ( {}), which does nothing. The original definition of bu is simply pushed onto the stack. Next we write a routine restorebu, to restore the definition of bu when we are through. This routine is responsible for popping the original value off the stack and storing it back into the bu symbol; it assumes that the definition of bu is on the top of the stack. Then we define two similar routines, killbn and restorebn, which take care of the bn operator. Finally, we define a fun little routine to call to make sure our dictionary is actually being preserved after font downloading. We call this one titleshow. So now we have a dictionary, all ready to use.

SendPostScript('/mydict 10 dict def');
SendPostScript('mydict begin');
SendPostScript('/killbu {//md /bu get //md /bu {} put} def');
SendPostScript('/restorebu {//md exch /bu exch put} def');
SendPostScript('/killbn {//md /bn get //md /bn {} put} def');
SendPostScript('/restorebn {//md exch /bn exch put} def');
SendPostScript('/titleshow {dup gsave');
SendPostScript('currentscreen 3 -1 roll pop 120 3 1 roll setscreen');
SendPostScript('.5 setgray show grestore true charpath gsave');
SendPostScript('1 setlinewidth 0 setgray stroke grestore');
SendPostScript('.5 setlinewidth 1 setgray stroke }def');
SendPostScript('end');

Okay, now that we have the routines for killing bu and bn, we need to call them. It's very important at this point to check for their existence before attempting to alter their definitions. This is because, as mentioned earlier, the new printing architecture that will ship sometime after System 7 will handle font downloading differently. The bu and bn operators will no longer exist; in fact, it's not clear that the md dictionary will still exist. The following PostScript commands check for the existence of both the dictionary and the symbol. If they don't exist, our code assumes it is running under the new printing architecture, and does nothing to insulate the dictionary. The code fragment executes fine on LaserWriter drivers up to and including System 7.0. It has also been tested in both foreground and background. Considering the future of bn and bu, it is very likely that this code will continue to work even under the new printing architecture. Here, then, is the code to check for and kill bn and bu:

SendPostScript('mydict begin');
SendPostScript('//md /bu known {killbu} if');
SendPostScript('//md /bn known {killbn} if');
SendPostScript('end');

Pretty straightforward: if the routine exists, call the correct routine to kill it. The most important thing to note here is the order of the routines. Since killbuand killbnpush things onto the stack, restorebu and restorebnmust be called in opposite order to get the correct results. So after the job is finished, we call:

SendPostScript('mydict begin');
SendPostScript('//md /bn known {restorebn} if');
SendPostScript('//md /bu known {restorebu} if');
SendPostScript('end');

TO SUM IT ALL UP

PostScript dictionaries are useful because they can significantly reduce the size of the PostScript code generated by your application, and can be exported into pictures. Perhaps the easiest way to record PostScript into a picture is by using the PostScriptHandlepicture comment. In this case, remember to use the PostScript BeginNoSave comment to prevent PostScriptBegin and PostScriptEnd from saving and restoring at least part of the state of the device, which can cause problems for your dictionary. To prevent font downloading from interfering with your PostScript dictionaries, you can override bn and bu, the PostScript operators that call save and restore. Outside of this solution, you should absolutely avoid using md operators.

The code included in the Perils of PS II folder on the Developer Essentials disc is basically the same code that has been shown here, rolled into an application shell that opens and initializes the Printing Manager. Also included is the definition of the SendPostScriptprocedure referenced in this article.

A REVIEW OF HOW THE LASERWRITER DRIVER WORKS

The LaserWriter driver is a complex piece of software that handles communications between an application and the LaserWriter printer. To print a document, the application opens the Printing Manager, which in turn loads and initializes the LaserWriter driver. The application then makes standard QuickDraw calls similar to those used to render the document on the screen. The LaserWriter driver intercepts these calls and converts them into the equivalent PostScript code for rendering the document on the LaserWriter printer.

(See Figure 1.) In some cases, one QuickDraw operation translates into one PostScript operation, but more frequently, the QuickDraw operation translates into several PostScript operations. To abbreviate these operations, the LaserWriter driver stores them as procedures in a PostScript dictionary.

When the LaserWriter driver first connects to the LaserWriter printer, it checks to see if its dictionary exists and if the version of the dictionary matches the version of the driver being used. If not, it downloads the correct dictionary before proceeding. (This is what the message "initializing printer" means when you print for the first time after turning on the printer.)

Once the correct dictionary is in place, the job of translation becomes much easier. Each QuickDraw operation now becomes one line of PostScript code, referencing a procedure defined by the dictionary. Complex QuickDraw operations (like font downloading) still require many lines of PostScript code, but in general, the translation is one for one. Since the QuickDraw code is translated rather than rendered, the LaserWriter driver doesn't need to spool the data to disk. Instead, each operation is translated and sent to the printer as it is received.

[IMAGE postscript1.GIF]

Figure 1 How the LaserWriter Driver Works

WARNING: CALLING MD ROUTINES MAY BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR CODE

Many developers have started to call md routines from within the PostScript code generated by their applications. This is dangerous, for a number of reasons.

The first is that the md dictionary is defined and maintained by the LaserWriter driver. This means that it is always subject to change, and code that depends on the md dictionary must be version dependent. This is possible, but far from elegant.

Another problem with using md operators is that they may not work the same way on all devices. Remember that the LaserWriter driver is used to drive a lot more devices than just an Apple LaserWriter.

Use of md operators has already led to compatibility problems with major applications, and most developers have realized the danger in using them. The easiest way to avoid problems with these routines is to not call them. If you really need the functionality of a particular md operator, simply redefine it in your own dictionary. Using tools like LaserTalk (formerly from Emerald City Software, now from Adobe), you can "disassemble" md operators back to their PostScript primitives. You can then redefine them using a different name in your own dictionary. Now you have a routine that does exactly what the md routine did, but you remain in control of its definition. Most of the md operators are very small, so the storage penalty of redefining them in your own dictionary is minimal.

Now that I've warned you, I'm going to show you how to tinker with two operators stored in md: bn and bu. All routines, including these two, are subject to change; by special arrangement with engineering, bn and bu will change in a compatible way, but this isnot true for any of the other routines defined in md. This article shows a specific use of bn and bu, and checks for their existence before attempting to access them. This is not meant to endorse other uses of these or any other md routines.

SCOTT "ZZ" ZIMMERMAN is a DTS printing guru. After two and a half years at Apple he says he's particularly impressed with the strictly enforced dress code. In his spare time he sails, scuba dives for lobsters, and plays the piano, guitar, and saxophone. Zz has a penchant for pets. His doorway is adorned by a melted gummy rat, a good luck charm left over from his Intel days. At home, atop his monitor is perched a rare Asian black scorpion (behind glass, we hope). His other cuddly pets include two geckos and a lovable iguana. *

The definitive references on the PostScript language are the PostScript Language Reference Manual (Addison- Wesley, 1985, available from APDA--#T0182LL/A), the PostScript Language Tutorial and Cookbook (Addison-Wesley, 1985), and PostScript Language Program Design (Addison-Wesley, 1988). *

Thanks to Our Technical Reviewers Pete "Luke" Alexander, Jay Patel, David Williams*

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Duplicate Annihilator 5.7.5 - Find and d...
Duplicate Annihilator takes on the time-consuming task of comparing the images in your iPhoto library using effective algorithms to make sure that no duplicate escapes. Duplicate Annihilator... Read more
BusyContacts 1.0.2 - Fast, efficient con...
BusyContacts is a contact manager for OS X that makes creating, finding, and managing contacts faster and more efficient. It brings to contact management the same power, flexibility, and sharing... Read more
Capture One Pro 8.2.0.82 - RAW workflow...
Capture One Pro 8 is a professional RAW converter offering you ultimate image quality with accurate colors and incredible detail from more than 300 high-end cameras -- straight out of the box. It... Read more
Backblaze 4.0.0.872 - Online backup serv...
Backblaze is an online backup service designed from the ground-up for the Mac.With unlimited storage available for $5 per month, as well as a free 15-day trial, peace of mind is within reach with... Read more
Little Snitch 3.5.2 - Alerts you about o...
Little Snitch gives you control over your private outgoing data. Track background activity As soon as your computer connects to the Internet, applications often have permission to send any... Read more
Monolingual 1.6.4 - Remove unwanted OS X...
Monolingual is a program for removing unnecesary language resources from OS X, in order to reclaim several hundred megabytes of disk space. If you use your computer in only one (human) language, you... Read more
CleanApp 5.0 - Application deinstaller a...
CleanApp is an application deinstaller and archiver.... Your hard drive gets fuller day by day, but do you know why? CleanApp 5 provides you with insights how to reclaim disk space. There are... Read more
Fantastical 2.0 - Create calendar events...
Fantastical is the Mac calendar you'll actually enjoy using. Creating an event with Fantastical is quick, easy, and fun: Open Fantastical with a single click or keystroke Type in your event details... Read more
Cocktail 8.2 - General maintenance and o...
Cocktail is a general purpose utility for OS X that lets you clean, repair and optimize your Mac. It is a powerful digital toolset that helps hundreds of thousands of Mac users around the world get... Read more
Direct Mail 4.0.4 - Create and send grea...
Direct Mail is an easy-to-use, fully-featured email marketing app purpose-built for OS X. It lets you create and send great looking email campaigns. Start your newsletter by selecting from a gallery... Read more

These are All the Apple Watch Apps and G...
The Apple Watch is less than a month from hitting store shelves, and once you get your hands on it you're probably going to want some apps and games to install. Fear not! We've compiled a list of all the Apple Watch apps and games we've been able to... | Read more »
Appy to Have Known You - Lee Hamlet Look...
Being at 148Apps these past 2 years has been an awesome experience that has taught me a great deal, and working with such a great team has been a privilege. Thank you to Rob Rich, and to both Rob LeFebvre and Jeff Scott before him, for helping me... | Read more »
Hands-On With Allstar Heroes - A Promisi...
Let’s get this out of the way quickly. Allstar Heroes looks a lot like a certain other recent action RPG release, but it turns out that while it’s not yet available here, Allstar Heroes has been around for much longer than that other title. Now that... | Read more »
Macho Man and Steve Austin Join the Rank...
WWE Immortals, by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment and WWE, has gotten a superstar update. You'll now have access to Macho Man Randy Savage and Steve Austin. Both characters have two different versions: Macho Man Randy Savage Renegade or Macho... | Read more »
Fearless Fantasy is Fantastic for the iF...
I actually had my first look at Fearless Fantasy last year at E3, but it was on a PC so there wasn't much for me to talk about. But now that I've been able to play with a pre-release version of the iOS build, there's quite a bit for me to talk... | Read more »
MLB Manager 2015 (Games)
MLB Manager 2015 5.0.14 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $4.99, Version: 5.0.14 (iTunes) Description: Guide your favorite MLB franchise to glory! MLB Manager 2015, officially licensed by MLB.com and based on the award-... | Read more »
Breath of Light (Games)
Breath of Light 1.0.1421 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0.1421 (iTunes) Description: Hold a quiet moment. Breath of Light is a meditative and beautiful puzzle game with a hypnotic soundtrack by... | Read more »
WWE WrestleMania Tags into the App Store
Are You ready to rumble? The official WWE WrestleMania app, by World Wrestling Entertainment, is now available. Now you can get all your WrestleMania info in one place before anyone else. The app offers details on superstar signings, interactive... | Read more »
Bio Inc's New Expansion is Infectin...
Bio Inc., by DryGin Studios, is the real time strategy game where you infect a human body with the worst virus your evil brain can design. Recently, the game was updated to add a whole lot of new features. Now you can play the new “Lethal”... | Read more »
The Monocular Minion is Here! Despicable...
Despicable Me: Minion Rush, by Gameloft, is introducing a new runner to the mix in their latest update. Now you can play as Carl, the prankster minion. Carl has a few new abilities to play with, including running at a higher speed from the start.... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro (refurbished) avai...
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pros available for $829, or $270 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 13″ 2.... Read more
Save up to $80 on iPad Air 2s, NY tax only, f...
 B&H Photo has iPad Air 2s on sale for $80 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 16GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $469.99 $30 off - 64GB iPad Air 2 WiFi: $549.99 $50 off - 128GB iPad... Read more
iMacs on sale for up to $205 off MSRP
B&H Photo has 21″ and 27″ iMacs on sale for up to $205 off MSRP including free shipping plus NY sales tax only: - 21″ 1.4GHz iMac: $1019 $80 off - 21″ 2.7GHz iMac: $1189 $110 off - 21″ 2.9GHz... Read more
Färbe Technik Offers iPhone Battery Charge LI...
Färbe Technik, which manufactures and markets of mobile accessories for Apple, Blackberry and Samsung mobile devices, is offering tips on how to keep your iPhone charged while in the field: •... Read more
Electronic Recyclers International CEO Urges...
Citing a recent story on CNBC about concerns some security professionals have about the forthcoming Apple Watch, John Shegerian, Chairman and CEO of Electronic Recyclers International (ERI), the... Read more
Save up to $380 with Apple refurbished iMacs
The Apple Store has Apple Certified Refurbished iMacs available for up to $380 off the cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, and shipping is free: - 27″ 3.5GHz 5K iMac – $2119 $... Read more
Mac minis on sale for up to $75 off, starting...
MacMall has Mac minis on sale for up to $75 off MSRP including free shipping. Their prices are the lowest available for these models from any reseller: - 1.4GHz Mac mini: $459.99 $40 off - 2.6GHz Mac... Read more
College Student Deals: Additional $50 off Mac...
Take an additional $50 off all MacBooks and iMacs at Best Buy Online with their College Students Deals Savings, valid through April 11, 2015. Anyone with a valid .EDU email address can take advantage... Read more
Mac Pros on sale for up to $260 off MSRP
B&H Photo has Mac Pros on sale for up to $260 off MSRP. Shipping is free, and B&H charges sales tax in NY only: - 3.7GHz 4-core Mac Pro: $2799, $200 off MSRP - 3.5GHz 6-core Mac Pro: $3719.99... Read more
13-inch 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $100 o...
B&H Photo has the 13″ 2.5GHz MacBook Pro on sale for $999 including free shipping plus NY sales tax only. Their price is $100 off MSRP. Read more

Jobs Board

DevOps Software Engineer - *Apple* Pay, iOS...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
*Apple* Retail - Multiple Positions (US) - A...
Sales Specialist - Retail Customer Service and Sales Transform Apple Store visitors into loyal Apple customers. When customers enter the store, you're also the Read more
Sr. Technical Services Consultant, *Apple*...
**Job Summary** Apple Professional Services (APS) has an opening for a senior technical position that contributes to Apple 's efforts for strategic and transactional Read more
Lead *Apple* Solutions Consultant - Retail...
**Job Summary** Job Summary The Lead ASC is an Apple employee who serves as the Apple business manager and influencer in a hyper-business critical Reseller's store Read more
*Apple* Pay - Site Reliability Engineer - Ap...
**Job Summary** Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , great ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.